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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 5 (March-1 2023) – 211 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Epigenetic alteration regulating histone modifications has been an emerging strategy to control genes in immune and metabolic systems against dietary stress. Bioactive compounds (BCs) prevent inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic dysfunction by modulating cellular redox balance and histone modifications. BCs activate sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) to modulate immunological and metabolic progress, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the NAD+/NADH ratio. The functions of BCs can be classified into two categories: one facilitates the reductive microenvironment from an oxidation state by scavenging free radicals; the other regulates the activity of transcription factors related to the immune system and energy metabolism. View this paper
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18 pages, 2642 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Properties of Loigolactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 and In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Live and Heat-Killed Cells for Antioxidant, Anticancer and Immunoregulatory Activities
by Xiaoqing Xu, Yu Qiao, Qing Peng and Bo Shi
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051118 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Some Latiactobacilli are often used as probiotics due to their functional activities, including antioxidant, anticancer and immunoregulation effect. Loigolactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 obtained from our laboratory is a promising probiotic according to the previous study. Coculture, the Oxford cup test and disk-diffusion methods were [...] Read more.
Some Latiactobacilli are often used as probiotics due to their functional activities, including antioxidant, anticancer and immunoregulation effect. Loigolactobacillus coryniformis NA-3 obtained from our laboratory is a promising probiotic according to the previous study. Coculture, the Oxford cup test and disk-diffusion methods were used to evaluate the probiotic properties and antibiotic resistance of L. coryniformis NA-3. The antioxidant activities of live and heat-killed L. coryniformis NA-3 were assessed via radicals’ scavenging ability. The potential anticancer and immunoregulatory capacity was determined in vitro using cell lines. The results indicate that L. coryniformis NA-3 has antibacterial activity and cholesterol removal ability and is sensitive to most antibiotics. Dead L. coryniformis NA-3 can scavenge free radicals as well as live strains. Live L. coryniformis NA-3 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of colon cancer cells; however, dead cells cannot. After RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with live and heat-killed L. coryniformis NA-3, the production of NO, IL-6, TNF-α and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced. The increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in treated macrophages mediates the production of NO. In conclusion, L. coryniformis NA-3 showed potential probiotic properties, and the heat-killed strain also exhibited activities similar to those of live bacteria, suggesting the possible value of its further application in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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15 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Phyto-Assisted Synthesis of Nanoselenium–Surface Modification and Stabilization by Polyphenols and Pectins Derived from Agricultural Wastes
by Nikolina Golub, Emerik Galić, Kristina Radić, Ana-Maria Jagodić, Nela Predović, Kristina Katelan, Lucija Tesla, Sandra Pedisić, Tomislav Vinković and Dubravka Vitali Čepo
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051117 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Raw and purified mandarin peel-derived pectins were characterized and combined with olive pomace extract (OPE) in the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). SeNPs were characterized in terms of size distribution and zeta potential, and their stability was monitored during 30 days of [...] Read more.
Raw and purified mandarin peel-derived pectins were characterized and combined with olive pomace extract (OPE) in the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). SeNPs were characterized in terms of size distribution and zeta potential, and their stability was monitored during 30 days of storage. HepG2 and Caco-2 cell models were used for the assessment of biocompatibility, while antioxidant activity was investigated by the combination of chemical and cellular-based assays. SeNP average diameters ranged from 171.3 nm up to 216.9 nm; smaller SeNPs were obtained by the utilization of purified pectins, and functionalization with OPE slightly increased the average. At concentrations of 15 mg/L SeNPs were found to be biocompatible, and their toxicity was significantly lower in comparison to inorganic selenium forms. Functionalization of SeNPs with OPE increased their antioxidant activity in chemical models. The effect was not clear in cell-based models, even though all investigated SeNPs improved cell viability and protected intracellular reduced GSH under induced oxidative stress conditions in both investigated cell lines. Exposure of cell lines to SeNPs did not prevent ROS formation after exposure to prooxidant, probably due to low transepithelial permeability. Future studies should focus on further improving the bioavailability/permeability of SeNPs and enhancing the utilization of easily available secondary raw materials in the process of phyto-mediated SeNP synthesis. Full article
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12 pages, 1278 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Structural Structural and Functional Properties of Non-Waxy and Waxy Proso Millet Protein
by Jing Ren, Chao Ma, Mengqing Li, Yueyi Dang, Xiuzhu Yu and Shuangkui Du
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051116 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The physicochemical, structural and functional properties of proso millet protein from waxy and non-waxy proso millet were investigated. The secondary structures of proso millet proteins consisted mainly of a β-sheet and ɑ-helix. The two diffraction peaks of proso millet protein appeared at around [...] Read more.
The physicochemical, structural and functional properties of proso millet protein from waxy and non-waxy proso millet were investigated. The secondary structures of proso millet proteins consisted mainly of a β-sheet and ɑ-helix. The two diffraction peaks of proso millet protein appeared at around 9° and 20°. The solubility of non-waxy proso millet protein was higher than that of waxy proso millet protein at different pH values. Non-waxy proso millet protein had a relatively better emulsion stability index (ESI), whereas waxy proso millet protein had a better emulsification activity index (EAI). Non-waxy proso millet protein showed a higher maximum denaturation temperature (Td) and enthalpy change (ΔH) than its waxy counterpart, indicating a more ordered conformation. Waxy proso millet exhibited higher surface hydrophobicity and oil absorption capacity (OAC) than non-waxy proso millet, suggesting that the former may have potential applications as a functional ingredient in the food industry. There was no significant difference in the intrinsic fluorescence spectra of different waxy and non-waxy proso millet proteins at pH 7.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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12 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Antioxidative and Protective Effect of Morchella esculenta against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Alterations in Liver
by Shutong Chen, Min Wang, Suresh Veeraperumal, Bo Teng, Rui Li, Zhengming Qian, Jianping Chen, Saiyi Zhong and Kit-Leong Cheong
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051115 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1924
Abstract
Morchella esculenta is an edible mushroom with special flavor and high nutritional value for humans, primarily owing to its polysaccharide constituents. M. esculenta polysaccharides (MEPs) possess remarkable pharmaceutical properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-atherogenic activities. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Morchella esculenta is an edible mushroom with special flavor and high nutritional value for humans, primarily owing to its polysaccharide constituents. M. esculenta polysaccharides (MEPs) possess remarkable pharmaceutical properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-atherogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of MEPs. In vitro activity was determined using free radical scavenging assays, whereas in vivo activity was evaluated through dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced liver injury in mice with acute colitis. MEPs effectively scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2-azinobis-6-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid) free radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DSS-induced mice showed severe liver damage, cellular infiltration, tissue necrosis, and decreased antioxidant capacity. In contrast, intragastric administration of MEPs showed hepatoprotective effects against DSS-induced liver injury. MEPs remarkably elevated the expression levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Additionally, it decreased malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase levels in the liver. These results indicate that the protective effects of MEP against DSS-induced hepatic injury could rely on its ability to reduce oxidative stress, suppress inflammatory responses, and improve antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver. Therefore, MEPs could be explored as potential natural antioxidant agents in medicine or as functional foods to prevent liver injury. Full article
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20 pages, 7012 KiB  
Article
Response Surface Methodology Approach for Predicting Convective/Infrared Drying, Quality, Bioactive and Vitamin C Characteristics of Pumpkin Slices
by Fatemeh Joudi-Sarighayeh, Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Mohammad Kaveh, Mariusz Szymanek and Ryszard Kulig
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051114 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
In this research, a convective/infrared (CV/IR) dryer was used to dry pumpkin slices. For optimization of the drying conditions, the influence of three levels of independent variables including air temperature (40, 55, and 70 °C), air velocity (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/s), and [...] Read more.
In this research, a convective/infrared (CV/IR) dryer was used to dry pumpkin slices. For optimization of the drying conditions, the influence of three levels of independent variables including air temperature (40, 55, and 70 °C), air velocity (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/s), and IR power (250, 500, and 750 W) were assessed by response surface method (RSM) through a face-centered central composite design. Analysis of variance (non-fitting factor and R2 value) was employed to determine the desirability of the model. Response surfaces and diagrams were also utilized to show the interactive influence of the independent variables with the response variables (drying time, energy consumption, shrinkage, total color variation, rehydration ratio, total phenol, antioxidant, and vitamin C contents). According to the results, optimal drying conditions involved a temperature of 70 °C, air velocity of 0.69 m/s, and IR power of 750 W. At the mentioned conditions, response variables of drying time, energy consumption, shrinkage, color, rehydration ratio, total phenol, antioxidant, and vitamin C contents were 72.53 min, 24.52 MJ/kg, 23%, 14.74, 4.97, 617.97 mg GA/100 g dw, 81.57%, and 4.02 mg/g dw, with a confidence level of 0.948, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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15 pages, 1599 KiB  
Article
Using TRIS-Buffered Plasma-Activated Water to Reduce Pathogenic Microorganisms on Poultry Carcasses with Evaluation of Physicochemical and Sensory Parameters
by Vanessa Große-Peclum, Lisa Siekmann, Carsten Krischek, Georg Avramidis, Christian Ochs, Wolfgang Viöl and Madeleine Plötz
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051113 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Foodborne diseases are mainly caused by the contamination of meat or meat products with pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we first investigated the in vitro application of TRIS-buffered plasma-activated water (Tb-PAW) on Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and Escherichia (E.) coli, with a reduction of approx. [...] Read more.
Foodborne diseases are mainly caused by the contamination of meat or meat products with pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we first investigated the in vitro application of TRIS-buffered plasma-activated water (Tb-PAW) on Campylobacter (C.) jejuni and Escherichia (E.) coli, with a reduction of approx. 4.20 ± 0.68 and 5.12 ± 0.46 log10 CFU/mL. Furthermore, chicken and duck thighs (inoculated with C. jejuni or E. coli) and breasts (with natural microflora) with skin were sprayed with Tb-PAW. Samples were packed under a modified atmosphere and stored at 4 °C for 0, 7, and 14 days. The Tb-PAW could reduce C. jejuni on days 7 and 14 (chicken) and E. coli on day 14 (duck) significantly. In chicken, there were no significant differences in sensory, pH-value, color, and antioxidant activity, but %OxyMb levels decreased, whereas %MetMb and %DeoMb increased. In duck, we observed slight differences in pH-value, color, and myoglobin redox forms for the Tb-PAW, which were not perceived by the sensory test persons. With only slight differences in product quality, its application as a spray treatment may be a useful method to reduce C. jejuni and E. coli on chicken and duck carcasses. Full article
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14 pages, 1461 KiB  
Article
Proximate Composition, Retained Water, and Bacterial Load for Two Sizes of Hybrid Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus × Ictalurus punctatus) Fillets at Different Process Steps
by Manirul Haque and Juan L. Silva
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051112 - 6 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
The catfish processors in the US are required to state the maximum percentage of retained water content (RWC) on the product label. The objectives of our study were to quantify the RWC of processed hybrid catfish fillets from proximate composition and the bacterial [...] Read more.
The catfish processors in the US are required to state the maximum percentage of retained water content (RWC) on the product label. The objectives of our study were to quantify the RWC of processed hybrid catfish fillets from proximate composition and the bacterial load at different processing points. Water content was determined using oven-dry (AOAC950.46,1990) and Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Protein and fat content were determined by NIR spectrometer. Psychrotrophic (PPC) and Total Coliform (TCC) counts were enumerated using 3MPetrifilmTM. The fillets’ overall baseline water, protein, and fat content were 77.8, 16.7 and 5.7%, respectively. The RWC of final fresh and frozen fillets were ~1.1=/- 2.0% (not significant) and ~4.5%, respectively, and was not fillet size or harvest season dependent. Baseline water content (78.0 vs. 76.0%) was higher (p ≤ 0.05), and fat content (6.0% vs. 8.0%) was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for small (50–150 g) compared to large fillets (150–450 g). Higher (p ≤ 0.05) baseline PPC (~4.2 vs. ~3.0) and TCC (~3.4 vs. ~1.7) were observed for the warm season (April–July) fillets compared to the cold season (Feb–April). This study provides information to processors and others on estimating retained water and microbiological quality of the hybrid catfish fillets over the process line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Preservation of Aquatic Products)
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12 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Caloric and Lipid Profiles during Pregnancy in a Socio-Culturally Diverse Society
by Elisabet Fernández-Gómez, Miriam Mohatar-Barba, María López-Olivares, Trinidad Luque-Vara, María Angustias Sánchez-Ojeda, Adelina Martín-Salvador and Carmen Enrique-Mirón
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051111 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
This research analyzes the determining factors in diet quality among the Spanish pregnant population with the aim of promoting healthier eating habits and preventing the development of non-communicable diseases. It is a diagnostic, non-experimental, cross-sectional, and observational study, with correlational descriptive methodology, and [...] Read more.
This research analyzes the determining factors in diet quality among the Spanish pregnant population with the aim of promoting healthier eating habits and preventing the development of non-communicable diseases. It is a diagnostic, non-experimental, cross-sectional, and observational study, with correlational descriptive methodology, and 306 participants. The information was collected using the 24 h dietary recall. Various sociodemographic factors that influence diet quality were analyzed. It was found that pregnant women consume too much protein and fat, score high in SFA consumption, and do not achieve the CH recommendations, consuming twice as much sugar. Carbohydrate intake is inversely related to income (β = −0.144, p < 0.005). Likewise, protein intake is linked to marital status (β = −0.114, p < 0.005) and religion (β = 0.110, p < 0.005). Finally, lipid intake appears conditional upon age (β = 0.109, p < 0.005). As regards the lipid profile, a positive association is only observed with age and MFA consumption (β = 0.161, p < 0.01). On the other hand, simple sugars are positively related to education (β = 0.106, p < 0.005). The results of this research show that the diet quality of pregnant women does not meet the nutritional recommendations established for the Spanish population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
18 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Chemical and Sensory Profiles between Cabernet Sauvignon and Marselan Dry Red Wines in China
by Xixian Song, Weixi Yang, Xu Qian, Xinke Zhang, Mengqi Ling, Li Yang, Ying Shi, Changqing Duan and Yibin Lan
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051110 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
The differences in chemical and sensory characteristics between Marselan and Cabernet Sauvignon in China were investigated with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), combined with color parameters and sensory data. The paired t-test results showed that [...] Read more.
The differences in chemical and sensory characteristics between Marselan and Cabernet Sauvignon in China were investigated with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), combined with color parameters and sensory data. The paired t-test results showed that terpenoids, higher alcohols, and aliphatic lactones were significantly different according to the grape variety. Meanwhile, terpenoids could be considered as marker aroma compounds to distinguish Marselan wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, which could explain the distinct floral note in Marselan wines. The mean concentrations of the mv-vsol, mv-vgol, mv-vcol, mvC-vgol, mv-v(e)cat, mvC-v(e)cat, mv-di(e)cat, and cafA were higher in Marselan wines than Cabernet Sauvignon wines, and these compounds might confer Marselan wines with a deeper color, more red hue, and higher tannin quality. The phenolic profiles of Marselan and Cabernet Sauvignon wines were influenced by the winemaking process, mitigating the varietal differences. As for sensory evaluation, the intensities of herbaceous, oak, and astringency of Cabernet Sauvignon were more pronounced than Marselan, whereas the Marselan wines were characterized by a high color intensity and more redness, together with floral, sweet, and roasted sweet potato attributes, and tannin roughness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Flavor Chemistry and Sensory Evaluation)
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13 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
Chinese Consumer Assessment of Australian Sheep Meat Using a Traditional Hotpot Cooking Method
by Rachel A. O’Reilly, Liping Zhao, Graham E. Gardner, Hailing Luo, Qingxiang Meng, David W. Pethick and Liselotte Pannier
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051109 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1591
Abstract
Hotpot is a widely popular cooking method for sheepmeat in China. This study measured the sensory responses of 720 untrained Chinese consumers to Australian sheepmeat cooked using a hotpot technique with methods based on Meat Standards Australia protocols. Shoulder and leg cuts of [...] Read more.
Hotpot is a widely popular cooking method for sheepmeat in China. This study measured the sensory responses of 720 untrained Chinese consumers to Australian sheepmeat cooked using a hotpot technique with methods based on Meat Standards Australia protocols. Shoulder and leg cuts of 108 lambs and 109 yearlings were scored on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall liking with linear mixed effects models used to analyse the influence of muscle type and animal factors on these scores. On average, shoulder cuts were more palatable than legs cuts for all sensory traits (p < 0.01) and lambs compared to yearlings (p < 0.05). Intramuscular fat and muscularity were identified as strong drivers of eating quality (p < 0.05), with greater palatability for both cuts as intramuscular fat increased (range 2.5 to 7.5%), and muscularity decreased (as measured through loin weight adjusted for hot carcase weight). Consumers were unable to detect differences between animal sire type and sex in sheepmeat hotpot. These findings suggest shoulder and leg cuts performed comparatively well in hotpot compared to previously tested sheepmeat cooking methods and emphasise the importance of balanced selection for quality and yield traits to ensure that consumer satisfaction is maintained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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20 pages, 8608 KiB  
Article
Study on the Structure, Function, and Interface Characteristics of Soybean Protein Isolate by Industrial Phosphorylation
by Yanan Guo, Caihua Liu, Yitong Ma, Lulu Shen, Qi Gong, Zhaodong Hu, Zhongjiang Wang, Xin Liu, Zengwang Guo and Linyi Zhou
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051108 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
The impacts of industrial phosphorylation on the structural changes, microstructure, functional, and rheological features of soybean protein isolate (SPI) were spotlighted. The findings implied that the spatial structure and functional features of the SPI changed significantly after treatment with the two phosphates. Sodium [...] Read more.
The impacts of industrial phosphorylation on the structural changes, microstructure, functional, and rheological features of soybean protein isolate (SPI) were spotlighted. The findings implied that the spatial structure and functional features of the SPI changed significantly after treatment with the two phosphates. Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) promoted aggregation of SPI with a larger particle size; sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) modified SPI with smaller particle size. SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed insignificant alterations in the structure of SPI subunits. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and endogenous fluorescence noted a decline in α-helix quantity, an amplification in β-fold quantity, and an increase in protein stretching and disorder, indicating that phosphorylation treatment fluctuated the spatial structure of the SPI. Functional characterization studies showed that the solubility and emulsion properties of the SPI increased to varying degrees after phosphorylation, with a maximum solubility of 94.64% for SHMP-SPI and 97.09% for STP-SPI. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsifying steadiness index (ESI) results for STP-SPI were better than those for SHMP-SPI. Rheological results showed that the modulus of G’ and G″ increased and the emulsion exhibited significant elastic behavior. This affords a theoretical core for expanding the industrial production applications of soybean isolates in the food and various industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Processing and Treatment on Protein Structure and Function)
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22 pages, 354 KiB  
Article
A New Bloody Pulp Selection of Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera L.): Pomological Traits, Chemical Composition, and Nutraceutical Properties
by Francesco Sottile, Assunta Napolitano, Natale Badalamenti, Maurizio Bruno, Rosa Tundis, Monica Rosa Loizzo and Sonia Piacente
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051107 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2065
Abstract
A new accession of myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera L.) from Sicily (Italy) was studied for the first time for its chemical and nutraceutical properties. A description of the main morphological and pomological traits was created as a tool for characterization for consumers. For [...] Read more.
A new accession of myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera L.) from Sicily (Italy) was studied for the first time for its chemical and nutraceutical properties. A description of the main morphological and pomological traits was created as a tool for characterization for consumers. For this purpose, three different extracts of fresh myrobalan fruits were subjected to different analyses, including the evaluation of total phenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), and anthocyanin (TAC) contents. The extracts exhibited a TPC in the range 34.52–97.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight (FW), a TFC of 0.23–0.96 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/100 g FW, and a TAC of 20.24–55.33 cyanidine-3-O-glucoside/100 g FW. LC-HRMS analysis evidenced that the compounds mainly belong to the flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and organic acids classes. A multitarget approach was used to assess the antioxidant properties by using FRAP, ABTS, DPPH, and β-carotene bleaching tests. Moreover, the myrobalan fruit extracts were tested as inhibitors of the key enzymes related to obesity and metabolic syndrome (α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and lipase). All extracts exhibited an ABTS radical scavenging activity that was higher than the positive control BHT (IC50 value in the range 1.19–2.97 μg/mL). Moreover, all extracts showed iron-reducing activity, with a potency similar to that of BHT (53.01–64.90 vs 3.26 μM Fe(II)/g). The PF extract exhibited a promising lipase inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 29.61 μg/mL). Full article
8 pages, 546 KiB  
Communication
Occurrence of Phthalate Esters in Coffee and Risk Assessment
by Salvatore Velotto, Jonathan Squillante, Agata Nolasco, Raffaele Romano, Teresa Cirillo and Francesco Esposito
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051106 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Coffee, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is commercialized as powder and beans in different types of packaging and extracted through several methods. In this regard, the present study focused on evaluating the concentration of two of the most [...] Read more.
Coffee, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is commercialized as powder and beans in different types of packaging and extracted through several methods. In this regard, the present study focused on evaluating the concentration of two of the most used phthalates in plastic materials (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP)) in coffee powder and beverages to assess their migration from different packaging and machines. Furthermore, the levels of exposure to these endocrine disruptors in regular coffee consumers were estimated. Samples of packaged coffee powder/beans (n = 60) from different forms of packaging (multilayer bag, aluminum tin, and paper pod) and coffee beverages (n = 40) that were differently extracted (by professional espresso machine (PEM), Moka pot (MP), and home espresso machine (HEM)) were analyzed by extraction of the lipid fraction, purification, and determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Risk due to consumption of coffee (1–6 cups) was assessed based on tolerable daily intake (TDI) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). No significant differences emerged in DBP and DEHP concentrations among different types of packaging (multilayer, aluminum, and paper), whereas higher levels of DEHP were reported in beverages extracted by PEM (6.65, 2.58–11.32) than by MP (0.78, 0.59–0.91) and HEM (0.83, 0.62–0.98). The presence of higher DEHP levels in coffee beverages than in coffee powder may be due to its leaching through machine components. However, the levels of PAEs did not exceed the specific migration limits (SMLs) set out for food contact materials (FCM), and exposure to PAEs from coffee beverages was low, justifying the small risk due of its consumption. Consequently, coffee can be considered a safe beverage for exposure to some phthalic acid esters (PAEs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Microbiological and Chemical Hazards in Foods)
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14 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
Palmitic Acid Regulation of Stem Browning in Freshly Harvested Mini-Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr.)
by Hongdou Gao, Shixian Zeng, Xiaozhen Yue, Shuzhi Yuan, Jinhua Zuo and Qing Wang
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051105 - 5 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The effect of palmitic acid (PA) on stem browning was investigated in freshly harvested mini-Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis). Results indicated that concentrations of PA ranging from 0.03 g L−1 to 0.05 g L−1 inhibited stem browning and decreased the [...] Read more.
The effect of palmitic acid (PA) on stem browning was investigated in freshly harvested mini-Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis). Results indicated that concentrations of PA ranging from 0.03 g L−1 to 0.05 g L−1 inhibited stem browning and decreased the rate of respiration, electrolyte leakage, and weight loss, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in freshly harvested mini-Chinese cabbage stored at 25 °C for 5 d. The PA treatment enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) and phenylalamine ammonia lyase (PAL)), and inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The PA treatment also increased the level of several phenolics (chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and cinnamic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin). In summary, results indicate that treatment of mini-Chinese cabbage with PA represents an effective method for delaying stem browning and maintaining the physiological quality of freshly harvested mini-Chinese cabbage due to the ability of PA to enhance antioxidant enzyme activity and the level of phenolics and flavonoids during 5 d. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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9 pages, 796 KiB  
Communication
Gas Chromatography with Flame-Ionization Detection-Based Analysis of Sugar Contents in Korean Agricultural Products for Patients with Galactosemia
by Ha-Neul Jeong, Ryeong Ha Kwon, Yuri Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Seon Mi Yoo and Chi-Do Wee
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051104 - 5 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1975
Abstract
Patients with galactosemia accumulate galactose in their bodies, requiring a lifelong galactose-restricted diet. Therefore, accurate information on the galactose content in commercial agro-food resources is essential. The HPLC method generally used for sugar analysis has low separation and detection sensitivity. Here, we sought [...] Read more.
Patients with galactosemia accumulate galactose in their bodies, requiring a lifelong galactose-restricted diet. Therefore, accurate information on the galactose content in commercial agro-food resources is essential. The HPLC method generally used for sugar analysis has low separation and detection sensitivity. Here, we sought to establish an accurate analytical method for determining the galactose content in commercial agro-food resources. To that aim, we employed gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection to detect trimethylsilyl-oxime (TMSO) sugar derivatives (concentration: ≤0.1 mg/100 g). The galactose content in 107 Korean agro-food resources reflecting intake patterns was then analyzed. The galactose content in steamed barley rice was 5.6 mg/100 g, which was higher than that in steamed non-glutinous and glutinous rice. Moist-type and dry-type sweet potatoes, blanched zucchini, and steamed Kabocha squash had high galactose content (36.0, 12.8, 23.1, and 61.6 mg/100 g, respectively). Therefore, these foods are detrimental to patients with galactosemia. Among fruits, avocado, blueberry, kiwi, golden kiwifruit, and sweet persimmon had galactose contents of ≥10 mg/100 g. Dried persimmon had 132.1 mg/100 g and should therefore be avoided. Mushrooms, meat, and aquatic products showed low galactose content (≤10 mg/100 g), making them safe. These findings will help patients to manage their dietary galactose intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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21 pages, 3255 KiB  
Article
Impact of Longkong Pericarp Extract on the Physicochemical Properties of Alginate-Based Edible Nanoparticle Coatings and Quality Maintenance of Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) during Refrigerated Storage
by Narin Charoenphun, Bharathipriya Rajasekaran, Suguna Palanisamy and Karthikeyan Venkatachalam
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051103 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying concentrations of longkong pericarp extract (LPE) on the physicochemical properties of alginate-based edible nanoparticle coatings (NP-ALG) on shrimp. For developing the nanoparticles, the alginate coating emulsion with different LPE concentrations (0.5, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying concentrations of longkong pericarp extract (LPE) on the physicochemical properties of alginate-based edible nanoparticle coatings (NP-ALG) on shrimp. For developing the nanoparticles, the alginate coating emulsion with different LPE concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5%) was ultrasonicated at 210 W with a frequency of 20 kHz for 10 min and a pulse duration of 1s on and 4 off. After that, the coating emulsion was separated into four treatments (T): T1: Coating solution containing basic ALG composition and without the addition of LPE or ultrasonication treatment; T2: ALG coating solution converted into nano-sized particles with ultrasonication and containing 0.5% LPE; T3: ALG coating solution converted into nano-sized particles with ultrasonication and containing 1.0% LPE; T4: ALG coating solution converted into nano-sized particles with ultrasonication and containing 1.5% LPE. A control (C) was also used, where distilled water was used instead of ALG coating. Before coating the shrimp, all the coating materials were tested for pH, viscosity, turbidity, whiteness index, particle size, and polydispersity index. The control samples had the highest pH and whiteness index and was followed by the lowest viscosity and turbidity (p < 0.05). Among the T1–T4 coating materials, T4 coating had higher turbidity, particle size, polydispersity index, but lower pH, viscosity, and whiteness index (p < 0.05). To study the quality and shelf-life of the shrimp, all coated shrimp samples were refrigerated at 4 °C for a period of 14 days. At 2-day intervals, physiochemical and microbial analyses were performed. The coated shrimp also had a lower increase in pH and weight loss over the storage period (p < 0.05). Coatings containing 1.5% LPE significantly reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity in the shrimp (p > 0.05). The addition of LPE to NP-ALG coatings demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity against protein and lipid oxidation. The highest LPE concentration (1.5%) led to increased total and reactive sulfhydryl content, along with a significant decrease in carbonyl content, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, p-anisidine, and totox values at the end of the storage period (p < 0.05). Additionally, NP-ALG-LPE coated shrimp samples exhibited an excellent antimicrobial property and significantly inhibited the growth of total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and psychotropic bacteria during storage. These results suggested that NP-ALG-LPE 1.5% coatings effectively maintained the quality as well as extended the shelf-life of shrimp during 14 days of refrigerated storage. Therefore, the use of nanoparticle-based LPE edible coating could be a new and effective way to maintain the quality of shrimp during prolonged storage. Full article
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15 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Contribution of Starmerella bacillaris and Oak Chips to Trebbiano d’Abruzzo Wine Volatile and Sensory Diversity
by Giorgia Perpetuini, Alessio Pio Rossetti, Noemi Battistelli, Camillo Zulli, Andrea Piva, Giuseppe Arfelli, Aldo Corsetti and Rosanna Tofalo
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051102 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
In this study, six fermentation trials were carried out: co-inoculation and sequential inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Starmerella bacillaris in the presence and absence of oak chips. Moreover, Starm. bacillaris strain was attached to the oak chips and co-inoculated or sequentially inoculated with [...] Read more.
In this study, six fermentation trials were carried out: co-inoculation and sequential inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Starmerella bacillaris in the presence and absence of oak chips. Moreover, Starm. bacillaris strain was attached to the oak chips and co-inoculated or sequentially inoculated with S. cerevisiae. Wines fermented with Starm. bacillaris adhered to oak chips showed a higher concentration of glycerol (more than 6 g/L) than the others (about 5 g/L). These wines also showed a higher content of polyphenols (more than 300 g/L) than the others (about 200 g/L). The addition of oak chips induced an increase of yellow color (b* value of about 3). Oak-treated wines were characterized by a higher concentration of higher alcohols, esters and terpenes. Aldehydes, phenols and lactones were detected only in these wines, independently from the inoculation strategy. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed in the sensory profiles. The fruity, toasty, astringency, and vanilla sensations were perceived as more intense in wines treated with oak chips. The white flower descriptor showed a higher score in wines fermented without chips. Oak surface-adhered Starm. bacillaris cells could be a good strategy to improve the volatile and sensory profile of Trebbiano d’Abruzzo wines. Full article
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21 pages, 6073 KiB  
Article
Ethanol Extract of Mao Jian Green Tea Attenuates Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation via the 5-hydroxytryptamine Signaling Pathway
by Lei Wu, Liming Gao, Xiang Jin, Zhikang Chen, Xutong Qiao, Xiting Cui, Jianhua Gao and Liwei Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051101 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the hydro extract of Mao Jian Green Tea (MJGT) promotes gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the effect of MJGT ethanol extract (MJGT_EE) in treating irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in a rat model constructed via [...] Read more.
In a previous study, we demonstrated that the hydro extract of Mao Jian Green Tea (MJGT) promotes gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the effect of MJGT ethanol extract (MJGT_EE) in treating irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in a rat model constructed via maternal separation combined with an ice water stimulation was investigated. First, a successful model construction was confirmed through the determination of the fecal water content (FWC) and the smallest colorectal distension (CRD) volume. Then, the overall regulatory effects of MJGT_EE on the gastrointestinal tract were preliminarily evaluated through gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion tests. Our findings indicated that MJGT_EE significantly increased FWC (p < 0.01) and the smallest CRD volume (p < 0.05) and promoted gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion (p < 0.01). Furthermore, mechanistically, MJGT_EE reduced intestinal sensitivity by regulating the expression of proteins related to the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) pathway. More specifically, it decreased tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression (p < 0.05) and increased serotonin transporter (SERT) expression (p < 0.05), thereby decreasing 5-HT secretion (p < 0.01), activating the calmodulin (CaM)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway, and increasing 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) expression (p < 0.05). Moreover, MJGT_EE enhanced the diversity of gut microbiota, increased the proportion of beneficial bacteria, and regulated the number of 5-HT-related bacteria. Flavonoids may play the role of being active ingredients in MJGT_EE. These findings suggest that MJGT_EE could serve as a potential therapeutic pathway for IBS-C. Full article
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14 pages, 2724 KiB  
Article
Decreasing the Crystallinity and Degree of Polymerization of Cellulose Increases Its Susceptibility to Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation by Colon Microbiota
by Karel Thielemans, Yamina De Bondt, Luke Comer, Jeroen Raes, Nadia Everaert, Bert F. Sels and Christophe M. Courtin
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051100 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
Cellulose can be isolated from various raw materials and agricultural side streams and might help to reduce the dietary fiber gap in our diets. However, the physiological benefits of cellulose upon ingestion are limited beyond providing fecal bulk. It is barely fermented by [...] Read more.
Cellulose can be isolated from various raw materials and agricultural side streams and might help to reduce the dietary fiber gap in our diets. However, the physiological benefits of cellulose upon ingestion are limited beyond providing fecal bulk. It is barely fermented by the microbiota in the human colon due to its crystalline character and high degree of polymerization. These properties make cellulose inaccessible to microbial cellulolytic enzymes in the colon. In this study, amorphized and depolymerized cellulose samples with an average degree of polymerization of less than 100 anhydroglucose units and a crystallinity index below 30% were made from microcrystalline cellulose using mechanical treatment and acid hydrolysis. This amorphized and depolymerized cellulose showed enhanced digestibility by a cellulase enzyme blend. Furthermore, the samples were fermented more extensively in batch fermentations using pooled human fecal microbiota, with minimal fermentation degrees up to 45% and a more than eight-fold increase in short-chain fatty acid production. While this enhanced fermentation turned out to be highly dependent on the microbial composition of the fecal pool, the potential of engineering cellulose properties to increased physiological benefit was demonstrated. Full article
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19 pages, 4113 KiB  
Article
Effect of Marjoram Leaf Powder Addition on Nutritional, Rheological, Textural, Structural, and Sensorial Properties of Extruded Rice Noodles
by Siddharth Vishwakarma, Shubham Mandliya, Chandrakant Genu Dalbhagat, Jayshree Majumdar and Hari Niwas Mishra
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051099 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Food-to-food fortification is an emerging technique to enrich the micronutrients in foods. Pertaining to this technique, noodles could also be fortified with natural fortificants. In this study, marjoram leaf powder (MLP) at a level of 2–10% was used as a natural fortificant to [...] Read more.
Food-to-food fortification is an emerging technique to enrich the micronutrients in foods. Pertaining to this technique, noodles could also be fortified with natural fortificants. In this study, marjoram leaf powder (MLP) at a level of 2–10% was used as a natural fortificant to produce fortified rice noodles (FRNs) through an extrusion process. The MLP addition caused a significant increase in the iron, calcium, protein, and fiber in the FRNs. The noodles had a lower whiteness index than unfortified noodles but had a similar water absorption index. The water solubility index increased significantly due to the higher water retention ability of MLP. A rheological study showed a minimal effect of fortification on the gelling strength of the FRNs at lower levels. The microstructural studies found incremental cracks, which facilitated a lower cooking time and hardness but had an insignificant effect on the cooked noodle texture. Fortification improved the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and total flavonoid content. However, no significant changes in bonds were observed, but a reduction in the noodles’ crystallinity could be seen. The sensory analysis of the noodles reflected a higher acceptability of the 2–4% MLP fortified samples compared to the others. Overall, the MLP addition improved the nutritional content, antioxidant activity, and the cooking time but slightly affected the rheological, textural, and color properties of the noodles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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13 pages, 1486 KiB  
Article
3-Phenyllactic Acid and Polyphenols Are Substances Enhancing the Antibacterial Effect of Methylglyoxal in Manuka Honey
by Marcus Thierig, Jana Raupbach, Diana Wolf, Thorsten Mascher, Kannan Subramanian and Thomas Henle
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051098 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
Manuka honey is known for its unique antibacterial activity, which is due to methylglyoxal (MGO). After establishing a suitable assay for measuring the bacteriostatic effect in a liquid culture with a time dependent and continuous measurement of the optical density, we were able [...] Read more.
Manuka honey is known for its unique antibacterial activity, which is due to methylglyoxal (MGO). After establishing a suitable assay for measuring the bacteriostatic effect in a liquid culture with a time dependent and continuous measurement of the optical density, we were able to show that honey differs in its growth retardingeffect on Bacillus subtilis despite the same content of MGO, indicating the presence of potentially synergistic compounds. In model studies using artificial honey with varying amounts of MGO and 3-phenyllactic acid (3-PLA), it was shown that 3-PLA in concentrations above 500 mg/kg enhances the bacteriostatic effect of the model honeys containing 250 mg/kg MGO or more. It has been shown that the effect correlates with the contents of 3-PLA and polyphenols in commercial manuka honey samples. Additionally, yet unknown substances further enhance the antibacterial effect of MGO in manuka honey. The results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial effect of MGO in honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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15 pages, 8586 KiB  
Article
Study on Characteristics and Lignification Mechanism of Postharvest Banana Fruit during Chilling Injury
by Lu Xiao, Xunyuan Jiang, Yicai Deng, Kaihang Xu, Xuewu Duan, Kai Wan and Xuemei Tang
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051097 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2686
Abstract
The banana is prone to chilling injury (CI) at low temperature and showing a series of chilling symptoms, such as peel browning, etc. Lignification is a response to abiotic stress and senescence, which is an important manifestation of fruits and vegetables during chilling [...] Read more.
The banana is prone to chilling injury (CI) at low temperature and showing a series of chilling symptoms, such as peel browning, etc. Lignification is a response to abiotic stress and senescence, which is an important manifestation of fruits and vegetables during chilling exposure. However, little is known about the lignification of bananas during low-temperature storage. Our study explored the characteristics and lignification mechanism of banana fruits during low-temperature storage by analyzing the changes of chilling symptoms, oxidative stress, cell wall metabolism, microstructures, and gene expression related to lignification. The results showed that CI inhibited post-ripening by effecting the degradation of the cell wall and starch and accelerated senescence by increasing O2− and H2O2 content. For lignification, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) might start the phenylpropanoid pathway of lignin synthesis. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 4 (CCR4), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (CAD2), and 4-coumarate--CoA ligase like 7 (4CL7) were up-regulated to promote the lignin monomer’s synthesis. Peroxidase 1 (POD1) and Laccase 3 (LAC3) were up-regulated to promote the oxidative polymerization of lignin monomers. These results suggest that changes of the cell wall structure and cell wall metabolism, as well as lignification, are involved in the senescence and quality deterioration of the banana after chilling injury. Full article
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29 pages, 2809 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profile of Einkorn, Spelt, Emmer Ancient Wheat Species Sourdough Fermented with Strain of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014
by Larisa Rebeca Șerban, Adriana Păucean, Maria Simona Chiș, Carmen Rodica Pop, Simona Maria Man, Andreea Pușcaș, Floricuța Ranga, Sonia Ancuța Socaci, Ersilia Alexa, Adina Berbecea, Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc and Vlad Mureșan
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051096 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
The continuous development of bakery products as well as the increased demands from consumers transform ancient grains into alternatives with high nutritional potential for modern wheat species. The present study, therefore, follows the changes that occur in the sourdough obtained from these vegetable [...] Read more.
The continuous development of bakery products as well as the increased demands from consumers transform ancient grains into alternatives with high nutritional potential for modern wheat species. The present study, therefore, follows the changes that occur in the sourdough obtained from these vegetable matrices fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 during a 24 h. period. The samples were analyzed in terms of cell growth dynamics, carbohydrate content, crude cellulose, minerals, organic acids, volatile compounds, and rheological properties. The results revealed significant microbial growth in all samples, with an average value of 9 log cfu/g but also a high accumulation of organic acids with the increase in the fermentation period. Lactic acid content ranged from 2.89 to 6.65 mg/g, while acetic acid recorded values between 0.51 and 1.1 mg/g. Regarding the content of simple sugars, maltose was converted into glucose, and fructose was used as an electron acceptor or carbon source. Cellulose content decreased as a result of the solubilization of soluble fibers into insoluble fibers under enzymatic action, with percentages of 3.8 to 9.5%. All sourdough samples had a high content of minerals; the highest of which—Ca (246 mg/kg), Zn (36 mg/kg), Mn (46 mg/kg), and Fe (19 mg/kg)—were recorded in the einkorn sourdough. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Volatile Compounds in Fermented Products)
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29 pages, 1804 KiB  
Review
Functional Ingredients and Additives from Lemon by-Products and Their Applications in Food Preservation: A Review
by Daniela Magalhães, Ana A. Vilas-Boas, Paula Teixeira and Manuela Pintado
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051095 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8969
Abstract
Citrus trees are among the most abundant fruit trees in the world, with an annual production of around 124 million tonnes. Lemons and limes are among the most significant contributors, producing nearly 16 million tonnes per year. The processing and consumption of citrus [...] Read more.
Citrus trees are among the most abundant fruit trees in the world, with an annual production of around 124 million tonnes. Lemons and limes are among the most significant contributors, producing nearly 16 million tonnes per year. The processing and consumption of citrus fruits generates a significant amount of waste, including peels, pulp, seeds, and pomace, which represents about 50% of the fresh fruit. Citrus limon (C. limon) by-products are composed of significant amounts of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins, essential oils, and fibres, which give them nutritional value and health benefits such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These by-products, which are typically discarded as waste in the environment, can be explored to produce new functional ingredients, a desirable approach from a circular economy perspective. The present review systematically summarizes the potential high-biological-value components extracted from by-products to achieve a zero-waste goal, focusing on the recovery of three main fractions: essential oils, phenolic compounds, and dietary fibres, present in C. limon by-products, and their applications in food preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods Applied to Human Health Protection)
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19 pages, 1267 KiB  
Perspective
The Environment, Farm Animals and Foods as Sources of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Humans
by Declan Bolton and Pilar Marcos
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051094 - 4 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3092
Abstract
The recent discovery of the same Clostridioides difficile ribotypes associated with human infection in a broad range of environments, animals and foods, coupled with an ever-increasing rate of community-acquired infections, suggests this pathogen may be foodborne. The objective of this review was to [...] Read more.
The recent discovery of the same Clostridioides difficile ribotypes associated with human infection in a broad range of environments, animals and foods, coupled with an ever-increasing rate of community-acquired infections, suggests this pathogen may be foodborne. The objective of this review was to examine the evidence supporting this hypothesis. A review of the literature found that forty-three different ribotypes, including six hypervirulent strains, have been detected in meat and vegetable food products, all of which carry the genes encoding pathogenesis. Of these, nine ribotypes (002, 003, 012, 014, 027, 029, 070, 078 and 126) have been isolated from patients with confirmed community-associated C. difficile infection (CDI). A meta-analysis of this data suggested there is a higher risk of exposure to all ribotypes when consuming shellfish or pork, with the latter being the main foodborne route for ribotypes 027 and 078, the hypervirulent strains that cause most human illnesses. Managing the risk of foodborne CDI is difficult as there are multiple routes of transmission from the farming and processing environment to humans. Moreover, the endospores are resistant to most physical and chemical treatments. The most effective current strategy is, therefore, to limit the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics while advising potentially vulnerable patients to avoid high-risk foods such as shellfish and pork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens Management: From Farm and Pond to Fork)
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27 pages, 3002 KiB  
Article
Farmer vs. Industrial Practices: Impact of Variety, Cropping System and Process on the Quality of Durum Wheat Grains and Final Products
by Marie-Françoise Samson, Anaïs Boury-Esnault, Ewen Menguy, Valentin Avit, Elodie Canaguier, Bruno Bernazeau, Patrice Lavene, Yuna Chiffoleau, Gregori Akermann, Kristel Moinet and Dominique Desclaux
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051093 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The consumption of artisanal and organic pasta made on-farm from ancient varieties is increasing in France. Some people, namely, those suffering from digestive disorders following the consumption of industrial pasta, consider these artisanal pasta to be more digestible. Most of them have linked [...] Read more.
The consumption of artisanal and organic pasta made on-farm from ancient varieties is increasing in France. Some people, namely, those suffering from digestive disorders following the consumption of industrial pasta, consider these artisanal pasta to be more digestible. Most of them have linked these digestive disorders to the ingestion of gluten. We analyzed in this study the impact of industrial and artisanal practices on the protein quality of durum wheat products. The varieties recommended by the industry (IND) were compared to those used by farmers (FAR): the FAR being on average much richer in protein. However, the solubility of these proteins analyzed by Size Exclusion-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (SE-HPLC) and their in vitro proteolysis by digestive enzymes vary little between the two groups of varieties, while differences between varieties in each group are observable. The location of grain production and the tested cropping systems (zero vs. low input) have a low impact on protein quality. Yet, more contrasting modalities should be studied to validate this point. The type of production process (artisanal vs. industrial) is, among those studied, the factor having the greatest impact on protein compositionPasta produced by the artisanal method contains a higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-soluble protein fraction and are more in-vitro proteolyzed. Whether these criteria are indicative of what happens during a consumer’s digestion remains to be determined. It also remains to be assessed which key stages of the process have the greatest influence on protein quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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16 pages, 2403 KiB  
Article
Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12 Restores Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Health in Obesity Mice on Ceftriaxone Therapy
by Mariana de Moura e Dias, Vinícius da Silva Duarte, Lúcio Flávio Macedo Mota, Gabriela de Cássia Ávila Alpino, Sandra Aparecida dos Reis Louzano, Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovanie, Solange Silveira Pereira, Leandro Licursi Oliveira, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Davide Porcellato and Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051092 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Gut microbiota imbalance is associated with the occurrence of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Thus, its modulation is a promising strategy to restore gut microbiota and improve intestinal health in the obese. This paper examines the role of probiotics, antimicrobials, and diet in [...] Read more.
Gut microbiota imbalance is associated with the occurrence of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Thus, its modulation is a promising strategy to restore gut microbiota and improve intestinal health in the obese. This paper examines the role of probiotics, antimicrobials, and diet in modulating gut microbiota and improving intestinal health. Accordingly, obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice, after which they were redistributed and fed with an obesogenic diet (intervention A) or standard AIN-93 diet (intervention B). Concomitantly, all the groups underwent a treatment phase with Lactobacillus gasseri LG-G12, ceftriaxone, or ceftriaxone followed by L. gasseri LG-G12. At the end of the experimental period, the following analysis was conducted: metataxonomic analysis, functional profiling of gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, and caecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids. High-fat diet impaired bacterial diversity/richness, which was counteracted in association with L. gasseri LG-G12 and the AIN-93 diet. Additionally, SCFA-producing bacteria were negatively correlated with high intestinal permeability parameters, which was further confirmed via functional profile prediction of the gut microbiota. A novel perspective on anti-obesity probiotics is presented by these findings based on the improvement of intestinal health irrespective of undergoing antimicrobial therapy or not. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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17 pages, 3087 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Identification and Preliminary Application of the Fenvalerate Monoclonal Antibody in Six Kinds of Dark Tea
by Kang Wei, Qihui Yang, Yang Wei, Yuanfeng Wang, Naifeng Xu and Xinlin Wei
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051091 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Fenvalerate has the advantages of a broad insecticidal spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and low cost, and it is widely used in agriculture, especially in tea, resulting in the accumulation of fenvalerate residues in tea and the environment, posing a serious threat to [...] Read more.
Fenvalerate has the advantages of a broad insecticidal spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity and low cost, and it is widely used in agriculture, especially in tea, resulting in the accumulation of fenvalerate residues in tea and the environment, posing a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the timely monitoring of fenvalerate residue dynamics is vital for ensuring the health of humans and the ecological environment, and it is necessary for establishing a fast, reliable, accurate and on-site method for detecting fenvalerate residues. Based on the methods of immunology, biochemistry and molecular biology, mammalian spleen cells, myeloma cells and mice were used as experimental materials to establish a rapid detection method of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the residues of fenvalerate in dark tea. Three cell lines—1B6, 2A11 and 5G2—that can stably secrete fenvalerate antibodies were obtained by McAb technology, and their sensitivities (IC50) were 36.6 ng/mL, 24.3 ng/mL and 21.7 ng/mL, respectively. The cross-reaction rates of the pyrethroid structural analogs were all below 0.6%. Six dark teas were used to detect the practical application of fenvalerate monoclonal antibodies. The sensitivity IC50 of the anti-fenvalerate McAb in PBS with 30% methanol is 29.12 ng/mL. Furthermore, a latex microsphere immunochromatographic test strip with an LOD of 10.0 ng/mL and an LDR of 18.9–357 ng/mL was preliminarily developed. A specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody for fenvalerate was successfully prepared and applied to detect fenvalerate in dark teas (Pu‘er tea, Liupao tea, Fu Brick tea, Qingzhuan tea, Enshi dark tea and selenium-enriched Enshi dark tea). A latex microsphere immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the preparation of rapid detection test strips of fenvalerate. Full article
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18 pages, 10162 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Water Characteristics and Gel Strength in the Gel Formation of Golden Pompano Surimi Induced by Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide
by Weiwen Duan, Hui Qiu, Kyi Kyi Htwe, Zefu Wang, Yang Liu, Shuai Wei, Qiuyu Xia, Qinxiu Sun, Zongyuan Han and Shucheng Liu
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051090 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
The relationship between the gel quality of golden pompano surimi treated with dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) and changes in water characteristics was evaluated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging were used to monitor changes in the water status [...] Read more.
The relationship between the gel quality of golden pompano surimi treated with dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) and changes in water characteristics was evaluated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging were used to monitor changes in the water status of surimi gel under different treatment conditions. Whiteness, water-holding capacity and gel strength were used as the quality indicators of the surimi gel. The results showed that DPCD treatment could significantly increase the whiteness of surimi and the strength of the gel, while the water-holding capacity decreased significantly. LF-NMR analysis showed that, as the DPCD treatment intensity increased, the relaxation component T22 shifted to the right, T23 shifted to the left, the proportion of A22 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) and the proportion of A23 increased significantly (p < 0.05). A correlation analysis of water characteristics and gel strength showed that the water-holding capacity of surimi induced by DPCD was strongly positively correlated with gel strength, while A22 and T23 were strongly negatively correlated with gel strength. This study provides helpful insights into the quality control of DPCD in surimi processing and also provides an approach for the quality evaluation and detection of surimi products. Full article
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15 pages, 1008 KiB  
Article
Sensory Profile and Consumer Liking of Sustainable Salamis Differing in Wild Boar Meat and Seasoning Ingredients Addition
by Pierangelo Freschi, Ada Braghieri, Corrado Pacelli, Emilia Langella, Amelia Maria Riviezzi, Rosanna Paolino and Carlo Cosentino
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051089 - 3 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
The production of game meat is a proven way of promoting sustainable food, which is also consistent with the proper management of the expansion of the wild boar population in Italy. In the present study, we investigated consumer response to sensory attributes and [...] Read more.
The production of game meat is a proven way of promoting sustainable food, which is also consistent with the proper management of the expansion of the wild boar population in Italy. In the present study, we investigated consumer response to sensory attributes and consumer preference for ten types of “cacciatore” salamis prepared with different mixtures of wild boar/pork (30/50 or 50/50) and spice ingredients. PCA analysis showed a clear characterization of the salamis based on the first component with the hot pepper powder and fennel types differing from the others. For the second component, salamis without flavorings could be discriminated by those flavored with aromatized garlic wine or with black pepper only. The main findings of the hedonic test revealed that products with hot pepper and fennel seeds received the highest ratings, as well as satisfactory acceptance in the consumer test sensory analysis for eight out of ten products. The panelists and consumers’ ratings were influenced by the flavors used, but not by the ratio of wild boar to pork. This gives us the opportunity to produce more cost-effective and environmentally friendly products, as doughs with a high proportion of wild boar meat can be used without affecting product preference. Full article
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