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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 1 (January-1 2023) – 228 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Bread made from refined flour is poor in nutrients, and the baking process leads to the reduction in, or even the destruction of, some bioactive compounds. Thus, common bread cannot meet the growing consumers’ nutritional and healthy needs. There have been attempts to improve the bread’s nutritional characteristics, including the direct addition of bioactive compounds, but unpleasant flavor and taste, thermal instability, and the high volatility of some bioactive compounds have limited this application. Encapsulation allows for overcoming these drawbacks. This review points out the applications of encapsulation technology in the production of functional bread, summarizing the heath benefits and the effect of microcapsule inclusion in technological and sensory bread characteristics. View this paper
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45 pages, 1757 KiB  
Review
Identification of Fish Species and Targeted Genetic Modifications Based on DNA Analysis: State of the Art
by Eliska Cermakova, Simona Lencova, Subham Mukherjee, Petra Horka, Simon Vobruba, Katerina Demnerova and Kamila Zdenkova
Foods 2023, 12(1), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010228 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 9930
Abstract
Food adulteration is one of the most serious problems regarding food safety and quality worldwide. Besides misleading consumers, it poses a considerable health risk associated with the potential non-labeled allergen content. Fish and fish products are one of the most expensive and widely [...] Read more.
Food adulteration is one of the most serious problems regarding food safety and quality worldwide. Besides misleading consumers, it poses a considerable health risk associated with the potential non-labeled allergen content. Fish and fish products are one of the most expensive and widely traded commodities, which predisposes them to being adulterated. Among all fraud types, replacing high-quality or rare fish with a less valuable species predominates. Because fish differ in their allergen content, specifically the main one, parvalbumin, their replacement can endanger consumers. This underlines the need for reliable, robust control systems for fish species identification. Various methods may be used for the aforementioned purpose. DNA-based methods are favored due to the characteristics of the target molecule, DNA, which is heat resistant, and the fact that through its sequencing, several other traits, including the recognition of genetic modifications, can be determined. Thus, they are considered to be powerful tools for identifying cases of food fraud. In this review, the major DNA-based methods applicable for fish meat and product authentication and their commercial applications are discussed, the possibilities of detecting genetic modifications in fish are evaluated, and future trends are highlighted, emphasizing the need for comprehensive and regularly updated online database resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fraud and Food Authenticity across the Food Supply Chain)
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10 pages, 2308 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties of Soft and Hard-type Rice Flour According to Moisture Content and High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment
by Jeong-Hyun Seo, Yeon-Jae Jo, Youn-Ri Lee, Junsoo Lee and Heon-Sang Jeong
Foods 2023, 12(1), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010227 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the physicochemical properties of rice flour according to its moisture levels in order to develop new materials for processed rice foods. The rice varieties used were the Samkwang variety (normal and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the physicochemical properties of rice flour according to its moisture levels in order to develop new materials for processed rice foods. The rice varieties used were the Samkwang variety (normal and hard type) and the Shingil variety (processing and soft type). The moisture content of the rice flour was adjusted to 35–55% and it was treated with the HHP treatment at 400–600 MPa. The water absorption capacity, solubility, and swelling power of the rice flour increased as the moisture levels and pressure increased. The 600 MPa enzymatic hydrolysis-treated rice flour showed similar results to the heat-treated rice flour. Scanning electron microscopy showed few cavities, resulting in a dense structure. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the 23° peak, which indicates the degree of gelatinization, decreased with increasing moisture levels and pressure. The HHP treatment of the rice flour changed its physicochemical properties according to the moisture levels and pressure applied. These results can provide important information on the development and production of various foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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13 pages, 3050 KiB  
Article
Identification of a Novel Walnut Iron Chelating Peptide with Potential High Antioxidant Activity and Analysis of Its Possible Binding Sites
by Chaozhong Fan, Xintong Wang, Xiwang Song, Ronghao Sun, Rui Liu, Wenjie Sui, Yan Jin, Tao Wu and Min Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(1), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010226 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2306
Abstract
Peptide iron chelate is widely regarded as one of the best iron supplements for relieving iron deficiency. In this study, a new type of walnut peptide iron (WP-Fe) chelate was prepared using low molecular weight walnut peptides (WP) as raw materials. Under the [...] Read more.
Peptide iron chelate is widely regarded as one of the best iron supplements for relieving iron deficiency. In this study, a new type of walnut peptide iron (WP-Fe) chelate was prepared using low molecular weight walnut peptides (WP) as raw materials. Under the conditions of this study, the chelation rate and iron content of the WP-Fe chelate were 71.87 ± 1.60% and 113.11 ± 2.52 mg/g, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential, amino acid composition, and other structural analysis showed that WP-Fe is formed by the combination of carboxyl, amino and carbonyl with Fe2+. The WP-Fe chelate exhibits a honeycomb-like bulk structure different from that of WP. In addition, we predicted and established the binding model of ferrous ion and WP by molecular docking technology. After chelation, the free radical scavenging ability of the WP-Fe chelate was significantly higher than that of the WP. Overall, the WP-Fe chelate has high iron-binding capacity and antioxidant activity. We believe that peptides from different sources also have better iron binding capacity, and peptide iron chelates are expected to become a promising source of iron supplement and antioxidant activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intervention Effect of Natural Food Products on Chronic Diseases)
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8 pages, 591 KiB  
Communication
Principal Components and Cluster Analysis of Trace Elements in Buckwheat Flour
by Mengyu Zhao, Junbo Gou, Kaixuan Zhang and Jingjun Ruan
Foods 2023, 12(1), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010225 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Essential trace elements are required at very low quantities in the human body but are essential for various physiological functions. Each trace element has a specific role and a lack of these elements can easily cause a threat to health and can be [...] Read more.
Essential trace elements are required at very low quantities in the human body but are essential for various physiological functions. Each trace element has a specific role and a lack of these elements can easily cause a threat to health and can be potentially fatal. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used to determine the content of trace metal elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Se, Mo, Mn, and Cd in buckwheat flour. The content and distribution characteristics of trace metal elements were investigated using principal component and cluster analysis. The principal component analysis yielded a four-factor model that explained 73.64% of the test data; the cumulative contribution of the variance of the 1st and 2nd principal factors amounted to 44.41% and showed that Cu, Mg, Mo, and Cd are the characteristic elements of buckwheat flour. The cluster analysis divided the 28 buckwheat samples into two groups, to some extent, reflecting the genuineness of buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flour is rich in essential trace metal elements and can be used as a source of dietary nutrients for Mg and Mo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Analytical Techniques for Detecting Trace Elements in Foods)
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12 pages, 1550 KiB  
Article
Improved LC/MS/MS Quantification Using Dual Deuterated Isomers as the Surrogates: A Case Analysis of Enrofloxacin Residue in Aquatic Products
by Yunyu Tang, Guangxin Yang, Essy Kouadio Fodjo, Shouying Wang, Wenlei Zhai, Wenshuai Si, Lian Xia and Cong Kong
Foods 2023, 12(1), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010224 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Extensive and high residue variations in enrofloxacin (ENR) exist in different aquatic products. A novel quantitative method for measuring ENR using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed employing enrofloxacin-d5 (ENR-d5) and enrofloxacin-d3 (ENR-d3 [...] Read more.
Extensive and high residue variations in enrofloxacin (ENR) exist in different aquatic products. A novel quantitative method for measuring ENR using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed employing enrofloxacin-d5 (ENR-d5) and enrofloxacin-d3 (ENR-d3) as isotope surrogates. This reduced the deviation of detected values, which results from the overpass of the linear range and/or the large difference in the residue between the isotope standard and ENR, from the actual content. Furthermore, high residue levels of ENR can be directly diluted and re-calibrated by the corresponding curve with the addition of high levels of another internal surrogate without repeated sample preparation, avoiding the overflow of the instrument response. The validation results demonstrated that the method can simultaneously determine ENR residues from MQL (2 µg/kg) to 5000 × MQL (method quantification limit) with recoveries between 97.1 and 106%, and intra-precision of no more than 2.14%. This method realized a wide linear calibration range with dual deuterated isomers, which has not been previously reported in the literature. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ENR in different aquatic products, with ENR residue levels varying from 108 to 4340 μg/kg and an interval of precision in the range of 0.175~6.72%. These results demonstrate that batch samples with a high variation in ENR residues (over the linear range with a single isotope standard) can be detected by the dual isotope surrogates method in a single sample preparation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminant Components: Source, Detection, Toxicity and Removal)
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19 pages, 3474 KiB  
Article
Biochemical and Genomic Characterization of Two New Strains of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Isolated from the Traditional Corn-Based Beverage of South Africa, Mahewu, and Their Comparison with Strains Isolated from Kefir Grains
by Konstantin V. Moiseenko, Anna V. Begunova, Olga S. Savinova, Olga A. Glazunova, Irina V. Rozhkova and Tatyana V. Fedorova
Foods 2023, 12(1), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010223 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) is a nomadic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that inhabits a wide variety of ecological niches, from fermented foodstuffs to host-associated microenvironments. Many of the isolated L. paracasei strains have been used as single-strain probiotics or as part [...] Read more.
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) is a nomadic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that inhabits a wide variety of ecological niches, from fermented foodstuffs to host-associated microenvironments. Many of the isolated L. paracasei strains have been used as single-strain probiotics or as part of a symbiotic consortium within formulations. The present study contributes to the exploration of different strains of L. paracasei derived from non-conventional isolation sources—the South African traditional fermented drink mahewu (strains MA2 and MA3) and kefir grains (strains KF1 and ABK). The performed microbiological, biochemical and genomic comparative analyses of the studied strains demonstrated correlation between properties of the strains and their isolation source, which suggests the presence of at least partial strain adaptation to the isolation environments. Additionally, for the studied strains, antagonistic activities against common pathogens and against each other were observed, and the ability to release bioactive peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACE-I) properties during milk fermentation was investigated. The obtained results may be useful for a deeper understanding of the nomadic lifestyle of L. paracasei and for the development of new starter cultures and probiotic preparations based on this LAB in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Probiotics and Fermented Products)
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11 pages, 1630 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Storage Conditions and Freezing Speed on the Color and Chlorophyll Profile of Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oils
by Anna Díez-Betriu, Julen Bustamante, Agustí Romero, Antonia Ninot, Alba Tres, Stefania Vichi and Francesc Guardiola
Foods 2023, 12(1), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010222 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Premium extra virgin olive oils (PEVOO) are oils of exceptional quality and retail at high prices. The green color of recently extracted olive oils is lost during storage at room temperature, mainly because of the pheophytinization of chlorophylls. Since a green color is [...] Read more.
Premium extra virgin olive oils (PEVOO) are oils of exceptional quality and retail at high prices. The green color of recently extracted olive oils is lost during storage at room temperature, mainly because of the pheophytinization of chlorophylls. Since a green color is perceived as a mark of high-quality oils by consumers, it is especially important for PEVOO to maintain their initial green color. This study assessed the effect of applying low temperatures (refrigeration and freezing) and modified atmospheres on the color of four PEVOO for 24 months. Also, the effect of two freezing methods (slow freezing by placing the oil at −20 °C and fast freezing by immersing the oil in a bath of liquid nitrogen) was studied. Results showed that the green color was better preserved in oils frozen and stored at −20 °C whereas in oils frozen with liquid nitrogen the green color was lost much faster during frozen storage. An in-depth study of this unexpected phenomenon showed that this loss of green color was mainly due to a pheophytinization of chlorophylls. This phenomenon did not happen at the moment of freezing with liquid nitrogen, but over the first 100 days of storage at −20 °C. In addition, correlations between single chlorophyll and pheophytin contents and chromatic coordinates were established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storage and Shelf Life of Foods)
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13 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment on Storage Ability of Fresh-Cut Potato
by Yukexin Dai, Hong Xie, Xiaoyan Zhao and Yanyan Zheng
Foods 2023, 12(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010221 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Quality deterioration is a major problem restricting the fresh-cut potato industry. The present study investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment on the quality of fresh-cut potatoes during short-term storage. The treatment was carried out immediately either before or after cutting, using [...] Read more.
Quality deterioration is a major problem restricting the fresh-cut potato industry. The present study investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment on the quality of fresh-cut potatoes during short-term storage. The treatment was carried out immediately either before or after cutting, using an SNP concentration of 200 μmol/L. The results showed that SNP treatment inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total soluble solids (TSSs). SNP treatment also decreased the firmness, chewing properties, and ascorbic acid (AsA) content in potatoes, maintaining high levels of total phenols (TPs), total flavonoids (TFs), nitric oxide (NO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Furthermore, SNP treatment restrained the rise of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), as well as the electrolyte leakage (EL) rate. After SNP treatment, the nitrite content in the potatoes was within security scope. Comparing potatoes treated before and after cutting, the best result was noted in the potatoes soaked in SNP before cutting, which displayed the smallest losses in firmness (11.24%), chewing properties (34.30%), and AsA (40.35%), and maximum increases in TPs (32.84%), TFs (2.83−time), NO (76.11%), and SOD activity (93.15%). Moreover, this group presented the minimum MDA content, EL rate, and TSS values and the lowest PAL, POD, and PPO activities. These results indicated that 200 μmol/L SNP applied for 20 min, particularly before cutting, is an efficient alternative technology that can be used in the fresh-cut potato industry. Full article
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15 pages, 2618 KiB  
Article
Alginate Oligosaccharides Prevent Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis via Enhancing Intestinal Barrier Function and Modulating Gut Microbiota
by Axue Wu, Yuan Gao, Ruotong Kan, Pengfei Ren, Changhu Xue, Biao Kong and Qingjuan Tang
Foods 2023, 12(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010220 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Alginate oligosaccharides are degradation products of alginate and have attracted increasing attention due to their versatile biological functions. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were used to assess the ameliorative effects and mechanisms of guluronate oligosaccharides (GAOS), mannuronic oligosaccharides (MAOS), and heterozygous alginate [...] Read more.
Alginate oligosaccharides are degradation products of alginate and have attracted increasing attention due to their versatile biological functions. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were used to assess the ameliorative effects and mechanisms of guluronate oligosaccharides (GAOS), mannuronic oligosaccharides (MAOS), and heterozygous alginate oligosaccharides (HAOS), which are the three alginate oligosaccharides of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. The study showed that alginate oligosaccharides alleviated pathological histological damage by slowing down weight loss, inhibiting colonic length shortening, and reducing disease activity index (DAI) and histopathological scores. Alginate oligosaccharides modulated the colonic inflammatory response by reducing colonic MPO levels and downregulating the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β. Alginate oligosaccharides reduced intestinal permeability and reversed intestinal barrier damage by increasing the number of goblet cells, decreasing LPS levels, downregulating Bax protein levels, upregulating Bcl-2 protein levels, and enhancing the expression of the E-cadherin. Furthermore, alginate oligosaccharides modulated the composition of the gut microbiota and restored the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetate and butyrate. In conclusion, our study provides a scientific basis for the role of alginate oligosaccharides in relieving ulcerative colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Biological Activities of Functional Food)
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16 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Internal Quality Attributes and Sensory Characteristics of ‘Ambrosia’ Apples with Different Dry Matter Content after a Two-Week and a Ten-Week Air Storage at 1 °C
by Masoumeh Bejaei and Hao Xu
Foods 2023, 12(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010219 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
This research was conducted to determine the compositional and textural characteristics and sensory profile of ‘Ambrosia’ apples with different dry matter content (DMC) as estimated using a Felix-750 Produce Quality Meter (Felix Instruments Inc., Camas, WA, USA). Fruits were harvested from a commercial [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to determine the compositional and textural characteristics and sensory profile of ‘Ambrosia’ apples with different dry matter content (DMC) as estimated using a Felix-750 Produce Quality Meter (Felix Instruments Inc., Camas, WA, USA). Fruits were harvested from a commercial orchard in Cawston and an experimental field in Summerland Research and Development Centre (SuRDC) in British Columbia, Canada, when the average absorbance difference index/coefficient of fruit skin δAbsorbance (δA) dropped under 0.45 ± 0.10. DMC levels were estimated after harvest at the blush/background transition zone for fruit categorization on 300 fruits from each location. Fruits were coded with an individual number and grouped in different DMC categories. The distribution of the estimated DMC levels obtained from two locations was different. The results indicate that DMC levels were strongly and positively correlated with the soluble solids content (SSC) of the fruit (r = 0.81). Sensory evaluations also demonstrated that apples in the lowest DMC category (12.5% ± 0.5 from Cawston) were considered the least sweet apples with the least overall flavour quality by panellists compared to the apples from the other DMC categories included in the sensory evaluations from the two locations. Panellists also perceived less-than-expected “fresh apple” and “tropical” flavours but more-than-expected “no flavour” and “bland” off flavour from the lowest-DMC-category apples. The non-destructive DMC measurements show a potential to be used to sort apples for SSC, sweetness and flavour; nevertheless, they were not related to firmness or textural attributes. Full article
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22 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
Effect of Bamboo Essential Oil on the Oxidative Stability, Microbial Attributes and Sensory Quality of Chicken Meatballs
by Jyotishka Kumar Das, Niloy Chatterjee, Srija Pal, Pramod Kumar Nanda, Annada Das, Ligen Das, Pubali Dhar and Arun K. Das
Foods 2023, 12(1), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010218 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2837
Abstract
This study explores the efficacy of bamboo essential oil (BEO) incorporated at 15 ppm (T1, BEO-I) and 30 ppm (T2, BEO-II) on the overall physicochemical and oxidative stability, microbial deterioration, and sensory acceptability of meatballs stored for 20 days under refrigerated conditions. Analysis [...] Read more.
This study explores the efficacy of bamboo essential oil (BEO) incorporated at 15 ppm (T1, BEO-I) and 30 ppm (T2, BEO-II) on the overall physicochemical and oxidative stability, microbial deterioration, and sensory acceptability of meatballs stored for 20 days under refrigerated conditions. Analysis of various parameters, including physicochemical quality, color (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*), generation of oxidative products (TBARS), microbial growth, and sensory acceptability of meatballs were evaluated at 5-day intervals. In addition, the total phenolics and flavonoid content of BEO were estimated, and fatty acids were determined by Gas chromatography (GC.) To gain insights into the biological activities of the BEO, antioxidant assays were determined in vitro using various methods. The antibacterial activity of BEO was also evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains. The BEO contained a good quantity of total phenolics and flavonoids. In addition, the oil exhibited very potent antioxidant activity scavenging reactive oxygen and other such species, effectively showing IC50 at a very minimal concentration. Further, the BEO exhibited a strong antibacterial effect with MICs within 2 µL and MBCs from 5 to 7 µL for Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. At both the concentrations used, BEO did not show any negative effect on the color of cooked meatballs but rather increased the microbiological and oxidative stability during the overall storage period. Meatballs treated with BEO had considerably reduced oxidative changes in terms of TBARS levels compared to the control. The total viable microbial count was lowest in BEO-treated meatballs and the highest in control. Both control and treated meatballs had a desirable flavor and good acceptability. The sensory attributes and aroma of treated meatballs were better and acceptable during the storage study, whereas the control samples were disliked by the panelists on 15th day. From this study, it can be concluded that bamboo essential oil could be used as a benign and non-toxic preservative to improve the quality and shelf life of cooked meatballs stored under refrigerated conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Meat Microbiology, Meat Quality and Meat Safety)
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15 pages, 2145 KiB  
Article
Effect of Aliphatic Aldehydes on Flavor Formation in Glutathione–Ribose Maillard Reactions
by Hao Liu, Lixin Ma, Jianan Chen, Feng Zhao, Xuhui Huang, Xiuping Dong, Beiwei Zhu and Lei Qin
Foods 2023, 12(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010217 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
The Maillard reaction (MR) is affected by lipid oxidation, the intermediate products of which are key to understanding this process. Herein, nine aliphatic aldehyde–glutathione–ribose models were designed to explore the influence of lipid oxidation products with different structures on the MR. The browning [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction (MR) is affected by lipid oxidation, the intermediate products of which are key to understanding this process. Herein, nine aliphatic aldehyde–glutathione–ribose models were designed to explore the influence of lipid oxidation products with different structures on the MR. The browning degree, fluorescence degree, and antioxidant activity of the MR products were determined, and the generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 108 VOCs and 596 nonvolatile compounds were detected. The principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses showed that saturated aldehydes mainly affected the VOCs generated by the MR, while unsaturated aldehydes significantly affected the nonvolatile compounds, which changed the taste attributes of the MR products. Compared with the control group, the addition of unsaturated aldehydes significantly increased the sourness score and decreased the umami score. In addition, the addition of unsaturated aldehydes decreased the antioxidant activity and changed the composition of nonvolatile compounds, especially aryl thioethers and medium chain fatty acids, with a strong correlation with umami and sourness in the electronic tongue analysis (p < 0.05). The addition of aliphatic aldehydes reduces the ultraviolet absorption of the intermediate products of MR browning, whereas saturated aldehydes reduce the browning degree of the MR products. Therefore, the flavor components of processed foods based on the MR can be effectively modified by the addition of lipid oxidation products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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15 pages, 4217 KiB  
Article
Complete Genome Sequencing Revealed the Potential Application of a Novel Weizmannia coagulans PL-W Production with Promising Bacteriocins in Food Preservative
by Yu Wang, Zelin Gu, Shiqi Zhang and Pinglan Li
Foods 2023, 12(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010216 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1999
Abstract
Weizmannia coagulans is an important potential probiotic with dual characteristics of Bacillus and Lactobacillus. This study describes a novel Weizmannia coagulans PL-W with excellent antibacterial activity isolated from Mongolian traditional cheese, in which safety and probiotic potential were evaluated by complete genome [...] Read more.
Weizmannia coagulans is an important potential probiotic with dual characteristics of Bacillus and Lactobacillus. This study describes a novel Weizmannia coagulans PL-W with excellent antibacterial activity isolated from Mongolian traditional cheese, in which safety and probiotic potential were evaluated by complete genome sequencing. The crude bacteriocins of W. coagulans PL-W showed antibacterial activity against various foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54,004, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14,579, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25,923. Moreover, the crude bacteriocins have outstanding stability against pH, temperature, surfactants, and are sensitive to protease. The complete genome sequencing revealed W. coagulans PL-W consists of 3,666,052-base pair (bp) circular chromosomes with a GC content of 46.24% and 3485 protein-coding genes. It contains 84 tRNA, 10 23S rRNA, 10 16S rRNA, and 10 5S rRNA. In addition, no risk-related genes such as acquired antibiotic resistance genes, virulence, and pathogenic factors were identified, demonstrating that W. coagulans PL-W is safe to use. Furthermore, the presence of gene clusters involved in bacteriocin synthesis, adhesion-related genes, and genes contributing to acid and bile tolerance indicate that W. coagulans PL-W is a potential candidate probiotic. Thus, antimicrobial activity and genome characterization of W. coagulans PL-W demonstrate that it has extensive potential applications as a food protective culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 1164 KiB  
Article
Feeding Lactic Acid Bacteria with Different Sugars: Effect on Exopolysaccharides (EPS) Production and Their Molecular Characteristics
by Andrea Fuso, Elena Bancalari, Vincenzo Castellone, Augusta Caligiani, Monica Gatti and Benedetta Bottari
Foods 2023, 12(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010215 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are complex molecules produced by some microorganisms and used in foods as texturizers and stabilizers, their properties depending on their chemical structure. In this work, three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), were tested for their ability to produce EPS, by using [...] Read more.
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are complex molecules produced by some microorganisms and used in foods as texturizers and stabilizers, their properties depending on their chemical structure. In this work, three different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), were tested for their ability to produce EPS, by using five different mono- and disaccharides as their sole carbon source. The growth and acidifying ability were analysed, the EPSs were quantified by the official method AOAC 991.43, and their chemical structure was investigated. The amount of EPS varied from 0.71 g/L to 2.38 g/L, and maltose was the best sugar for EPS production by Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 2333. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus 1019 produced the highest amount when fed with lactose, whereas the EPS amount of Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1932 was not significantly different depending on the sugar type. The EPS chains consisted of fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, glucosamine, galactosamine, and in some cases rhamnose in different proportions, depending on the strain and carbon source. The molecular weight of EPS ranged from <10 KDa to >500 KDa and was again highly dependent on the strain and the sugar used, suggesting the possibility of growing different strains under different conditions to obtain EPS with different potential applications in the food system. Full article
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15 pages, 1618 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genomics and Phenotypic Characterization of Gluconacetobacter entanii, a Highly Acetic Acid-Tolerant Bacterium from Vinegars
by Karin Jelenko, Eva Cepec, Francisco X. Nascimento and Janja Trček
Foods 2023, 12(1), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010214 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1963
Abstract
The bacterial species Gluconacetobacter entanii belongs to a group of acetic acid bacteria. In 2000, it was described as a primary species of submerged spirit vinegar-producing bioreactors with a strict requirement of acetic acid, ethanol, and glucose for growth. Over the years, the [...] Read more.
The bacterial species Gluconacetobacter entanii belongs to a group of acetic acid bacteria. In 2000, it was described as a primary species of submerged spirit vinegar-producing bioreactors with a strict requirement of acetic acid, ethanol, and glucose for growth. Over the years, the type-strain of G. entanii deposited in international culture collections has lost the ability for revitalization and is thus not available any more in a culturable form. Here, we have systematically characterized phenotypic features and genomes of recently isolated G. entanii strains and compared them with characteristics of the type-strain available from published data. Using the functional annotation, genes gmhB and psp were identified as unique for G. entanii genomes among species in the clade Novacetimonas. The genome stability of G. entanii was assessed after 28 and 43 months of preculturing the strain Gluconacetobacter entanii AV429 twice a week. The strain G. entanii AV429 did not accumulate giant insertions or deletions but a few gene mutations. To unify further research into acetic acid bacteria systematics and taxonomy, we propose G. entanii AV429 as the neotype strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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16 pages, 337 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Gamma-Aminobuytric Acid (GABA) Enrichment on Nutritional, Physical, Shelf-Life, and Sensorial Properties of Dark Chocolate
by Wee Yin Koh, Xiao Xian Lim, Eva Sheue Wen Teoh, Rovina Kobun and Babak Rasti
Foods 2023, 12(1), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010213 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2442
Abstract
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has potential in regulating hypertension. Cocoa beans are rich in GABA, but GABA is being destroyed during roasting of cocoa beans and chocolate production. This study aimed to [...] Read more.
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has potential in regulating hypertension. Cocoa beans are rich in GABA, but GABA is being destroyed during roasting of cocoa beans and chocolate production. This study aimed to develop GABA-enriched dark chocolate by partially replacing sugar syrup with pure GABA powder at concentrations of 0.05 (F1), 0.10 (F2), and 0.15% (F3). The chocolate samples were incorporated with GABA after the heating and melting process of cocoa butter to maintain the viability and functionality of the GABA in the final product. The effects of GABA enrichment on the quality of chocolate in terms of nutritional, physical, shelf-life, and sensorial properties were studied. The inclusion of 0.15% GABA significantly increased the GABA content and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect of chocolate. The nutritional compositions of the control and GABA-enriched chocolates were almost similar. The addition of GABA significantly increased the hardness but did not affect the apparent viscosity and melting properties of chocolate. Accelerated shelf-life test results showed that all the chocolates stored at 20 and 30 °C were microbiologically safe for consumption for at least 21 days. Among the GABA-enriched chocolates, panellists preferred F2 the most followed by F3 and F1, owing to the glossiness and sweetness of F2. F3 with the highest GABA content (21.09 mg/100 g) and ACE inhibitory effect (79.54%) was identified as the best GABA-enriched dark chocolate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Properties of Foods and Beverages)
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20 pages, 6192 KiB  
Review
3D Printing Approach to Valorization of Agri-Food Processing Waste Streams
by Kandasamy Suppiramaniam Yoha and Jeyan Arthur Moses
Foods 2023, 12(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010212 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4031
Abstract
With increasing evidence of their relevance to resource recovery, waste utilization, zero waste, a circular economy, and sustainability, food-processing waste streams are being viewed as an aspect of both research and commercial interest. Accordingly, different approaches have evolved for their management and utilization. [...] Read more.
With increasing evidence of their relevance to resource recovery, waste utilization, zero waste, a circular economy, and sustainability, food-processing waste streams are being viewed as an aspect of both research and commercial interest. Accordingly, different approaches have evolved for their management and utilization. With excellent levels of customization, three-dimensional (3D) printing has found numerous applications in various sectors. The focus of this review article is to explain the state of the art, innovative interventions, and promising features of 3D printing technology for the valorization of agri-food processing waste streams. Based on recent works, this article covers two aspects: the conversion of processing waste streams into edible novel foods or inedible biodegradable materials for food packing and allied applications. However, this application domain cannot be limited to only what is already established, as there are ample prospects for several other application fields intertwining 3D food printing and waste processing. In addition, this article presents the key merits of the technology and emphasizes research needs and directions for future work on this disruptive technology, specific to food-printing applications. Full article
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26 pages, 9374 KiB  
Article
Oil Bodies from Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) Seeds for Innovative Food Applications: Microstructure, Composition and Physical Stability
by Christelle Lopez, Hélène Sotin, Hanitra Rabesona, Bruno Novales, Jean-Michel Le Quéré, Marine Froissard, Jean-Denis Faure, Sylvain Guyot and Marc Anton
Foods 2023, 12(1), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010211 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4728
Abstract
Exploring and deciphering the biodiversity of oil bodies (OBs) recovered from oilseeds are of growing interest in the preparation of sustainable, natural and healthy plant-based food products. This study focused on chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) seed [...] Read more.
Exploring and deciphering the biodiversity of oil bodies (OBs) recovered from oilseeds are of growing interest in the preparation of sustainable, natural and healthy plant-based food products. This study focused on chia (Salvia hispanica L.) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) seed OBs. A green refinery process including ultrasound to remove mucilage, aqueous extraction by grinding and centrifugation to recover OBs from the seeds was used. The microstructure, composition and physical stability of the OBs were examined. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that chia and camelina seed OBs are spherical assemblies coated by a layer of phospholipids and proteins, which have been identified by gel electrophoresis. The mean diameters determined by laser light scattering measurements were 2.3 and 1.6 µm for chia and camelina seed OBs, respectively. The chia and camelina seed OBs were rich in lipids and other bioactive components with, respectively, 64% and 30% α-linolenic acid representing 70% and 53% of the total fatty acids in the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols, 0.23% and 0.26% phospholipids, 3069 and 2674 mg/kg oil of β-sitosterol, and lipophilic antioxidants: 400 and 670 mg/kg oil of γ-tocopherol. Phenolic compounds were recovered from the aqueous extracts, such as rutin from camelina and caffeic acid from chia. Zeta-potential measurements showed changes from about −40 mV (pH 9) to values that were positive below the isoelectric points of pH 5.1 and 3.6 for chia and camelina seed OBs, respectively. Below pH 6.5, physical instability of the natural oil-in-water emulsions with aggregation and phase separation was found. This study will contribute to the development of innovative and sustainable food products based on natural oil-in-water emulsions containing chia and camelina seed OBs for their nutritional and health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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17 pages, 965 KiB  
Article
Feature Reduction for the Classification of Bruise Damage to Apple Fruit Using a Contactless FT-NIR Spectroscopy with Machine Learning
by Jean Frederic Isingizwe Nturambirwe, Eslam A. Hussein, Mattia Vaccari, Christopher Thron, Willem Jacobus Perold and Umezuruike Linus Opara
Foods 2023, 12(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010210 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3387
Abstract
Spectroscopy data are useful for modelling biological systems such as predicting quality parameters of horticultural products. However, using the wide spectrum of wavelengths is not practical in a production setting. Such data are of high dimensional nature and they tend to result in [...] Read more.
Spectroscopy data are useful for modelling biological systems such as predicting quality parameters of horticultural products. However, using the wide spectrum of wavelengths is not practical in a production setting. Such data are of high dimensional nature and they tend to result in complex models that are not easily understood. Furthermore, collinearity between different wavelengths dictates that some of the data variables are redundant and may even contribute noise. The use of variable selection methods is one efficient way to obtain an optimal model, andthis was the aim of this work. Taking advantage of a non-contact spectrometer, near infrared spectral data in the range of 800–2500 nm were used to classify bruise damage in three apple cultivars, namely ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Royal Gala’. Six prominent machine learning classification algorithms were employed, and two variable selection methods were used to determine the most relevant wavelengths for the problem of distinguishing between bruised and non-bruised fruit. The selected wavelengths clustered around 900 nm, 1300 nm, 1500 nm and 1900 nm. The best results were achieved using linear regression and support vector machine based on up to 40 wavelengths: these methods reached precision values in the range of 0.79–0.86, which were all comparable (within error bars) to a classifier based on the entire range of frequencies. The results also provided an open-source based framework that is useful towards the development of multi-spectral applications such as rapid grading of apples based on mechanical damage, and it can also be emulated and applied for other types of defects on fresh produce. Full article
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15 pages, 1912 KiB  
Article
Soil Amendment and Storage Effect the Quality of Winter Melons (Benincasa hispida (Thunb) Cogn.) and Their Juice
by Jinhe Bai, Erin N. Rosskopf, Kristen A. Jeffries, Wei Zhao and Anne Plotto
Foods 2023, 12(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010209 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2466
Abstract
Winter melon fruits were grown in the field using anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and conventional fertilizer alone as the control treatment. Fruits were harvested and stored at 20 °C for 120 d, the juice was processed on day one and day 120, and [...] Read more.
Winter melon fruits were grown in the field using anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and conventional fertilizer alone as the control treatment. Fruits were harvested and stored at 20 °C for 120 d, the juice was processed on day one and day 120, and the effects of soil amendment and 120 d storage on the juice’s physical and chemical (sugars, acids, volatile and nutritional compounds) properties were evaluated. Fruit juice extracted from ASD-grown fruit had greater magnitude of zeta potential than the control juice, indicating it was physically more stable than the juice obtained from the control conditions. ASD fruit juice had lower soluble solids content (SSC), and lower volatile compounds that contribute green, grass, and sulfur notes, and negatively influence flavor quality. ASD fruit juice had higher vitamin B5 and cytidine. Juice processed from 120 d stored fruit had less yield due to 12.4–15.6% weight loss. The non-soluble solids content was higher and particle size was larger, and the SSC and individual sugars decreased. However, titratable acidity (TA) increased primarily due to increased citric acid. Out of 16 free amino acids, 6 increased and only 1 decreased. However, three out of five nucleosides decreased; vitamins B1 and B6 increased; vitamins B2, B3 and C decreased. Overall, juice derived from fruit produced using ASD was physically more stable and had less SSC and off-odor volatiles than the control, while the fruit juice of those stored for 120 d had lower SSC and higher TA and nutritional profiles, comparable to freshly harvested fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables Series II)
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17 pages, 4929 KiB  
Article
Helium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Effects on Two Cultivars of Triticum aestivum L.
by Ion Burducea, Cristina Burducea, Paul-Emil Mereuta, Stefan-Robert Sirbu, Decebal-Alexandru Iancu, Melania-Beatrice Istrati, Mihai Straticiuc, Constantin Lungoci, Vasile Stoleru, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Teodor Robu, Marian Burducea and Andrei Vasile Nastuta
Foods 2023, 12(1), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010208 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
The use of cold plasma in the treatment of seeds before sowing presents a promising technique for sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of cold plasma treatment on the morphology of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. [...] Read more.
The use of cold plasma in the treatment of seeds before sowing presents a promising technique for sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of cold plasma treatment on the morphology of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Dacic’ and ‘Otilia’), their germination, biochemical composition, and the nutritional quality of wheat grass. Wheat seeds were morphologically and elementally characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray computer tomography (CT), and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Helium was used as a working gas for plasma generation and the analysis of the species produced showed the presence of NOγ, OH, N2 and N2+ and O. Evaluation of germination and plant growth for 10 days (wheat grass stage) highlighted a specific trend for each cultivar. The biochemical analysis of wheat grass highlighted an increase in the chlorophyll content in the plasma-treated variants, an increase in the flavonoid and polyphenol content in ‘Dacic’-treated variant, while the soluble protein content, antioxidant activity, and color were not affected. The analysis of the nutritional quality of wheat grass by the FT-NIR analytical technique highlighted an increase in the ash content in the plasma-treated wheat cultivars, while the humidity, proteins, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and energy values were not affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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21 pages, 10903 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Correlation of the Microbial Communities and Flavor Compounds during the First Three Rounds of Fermentation in Chinese Sauce-Flavor Baijiu
by Youqiang Xu, Mengqin Wu, Jialiang Niu, Mengwei Lin, Hua Zhu, Kun Wang, Xiuting Li and Baoguo Sun
Foods 2023, 12(1), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010207 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2984
Abstract
Sauce-flavor Baijiu is representative of solid-state fermented Baijiu. It is significant to deeply reveal the dynamic changes of microorganisms in the manufacturing process and their impact on the formation of flavor chemicals correlated with the quality of Baijiu. Sauce-flavor Baijiu manufacturing process can [...] Read more.
Sauce-flavor Baijiu is representative of solid-state fermented Baijiu. It is significant to deeply reveal the dynamic changes of microorganisms in the manufacturing process and their impact on the formation of flavor chemicals correlated with the quality of Baijiu. Sauce-flavor Baijiu manufacturing process can be divided into seven rounds, from which seven kinds of base Baijius are produced. The quality of base Baijiu in the third round is significantly better than that in the first and second rounds, but the mystery behind the phenomenon has not yet been revealed. Based on high-throughput sequencing and flavor analysis of fermented grains, and correlation analysis, the concentrations of flavor chemicals in the third round of fermented grains were enhanced, including esters hexanoic acid, ethyl ester; octanoic acid, ethyl ester; decanoic acid, ethyl ester; dodecanoic acid, ethyl ester; phenylacetic acid, ethyl ester; 3-(methylthio)-propionic acid ethyl ester; acetic acid, phenylethyl ester; hexanoic acid, butyl ester, and other flavor chemicals closely related to the flavor of sauce-flavor Baijiu, such as tetramethylpyrazine. The changes in flavor chemicals should be an important reason for the quality improvement of the third round of base Baijiu. Correlation analysis showed that ester synthesis was promoted by the bacteria genus Lactobacillus and many low abundances of fungal genera, and these low abundances of fungal genera also had important contributions to the production of tetramethylpyrazine. Meanwhile, the degrading metabolic pathway of tetramethylpyrazine was investigated, and the possible microorganisms were correlated. These results clarified the base Baijiu quality improvement of the third round and helped to provide a theoretical basis for improving base Baijiu quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Methods in Food Quality and Microbiological Safety)
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15 pages, 5899 KiB  
Article
Changing the IgE Binding Capacity of Tropomyosin in Shrimp through Structural Modification Induced by Cold Plasma and Glycation Treatment
by Feng-Qi Wang, Jun-Hu Cheng and Kevin M. Keener
Foods 2023, 12(1), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010206 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1738
Abstract
Tropomyosin (TM) is the major allergen of shrimp (Penaeus chinensis). Previous studies showed that separate cold plasma or glycation have their drawback in reducing allergenicity of TM, including effectiveness and reliability. In the current study, a new processing combining cold plasma [...] Read more.
Tropomyosin (TM) is the major allergen of shrimp (Penaeus chinensis). Previous studies showed that separate cold plasma or glycation have their drawback in reducing allergenicity of TM, including effectiveness and reliability. In the current study, a new processing combining cold plasma (CP) and glycation was proposed and its effect on changing IgE binding capacity of TM from shrimp was investigated. Obtained results showed the IgE binding capacity of TM was reduced by up to 40% after CP (dielectric barrier discharge, 60 kV, 1.0 A) combined with glycation treatment (4 h, 80 °C), compared with the less than 5% reduction after single CP or glycation treatment. Notably, in contrast to the general way of CP prompting glycation, this study devised a new mode of glycation with ribose after CP pretreatment. The structural changes of TM were explored to explain the decreased IgE binding reactivity. The results of multi-spectroscopies showed that the secondary and tertiary structures of TM were further destroyed after combined treatment, including the transformation of 50% α-helix to β-sheet and random coils, the modification and exposure of aromatic amino acids, and the increase of surface hydrophobicity. The morphology analysis using atomic force microscope revealed that the combined processing made the distribution of TM particles tend to disperse circularly, while it would aggregate after either processing treatment alone. These findings confirmed the unfolding and reaggregation of TM during combined processing treatment, which may result in the remarkable reduction of IgE binding ability. Therefore, the processing of CP pretreatment combined with glycation has the potential to reduce or even eliminate the allergenicity of seafood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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15 pages, 1944 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Cookies Prepared with Untapped Seaweed Ulva intestinalis: An Approach to Value Addition as a Functional Food
by Md. Mohibbullah, Al Amin, Md. Abu Talha, Md. Abdul Baten, Md. Masud Rana, Ashfak Ahmed Sabuz, Asif Wares Newaz and Jae-Suk Choi
Foods 2023, 12(1), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010205 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3713
Abstract
The present study was investigated to know the sensory, physicochemical, nutritional and fatty acid properties of seaweed-based cookies prepared with untapped seaweed Ulva intestinalis (UI) from Bangladesh coast. The cookies were formulated with different percentages of UI inclusions both in powdered (PUI) and [...] Read more.
The present study was investigated to know the sensory, physicochemical, nutritional and fatty acid properties of seaweed-based cookies prepared with untapped seaweed Ulva intestinalis (UI) from Bangladesh coast. The cookies were formulated with different percentages of UI inclusions both in powdered (PUI) and fragmented (FUI) forms, in order to evaluate different quality attributes in prepared value-added cookies. In sensory analysis, seaweed inclusion levels of 1% PUI, 2.5% PUI, 1% FUI, 2.5% FUI and 5% FUI to cookies were acceptable by panelists. Considering the maximum percentage of seaweed inclusions, 2.5% PUI and 5% FUI were selected for further analysis. The results of physicochemical properties such as moisture content, spread factor, baking loss, pH, cookie density, color, texture properties, volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were within acceptable limits. In nutritional analysis, 2.5% PUI and 5% FUI cookies showed a remarkable and significant increase in lipid and ash contents, compared to untreated controls. Being the first report on fatty acids profile by UI from Bangladesh, among 24 fatty acids identified, the amount of total saturated, mono-unsaturated, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids were reported to be 641.9 (36.2%), 563.7 (31.8%), 133.8 (7.6%) and 436.3 (24.6%) μg/g DW, respectively. The results suggest that cookies with 2.5% PUI and 5% FUI can be marketed as healthy foods for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Preservation of Aquatic Products)
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21 pages, 3404 KiB  
Article
Moderate Salinity of Nutrient Solution Improved the Nutritional Quality and Flavor of Hydroponic Chinese Chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler)
by Bojie Xie, Xuemei Xiao, Haiyan Li, Shouhui Wei, Ju Li, Yanqiang Gao and Jihua Yu
Foods 2023, 12(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010204 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Sodium chloride (NaCl), as a eustressor, can trigger relevant pathways to cause plants to produce a series of metabolites, thus improving the quality of crops to a certain extent. However, there are few reports on the improvement of nutrient quality and flavor of [...] Read more.
Sodium chloride (NaCl), as a eustressor, can trigger relevant pathways to cause plants to produce a series of metabolites, thus improving the quality of crops to a certain extent. However, there are few reports on the improvement of nutrient quality and flavor of hydroponic Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler) by sodium chloride. In this study, five NaCl concentrations were used to investigate the dose-dependent effects on growth, nutritional quality and flavor in Chinese chives. The results show that 10 mM NaCl had no significant effect on the growth of Chinese chives, but significantly decreased the nitrate content by 40% compared with 0 mM NaCl treatment, and the content of soluble protein and vitamin C was increased by 3.6% and 2.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 75 volatile compounds were identified among five treatments using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). Compared with the 0 mM NaCl treatment, 10 mM NaCl had the greatest effect on the quantity and content of volatile compounds, with the total content increased by 27.8%. Furthermore, according to the odor activity values (OAVs) and odor description, there were 14 major aroma-active compounds (OAVs > 1) in Chinese chives. The “garlic and onion” odor was the strongest among the eight categories of aromas, and its highest value was observed in the 10 mM NaCl treatment (OAVs = 794).Taken together, adding 10 mM NaCl to the nutrient solution could improve the nutritional quality and flavor of Chinese chives without affecting their normal growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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12 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Antifungal, Antibacterial Activity and Volatile Compound Composition of Citrus bergamia Peel Essential Oil
by Nur Cebi and Azime Erarslan
Foods 2023, 12(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010203 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Safe and health-beneficial citrus oils can be employed as natural preservatives, flavorings, antioxidants, and as antibacterial and antifungal agents in a wide variety of food products. In this research, using GC–MS methodology, the major volatile composition of Citrus bergamia EO, obtained by hydro-distillation, [...] Read more.
Safe and health-beneficial citrus oils can be employed as natural preservatives, flavorings, antioxidants, and as antibacterial and antifungal agents in a wide variety of food products. In this research, using GC–MS methodology, the major volatile composition of Citrus bergamia EO, obtained by hydro-distillation, was determined to consist of limonen (17.06%), linalool (46.34%) and linalyl acetate (17.69%). The molecular fingerprint was obtained using FTIR spectroscopy. The antibacterial effect of C. bergamia EO at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 µg/mL) was tested against different pathogen species (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes), based on disc diffusion assay. The in vitro antifungal activity of C. bergamia EO oil against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum was evaluated using agar disc diffusion assay. Clear inhibition zones were formed by C. bergamia EO against selected species of pathogens. Almost all of the concentrations were revealed to have antifungal activity against selected fungal pathogens. The highest inhibition rate of A. niger at 6 incubation days was 67.25 ± 0.35 mm with a 20 µL dose, while the growth in the control was 90.00 ± 0.00 mm. In addition, the highest inhibition rate of P. expansum was 26.16 ± 0.76 mm with a 20 µL dose, while the growth was 45.50 ± 2.12 mm in the control fungus. A higher antifungal effect of C. bergamia EO against P. expansum was obtained. It was observed that the growth of fungi was weakened with increasing concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 µL dose) of C. bergamia EO. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) results were obtained for the antibacterial and antifungal effects of C. bergamia EO. The findings from the research may shed light on the further use of C. bergamia EO obtained from peels in innovative food engineering applications in order to maintain food quality, food safety, and food sustainability. Full article
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18 pages, 3163 KiB  
Article
Effects of Extraction Methods on the Characteristics, Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Quality of Collagen from Spent-Hens Bones
by Changwei Cao, Hailang Wang, Jinyan Zhang, Huan Kan, Yun Liu, Lei Guo, Huiquan Tong, Yinglong Wu and Changrong Ge
Foods 2023, 12(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010202 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The present study used acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, and pepsin extract acid-soluble collagen (ASC), alkali-soluble collagen (ALSC), and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the bones of spent-hens, and the effects of three extraction methods on the characteristics, processing properties, antioxidant properties and acceptability of [...] Read more.
The present study used acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, and pepsin extract acid-soluble collagen (ASC), alkali-soluble collagen (ALSC), and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from the bones of spent-hens, and the effects of three extraction methods on the characteristics, processing properties, antioxidant properties and acceptability of chicken bone collagen were compared. The results showed that the extraction rates of ASC, ALSC and PSC extracted from bones of spent-hens were 3.39%, 2.42% and 9.63%, respectively. The analysis of the amino acid composition, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ultraviolet full spectrum showed that the collagen extracted by the three methods had typical collagen characteristics and stable triple-helix structure, but the triple helical structure of PSC is more stable, and acid and alkaline extraction seems to have adverse effects on the secondary structure of chicken bone collagen. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) scanning showed that PSC had higher thermal stability and more regular, loose, and porous microstructure. In addition, PSC has good processing properties, in vitro antioxidant activity, and organoleptic acceptability. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis was still one of the best methods to prepare collagen from bones of spent-hens, and enzyme-soluble collagen has wider application prospects in functional food and medicine and also provides an effective way for the high-value comprehensive utilization of waste chicken bone by-products. Full article
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13 pages, 2202 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Metabolism and Dissipation Kinetics of Flutriafol in Vegetables under Laboratory and Greenhouse Scenarios
by María Elena Hergueta-Castillo, Rosalía López-Ruiz, Antonia Garrido Frenich and Roberto Romero-González
Foods 2023, 12(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010201 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Flutriafol is a systemic triazole fungicide that is used to control diseases in various crops. A study was developed to evaluate the metabolism and dissipation of flutriafol in two different scenarios: laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Courgette and tomato samples treated with a commercial [...] Read more.
Flutriafol is a systemic triazole fungicide that is used to control diseases in various crops. A study was developed to evaluate the metabolism and dissipation of flutriafol in two different scenarios: laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Courgette and tomato samples treated with a commercial product (IMPACT® EVO) at the manufacturer recommended dose were analyzed, and courgette samples were also treated at double dose. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS), performing targeted and non-targeted approaches (suspect screening and unknown analysis), were used to analyze the samples. The dissipation of flutriafol was fitted to a biphasic kinetic model, with a persistence, expressed as half-life (t1/2), lower than 17 days. During suspect screening, three metabolites (triazole alanine, triazole lactic acid and triazole acetic acid) were tentatively identified. Unknown analysis led to the identification of four additional metabolites (C16H14F2N4, C16H14F2N4, C19H17F2N5O2 and C22H23F2N3O6). The results revealed that the proposed methodology is reliable for the determination of flutriafol and its metabolites in courgette and tomato, and seven metabolites could be detected at low concentration levels. The highest concentration of metabolites was found in the laboratory conditions at 34.5 µg/kg (triazole alanine). The toxicity of flutriafol metabolites was also evaluated, and some of them could be more toxic than the parent compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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11 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
Occurrence of Furfural and Its Derivatives in Coffee Products in China and Estimation of Dietary Intake
by Qing Liu, Pingping Zhou, Pengjie Luo and Pinggu Wu
Foods 2023, 12(1), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010200 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
This is the first report on the content of furfural and its derivatives in coffee products in China. The concentrations of furfural and its derivatives in 449 sampled, commercially available coffee products in China were analyzed through a GC-MS technique, and the associated [...] Read more.
This is the first report on the content of furfural and its derivatives in coffee products in China. The concentrations of furfural and its derivatives in 449 sampled, commercially available coffee products in China were analyzed through a GC-MS technique, and the associated health risks were estimated. As a result, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) was identified as the predominant derivative compound, with the highest concentration of 6035.0 mg/kg and detection frequency of 98.7%. The mean dietary exposures of 5-HMF, 5-MF(5-methylfurfural), and 2-F(2-furfural) in coffee products among Chinese consumers were 55.65, 3.00, and 3.23 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The ranges of mean dietary intake of furfural and its derivatives based on age groups were all lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the toxicological concern threshold (TTC). Risk evaluation results indicate that coffee product intake did not pose potential risks to consumers. Notably, the analysis revealed that children aged 3–6 years had the highest mean exposure due to their low body weight. Full article
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25 pages, 587 KiB  
Review
Mechanisms and Health Aspects of Food Adulteration: A Comprehensive Review
by Mysha Momtaz, Saniya Yesmin Bubli and Mohidus Samad Khan
Foods 2023, 12(1), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010199 - 2 Jan 2023
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 9710
Abstract
Food adulteration refers to the alteration of food quality that takes place deliberately. It includes the addition of ingredients to modify different properties of food products for economic advantage. Color, appearance, taste, weight, volume, and shelf life are such food properties. Substitution of [...] Read more.
Food adulteration refers to the alteration of food quality that takes place deliberately. It includes the addition of ingredients to modify different properties of food products for economic advantage. Color, appearance, taste, weight, volume, and shelf life are such food properties. Substitution of food or its nutritional content is also accomplished to spark the apparent quality. Substitution with species, protein content, fat content, or plant ingredients are major forms of food substitution. Origin misrepresentation of food is often practiced to increase the market demand of food. Organic and synthetic compounds are added to ensure a rapid effect on the human body. Adulterated food products are responsible for mild to severe health impacts as well as financial damage. Diarrhea, nausea, allergic reaction, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc., are frequently observed illnesses upon consumption of adulterated food. Some adulterants have shown carcinogenic, clastogenic, and genotoxic properties. This review article discusses different forms of food adulteration. The health impacts also have been documented in brief. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Plant to Plate: New Trend in Nutritious and Healthy Food)
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