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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2021) – 287 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): For centuries, wine has had a fundamental role in the culture and habits of different civilizations. Amongst numerous wine types that involve specific winemaking processes, fortified wines possess an added value and are greatly honored worldwide. This review comprises the description of the most important characteristics of the main worldwide fortified wines—Madeira, Port, Sherry, Muscat, and Vermouth—structured in three parts. View this paper
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Article
Investigation of the Effectiveness of Disinfectants Used in Meat-Processing Facilities to Control Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridioides difficile Spores
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061436 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Spore-forming bacteria are a major concern for the food industry as they cause both spoilage and food safety issues. Moreover, as they are more resistant than vegetative cells, their removal from the food processing environment may be difficult to achieve. This study investigated [...] Read more.
Spore-forming bacteria are a major concern for the food industry as they cause both spoilage and food safety issues. Moreover, as they are more resistant than vegetative cells, their removal from the food processing environment may be difficult to achieve. This study investigated the efficacy of the ten most commonly used disinfectant agents (assigned 1–10), used at the recommended concentrations in the meat industry, for their ability to eliminate Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridioides difficile spores. Test-tube based suspension assays suggested that disinfectants 2 (10% v/v preparation of a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (10–30%), acetic acid (1–10%) and peracetic acid (1–10%)), 7 (4% w/v preparation of a mixture of peroxymonosulphate (30–50%), sulphamic acid (1–10%) and troclosene sodium (1–10%)) and 10 (2% v/v preparation of a mixture of glutaraldehyde (10–30%), benzalkonium chloride (1–10%)) were the most effective formulations. D-values for these ranged from 2.1 to 8.4 min at 20 °C for the target spores. Based on these findings, it is recommended that these disinfectants are used to control Clostridium spores in the meat plant environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat and Meat Products)
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Article
Suitability Analysis of 17 Probiotic Type Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter for Kimchi Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061435 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The use of probiotic starters can improve the sensory and health-promoting properties of fermented foods. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a starter for kimchi fermentation. Seventeen probiotic type strains were tested for their growth [...] Read more.
The use of probiotic starters can improve the sensory and health-promoting properties of fermented foods. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a starter for kimchi fermentation. Seventeen probiotic type strains were tested for their growth rates, volatile aroma compounds, metabolites, and sensory characteristics of kimchi, and their characteristics were compared to those of Leuconostoc (Le.) mesenteroides DRC 1506, a commercial kimchi starter. Among the tested strains, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, Limosilactobacillus reuteri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, and Ligilactobacillus salivarius exhibited high or moderate growth rates in simulated kimchi juice (SKJ) at 37 °C and 15 °C. When these five strains were inoculated in kimchi and metabolite profiles were analyzed during fermentation using GC/MS and 1H-NMR, data from the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that L. fermentum and L. reuteri were highly correlated with Le. mesenteroides in concentrations of sugar, mannitol, lactate, acetate, and total volatile compounds. Sensory test results also indicated that these three strains showed similar sensory preferences. In conclusion, L. fermentum and L. reuteri can be considered potential candidates as probiotic starters or cocultures to develop health-promoting kimchi products. Full article
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Article
Development and Application of Healthiness Indicators for Commercial Establishments That Sell Foods for Immediate Consumption
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061434 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 439
Abstract
Studies of food environments lack easy-to-apply indicators for their characterization and monitoring. This study aimed to create and assess the applicability of an a priori classification of establishments that sell foods for immediate consumption and to develop and apply indicators for assessment of [...] Read more.
Studies of food environments lack easy-to-apply indicators for their characterization and monitoring. This study aimed to create and assess the applicability of an a priori classification of establishments that sell foods for immediate consumption and to develop and apply indicators for assessment of the establishments’ healthiness. The indicators were grouped by the types of foods sold most frequently at these establishments, according to the extent and purpose of the foods’ industrial processing. Four indicators were developed, based on the availability of unprocessed/minimally processed foods (MPF) and ultra-processed foods (UPF) in the establishments. The classification and indicators were applied to commercial food establishments at two Brazilian universities. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize the food environment for all the establishments and by university. Two proportion indicators assess the relative availability of subgroups of MPF and UPF. The UPF/MPF ratio expresses the relative advantage/disadvantage of the availability of MPF compared to that of UPF. The Healthiness Index or summary score expresses the availability of MPF and the unavailability of UPF. The classification and indicators present good discriminatory power and are easy to operationalize, interpret, and adapt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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Article
Microstructure and Physicochemical Properties of Light Ice Cream: Effects of Extruded Microparticulated Whey Proteins and Process Design
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1433; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061433 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 402
Abstract
This study aimed to understand the influence of extruded microparticulated whey proteins (eMWPs) and process design in light ice cream processing by evaluating the microstructure and physicochemical properties. The inulin (T1), a commercial microparticulated whey protein (MWP) called simplesse (T2), a combination (T3), [...] Read more.
This study aimed to understand the influence of extruded microparticulated whey proteins (eMWPs) and process design in light ice cream processing by evaluating the microstructure and physicochemical properties. The inulin (T1), a commercial microparticulated whey protein (MWP) called simplesse (T2), a combination (T3), as well as eMWPs (as 50% volume of total particles): d50 < 3 µm (T4), and d50 > 5 µm (T5) were used as fat replacers. The first process design was pasteurization with subsequent homogenization (PH). The second process was homogenization with subsequent pasteurization (HP) for the production of ice cream (control, 12% fat, w/w; T1 to T5, 6% fat, w/w). The overrun of light ice cream treatments of PH was around 50%, except for T4 (61.82%), which was significantly higher (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the overrun of HP was around 40% for all treatments except T1. In both the PH and HP groups, the color intensities of treatments were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The melting behavior of light ice cream was also significantly different. The viscosity of all treatments was significant (p < 0.05) at a shear rate of 64.54 (1/s) for both cases of process design. A similar firmness in both the PH and HP groups was observed; however, the products with eMWPs were firmer compared to other light ice creams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Influences of Microwave-Assisted Extraction Parameters on Antioxidant Activity of the Extract from Akebia trifoliata Peels
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061432 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Akebia trifoliata is a fruit with rich nutritional properties, and its peel is produced as a by-product. In this research, we investigated the influences of microwave-assisted extraction parameters on antioxidant activity of the extract from Akebia trifoliata peels, and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power [...] Read more.
Akebia trifoliata is a fruit with rich nutritional properties, and its peel is produced as a by-product. In this research, we investigated the influences of microwave-assisted extraction parameters on antioxidant activity of the extract from Akebia trifoliata peels, and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) were used to optimize extraction parameters. The influences of ethanol concentration, microwave power and solvent-to-material ratio, as well as extraction temperature and time on TPC, FRAP and TEAC values, were assessed using single-factor tests. Three parameters with obvious effects on antioxidant capacity were selected to further investigate their interactions by response surface methodology. The optimal extraction parameters of natural antioxidants from Akebia trifoliata peels were ethanol concentration, 49.61% (v/v); solvent-to-material ratio, 32.59:1 mL/g; extraction time, 39.31 min; microwave power, 500 W; and extraction temperature, 50 °C. Under optimal conditions, the FRAP, TEAC and TPC values of Akebia trifoliata peel extracts were 351.86 ± 9.47 µM Fe(II)/g dry weight (DW), 191.12 ± 3.53 µM Trolox/g DW and 32.67 ± 0.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW, respectively. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin and ellagic acid) in the extract were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results are useful for the full utilization of the by-product from Akebia trifoliate fruit. Full article
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Article
Synergistic Effects of the Jackfruit Seed Sourced Resistant Starch and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum subsp. globosum on Suppression of Hyperlipidemia in Mice
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061431 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Approximately 17 million people suffer from cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia, making it a serious global health concern. Among others, resistant starch (RS) has been widely used as a prebiotic in managing hyperlipidemia conditions. However, some studies have reported limited effects of RS [...] Read more.
Approximately 17 million people suffer from cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia, making it a serious global health concern. Among others, resistant starch (RS) has been widely used as a prebiotic in managing hyperlipidemia conditions. However, some studies have reported limited effects of RS on body weight and blood lipid profile of the host, suggesting further investigation on the synergistic effects of RS in combination with probiotics as gut microbes plays a role in lipid metabolism. This study evaluated the effects of jackfruit seed sourced resistant starch (JSRS) as a novel RS on mice gut microbes and hyperlipidemia by performing 16s rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that 10% JSRS had a limited preventive effect on bodyweight and serum lipid levels. However, the JSRS promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, which indicated the ability of B. pseudolongum for JSRS utilization. In the validation experiment, B. pseudolongum interacted with JSRS to significantly reduce bodyweight and serum lipid levels and had a therapeutic effect on hepatic steatosis in mice. Collectively, this study revealed the improvements of hyperlipidemia in mice by the synergistic effects of JSRS and B. pseudolongum, which will help in the development of “synbiotics” for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in the future. Full article
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Review
Revisiting Non-Thermal Food Processing and Preservation Methods—Action Mechanisms, Pros and Cons: A Technological Update (2016–2021)
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061430 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The push for non-thermal food processing methods has emerged due to the challenges associated with thermal food processing methods, for instance, high operational costs and alteration of food nutrient components. Non-thermal food processing involves methods where the food materials receive microbiological inactivation without [...] Read more.
The push for non-thermal food processing methods has emerged due to the challenges associated with thermal food processing methods, for instance, high operational costs and alteration of food nutrient components. Non-thermal food processing involves methods where the food materials receive microbiological inactivation without or with little direct application of heat. Besides being well established in scientific literature, research into non-thermal food processing technologies are constantly on the rise as applied to a wide range of food products. Due to such remarkable progress by scientists and researchers, there is need for continuous synthesis of relevant scientific literature for the benefit of all actors in the agro-food value chain, most importantly the food processors, and to supplement existing information. This review, therefore, aimed to provide a technological update on some selected non-thermal food processing methods specifically focused on their operational mechanisms, their effectiveness in preserving various kinds of foods, as revealed by their pros (merits) and cons (demerits). Specifically, pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultraviolet radiation, high-pressure processing, non-thermal (cold) plasma, ozone treatment, ionizing radiation, and ultrasound were considered. What defines these techniques, their ability to exhibit limited changes in the sensory attributes of food, retain the food nutrient contents, ensure food safety, extend shelf-life, and being eco-friendly were highlighted. Rationalizing the process mechanisms about these specific non-thermal technologies alongside consumer education can help raise awareness prior to any design considerations, improvement of cost-effectiveness, and scaling-up their capacity for industrial-level applications. Full article
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Review
Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) and Infant Microbiota: A Scoping Review
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061429 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component of breast milk. However, the newborn cannot assimilate them as nutrients. They are recognized prebiotic agents (the first in the newborn diet) that stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly the genus [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant solid component of breast milk. However, the newborn cannot assimilate them as nutrients. They are recognized prebiotic agents (the first in the newborn diet) that stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms, mainly the genus Bifidobacterium, dominant in the gut of breastfed infants. The structures of the oligosaccharides vary mainly according to maternal genetics, but also other maternal factors such as parity and mode of delivery, age, diet, and nutritional status or even geographic location and seasonality cause different breast milk oligosaccharides profiles. Differences in the profiles of HMO have been linked to breast milk microbiota and gut microbial colonization of babies. Here, we provide a review of the scope of reports on associations between HMOs and the infant gut microbiota to assess the impact of HMO composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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Article
In Vitro Probitotic Evaluation of Saccharomyces boulardii with Antimicrobial Spectrum in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061428 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 429
Abstract
In the present study, we screened for potential probiotic yeast that could survive under extreme frozen conditions. The antimicrobial and heat-stable properties of the isolated yeast strains Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) (KT000032, KT000033, KT000034, KT000035, KT000036 [...] Read more.
In the present study, we screened for potential probiotic yeast that could survive under extreme frozen conditions. The antimicrobial and heat-stable properties of the isolated yeast strains Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) (KT000032, KT000033, KT000034, KT000035, KT000036, and KT000037) was analyzed and compared with commercial probiotic strains. The results revealed that the tested S. boulardii KT000032 strain showed higher resistance to gastric enzymes (bile salts, pepsin, and pancreatic enzyme) at low pH, with broad antibiotic resistance. In addition, the strain also showed efficient auto-aggregation and co-aggregation abilities and efficient hydrophobicity in the in-vitro and in-vivo C. elegens gut model. Further, the KT000032 strain showed higher antimicrobial efficiency against 13 different enteropathogens and exhibited commensal relationships with five commercial probiotic strains. Besides, the bioactive compounds produced in the cell-free supernatant of probiotic yeast showed thermo-tolerance (95 °C for two hours). Furthermore, the thermo-stable property of the strains will facilitate their incorporation into ready-to-eat food products under extreme food processing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeasts as a Tool to Improve Health Quality in Food Industry)
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence, Persistence, and Diversity throughout the Fresh Produce Supply Chain
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061427 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is an increasing food safety concern throughout the produce supply chain as it has been linked to produce associated outbreaks and recalls. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic literature review to investigate Listeria species and L. monocytogenes prevalence, persistence, [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is an increasing food safety concern throughout the produce supply chain as it has been linked to produce associated outbreaks and recalls. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic literature review to investigate Listeria species and L. monocytogenes prevalence, persistence, and diversity at each stage along the supply chain. This review identified 64 articles of 4863 candidate articles obtained from four Boolean search queries in six databases. Included studies examined naturally detected/isolated Listeria species and L. monocytogenes in fresh produce-related environments, and/or from past fresh produce associated outbreaks or from produce directly. Listeria species and L. monocytogenes were detected in each stage of the fresh produce supply chain. The greatest prevalence of Listeria species was observed in natural environments and outdoor production, with prevalence generally decreasing with each progression of the supply chain (e.g., packinghouse to distribution to retail). L. monocytogenes prevalence ranged from 61.1% to not detected (0.00%) across the entire supply chain for included studies. Listeria persistence and diversity were also investigated more in natural, production, and processing environments, compared to other supply chain environments (e.g., retail). Data gaps were identified for future produce safety research, for example, in the transportation and distribution center environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Article
Correlation between Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Particulated β-Lactoglobulin and Its Behavior at Air/Water and Oil/Water Interfaces
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061426 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
It is widely accepted that protein-based particles can efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. However, it is not fully elucidated which particle properties are decisive for the stabilization of air/water and oil/water interfaces. To unravel this correlation, selected properties of nano-sized soluble β-lactoglobulin particles [...] Read more.
It is widely accepted that protein-based particles can efficiently stabilize foams and emulsions. However, it is not fully elucidated which particle properties are decisive for the stabilization of air/water and oil/water interfaces. To unravel this correlation, selected properties of nano-sized soluble β-lactoglobulin particles were changed one at a time. Therefore, particles of (1) variable size but similar zeta potential and degree of cross-linking and (2) similar size but different further properties were produced by heat treatment under a specific combination of pH value and NaCl concentration and then analyzed for their interfacial behavior as well as foaming and emulsifying properties. On the one hand, it was found that the initial phase of protein adsorption at both the air/water and the oil/water interface was mainly influenced by the zeta potential, independent of the particle size. On the other hand, foam stability as resolved from the time-dependent evolution of mean bubble area negatively correlated with disulfide cross-linking, whereas emulsion stability in terms of oil droplet flocculation showed a positive correlation with disulfide cross-linking. In addition, flocculation was more pronounced for larger particles. Concluding from this, foam and emulsion stability are not linked to the same particle properties and, thus, explanatory approaches cannot be used interchangeably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Emulsifiers in Food)
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Article
Characterizing Industrial and Artisanal Fishing Vessel Catch Composition Using Environmental DNA and Satellite-Based Tracking Data
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061425 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
The decline in wild-caught fisheries paired with increasing global seafood demand is pushing the need for seafood sustainability to the forefront of national and regional priorities. Validation of species identity is a crucial early step, yet conventional monitoring and surveillance tools are limited [...] Read more.
The decline in wild-caught fisheries paired with increasing global seafood demand is pushing the need for seafood sustainability to the forefront of national and regional priorities. Validation of species identity is a crucial early step, yet conventional monitoring and surveillance tools are limited in their effectiveness because they are extremely time-consuming and require expertise in fish identification. DNA barcoding methods are a versatile tool for the genetic monitoring of wildlife products; however, they are also limited by requiring individual tissue samples from target specimens which may not always be possible given the speed and scale of seafood operations. To circumvent the need to individually sample organisms, we pilot an approach that uses forensic environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to profile fish species composition from the meltwater in fish holds on industrial and artisanal fishing vessels in Ecuador. Fish identified genetically as present were compared to target species reported by each vessel’s crew. Additionally, we contrasted the geographic range of identified species against the satellite-based fishing route data of industrial vessels to determine if identified species could be reasonably expected in the catch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection of Food Fraud Using Analytical Methods)
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Review
The Sensory Space of Wines: From Concept to Evaluation and Description. A Review
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061424 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The concept of sensory space was first formulated over 25 years ago and has been widely adopted in oenology for around the last 15 years. It is based on both the common organoleptic characteristics of products and the mental representations built by specific [...] Read more.
The concept of sensory space was first formulated over 25 years ago and has been widely adopted in oenology for around the last 15 years. It is based on both the common organoleptic characteristics of products and the mental representations built by specific groups of people. Exploring this concept involves first assessing whether it already exists for tasters, and, when this is the case, conducting perceptual evaluations to verify its effectiveness before potentially highlighting the associated sensory properties. The goal of this review, which focuses on applications linked to the field of oenology, is to study how these three steps are carried out, how the corresponding tasks and tests are performed and managed, and the type of results that can be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Evaluation and Quality Control of Wine)
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Article
Effects of Bacillus Subtilis-Fermented White Sword Bean Extract on Adipogenesis and Lipolysis of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061423 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
To investigate the adipogenesis and lipolysis effects of the Bacillus subtilis-fermented white sword bean extract (FWSBE) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes before and after differentiation with FWSBE and measured triglyceride, free glycerol, mRNA, and protein levels. First, FWSBE reduced the cell [...] Read more.
To investigate the adipogenesis and lipolysis effects of the Bacillus subtilis-fermented white sword bean extract (FWSBE) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes before and after differentiation with FWSBE and measured triglyceride, free glycerol, mRNA, and protein levels. First, FWSBE reduced the cell viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes under 1000 µg/mL conditions. Triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes was suppressed, and free glycerol content in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased in the FWSBE treatment groups, indicating that FWSBE has anti-obesity effects. Further, FWSBE suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by lowering the protein levels of C/EBPα, PPARγ, and FAS and increasing the level of pACC and pAMPK. Additionally, FWSBE promoted lipolysis in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing the transcription levels of Ppara, Acox, and Lcad and the protein levels of pHSL and ATGL. Thus, we suggest that FWSBE can be a potential dietary supplement because of its anti-obesity properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances and Future Trends in Fermented and Functional Foods)
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Article
Antimicrobial Activity and Protective Effect of Tuscan Bee Pollens on Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Different Cell-Based Models
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061422 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Bee pollen is an apiary product of great interest owing to its high nutritional and therapeutic properties. This study aimed to assess the cellular antioxidant activity and the antihemolytic effect of Castanea, Rubus, and Cistus bee pollens on human erythrocytes. We [...] Read more.
Bee pollen is an apiary product of great interest owing to its high nutritional and therapeutic properties. This study aimed to assess the cellular antioxidant activity and the antihemolytic effect of Castanea, Rubus, and Cistus bee pollens on human erythrocytes. We also tested the antimicrobial potential of each sample on selected Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Finally, the effect of Castanea bee pollen, showing the best phytochemical profile, was analyzed on human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to thapsigargin, used as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor. Our results showed good biological activities of all bee pollen samples that, under oxidative conditions, significantly improved the erythrocytes’ antioxidant activity and limited cell lyses. Castanea and Cistus showed comparable antihemolytic activities, with higher % hemolysis inhibition than Rubus. All samples exerted antimicrobial activity with different selectivity among all the tested microorganisms with minimal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 5 to 10 mg/mL. Finally, Castanea bee pollen was effective in reducing gene over-expression and oxidation process arising from thapsigargin treatment, with a maximum protective effect at 10 µg/mL. In conclusion, bee pollen represents a potential natural antibacterial and a good nutraceutical product useful in the prevention of free radical and ER stress-associated diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Properties of Bee Products)
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Article
Detection of Peanut Allergen by Real-Time PCR: Looking for a Suitable Detection Marker as Affected by Processing
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061421 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) contains allergenic proteins, which make it harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of peanut in foods must be indicated on label, to prevent accidental consumption by allergic population. In this work, we use chloroplast markers for specific [...] Read more.
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) contains allergenic proteins, which make it harmful to the sensitised population. The presence of peanut in foods must be indicated on label, to prevent accidental consumption by allergic population. In this work, we use chloroplast markers for specific detection of peanut by real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), in order to increase the assay sensitivity. Binary mixtures of raw and processed peanut flour in wheat were performed at concentrations ranging from 100,000 to 0.1 mg/kg. DNA isolation from peanut, mixtures, and other legumes was carried out following three protocols for obtaining genomic and chloroplast-enrich DNA. Quantity and quality of DNA were evaluated, obtaining better results for protocol 2. Specificity and sensitivity of the method has been assayed with specific primers for three chloroplast markers (mat k, rpl16, and trnH-psbA) and Ara h 6 peanut allergen-coding region was selected as nuclear low-copy target and TaqMan probes. Efficiency and linear correlation of calibration curves were within the adequate ranges. Mat k chloroplast marker yielded the most sensitive and efficient detection for peanut. Moreover, detection of mat K in binary mixtures of processed samples was possible for up to 10 mg/kg even after boiling, and autoclave 121 °C 15 min, with acceptable efficiency and linear correlation. Applicability of the method has been assayed in several commercial food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Researches in Food Allergen Detection)
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Article
Effect of Freeze Drying and Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion on Phenolic Metabolites and Antioxidant Property of the Natal Plum (Carissa macrocarpa)
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061420 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) are a natural source of bioactive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, and can be consumed as a snack. This study characterized the impact of freeze drying and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and α-glucosidase [...] Read more.
Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) are a natural source of bioactive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, and can be consumed as a snack. This study characterized the impact of freeze drying and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and α-glucosidase activity of the Natal plum (Carissa macrocarpa). The phenolic compounds were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector HPLC-DAD and an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC) with a Waters Acquity photodiode array detector (PDA) coupled to a Synapt G2 quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer. Cyanidin-3-O-β-sambubioside (Cy-3-Sa) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy-3-G) were the dominant anthocyanins in the fresh and freeze-dried Natal plum powder. Freeze drying did not affect the concentrations of both cyanidin compounds compared to the fresh fruit. Both cyanidin compounds, ellagic acid, catechin, epicatechin syringic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and quercetin O-glycoside from the ingested freeze-dried Natal plum powder was quite stable in the gastric phase compared to the small intestinal phase. Cyanidin-3-O-β-sambubioside from the ingested Natal plum powder showed bioaccessibility of 32.2% compared to cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (16.3%). The degradation of anthocyanins increased the bioaccessibility of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid significantly, in the small intestinal digesta. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) activities, and inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase activity decreased in the small intestinal phase. Indigenous fruits or freeze-dried powders with Cy-3-Sa can be a better source of anthocyanin than Cy-3-G due to higher bioaccessibility in the small intestinal phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Investigation on the Molecular and Physicochemical Changes of Protein and Starch of Wheat Flour during Heating
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061419 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The behaviors of starch and protein in wheat flour during heating were investigated, and the molecular changes of starch and protein and their effects on the textural characteristics were assessed. The results showed that with the increased temperature, soluble protein aggregated to insoluble [...] Read more.
The behaviors of starch and protein in wheat flour during heating were investigated, and the molecular changes of starch and protein and their effects on the textural characteristics were assessed. The results showed that with the increased temperature, soluble protein aggregated to insoluble high-molecular-weight protein polymers when the heating temperature exceeded 70 °C, and the aggregation of protein was mainly caused by covalent bonds of disulfide (SS) bonds. Hydrophobic interaction was the main noncovalent bond that participated in the formation of protein aggregates. The major change in the secondary structure during heating was a pronounced transition towards β-sheet-like structures. Considerable disruption of ordered structures of starch occurred at 70 °C, and starch was fully gelatinized at 80 °C. Typical starch pasting profiles of cooked flour were observed when the temperature was below 70 °C, and heat treatment decreased the pasting viscosity of the cooked flour from control to 80 °C, whereas the viscosity of the wheat flour increased in heating treatment at 90, 95 and 100 °C. The intense protein-starch interaction during heating affected the textural characteristic of flour gelation, which showed higher strength at 90, 95 and 100 °C. This study may provide a basis for improving wheat flour processing conditions and could lead to the production of new wheat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grain Foods, Noodles and Steamed Bread)
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Article
Influence of Technological Maturity on the Secondary Metabolites of Hemp Concentrate (Cannabis sativa L.)
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061418 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
During the last decade, the popularity of hemp products has been rising rapidly. Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) are of predominant interest. Traditional hemp products are frequently enriched by CBD due to their potential therapeutic effects. Cannabidiol occurs naturally in hemp juice together with [...] Read more.
During the last decade, the popularity of hemp products has been rising rapidly. Products containing cannabidiol (CBD) are of predominant interest. Traditional hemp products are frequently enriched by CBD due to their potential therapeutic effects. Cannabidiol occurs naturally in hemp juice together with other biologically active substances, such as terpenes, flavonoids, and stilbenoids. These constituents act synergistically. This study aimed to observe the influence of the hemp plant developmental stage on its chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The hemp plants were analyzed during three vegetative stages, i.e., before, during, and after flowering. The collected samples were evaluated using the following analyses: total polyphenolic content and profile, terpenoid and cannabinoid contents, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The results revealed statistically significant differences between the samples in almost all set parameters. The optimal period for hemp harvest depends on desirable compounds, i.e., phenolic content is the highest before flowering, while the levels of cannabinoids and terpenoids are the highest during the flowering period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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Review
Biological Properties, Health Benefits and Enzymatic Modifications of Dietary Methoxylated Derivatives of Cinnamic Acid
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061417 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 366
Abstract
Methoxylated derivatives of cinnamic acid play an important role in the formation of the pro-health potential of food products. Numerous reports present them as molecules with strong antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer as well as hepato-, cardio-, and neuroprotective activities. In the last three decades, [...] Read more.
Methoxylated derivatives of cinnamic acid play an important role in the formation of the pro-health potential of food products. Numerous reports present them as molecules with strong antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer as well as hepato-, cardio-, and neuroprotective activities. In the last three decades, many research groups have tried to extend the practical application of these molecules as therapeutic and antioxidant agents extensively studying the methods of their lipophilization as the solution of problems of their low oral bioavailability and rapid metabolism. This article summarizes the latest data of natural sources of occurrence, biological potential and bioavailability of methoxy derivatives of cinnamic acids. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of this group of dietary compounds are also extensively discussed as well as reviewing the methods of their chemical and enzymatic lipophilization in the aspect of their use in food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
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Article
Improvement of Must Fermentation from Late Harvest cv. Tempranillo Grapes Treated with Pulsed Light
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061416 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Pulsed light irradiation is a nonthermal technology currently used for the elimination of pathogens from a diverse range of food products. In the last two decades, the results obtained using PL at laboratory scale are encouraging wine experts to use it in the [...] Read more.
Pulsed light irradiation is a nonthermal technology currently used for the elimination of pathogens from a diverse range of food products. In the last two decades, the results obtained using PL at laboratory scale are encouraging wine experts to use it in the winemaking industry. PL can reduce native yeast counts significantly, which facilitates the use of starter cultures, reducing SO2 requirements at the same time. In this experimental set up, Tempranillo grapes were subjected to pulsed light treatment, and the fermentative performance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts belonging to the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Lachancea thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Hanseniaspora vineae was monitored in sequential fermentations against spontaneous fermentation and pure culture fermentation with the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental analyses comprised the determination of anthocyanin (High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector—HPLC-DAD), polyphenol index and colour (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy—UV-Vis spectrophotometer), fermentation-derived volatiles (Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector—GC-FID), oenological parameters (Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy—FT-IR) and structural damage of the skin (atomic force microscopy—AFM). The results showed a decrease of 1.2 log CFU/mL yeast counts after pulsed light treatment and more rapid and controlled fermentation kinetics in musts from treated grapes than in untreated samples. The fermentations done with treated grapes allowed starter cultures to better implant in the must, although a larger anthocyanin loss (up to 93%) and an increase in hue values (1 unit) towards more yellow hues were observed for treated grapes. The development of biomass was larger in musts from treated grapes. The profile of volatile compounds and oenological parameters reveals that fermentations carried out with untreated grapes are prone to deviations from native microbiota (e.g., production of lactic acid). Finally, no severe damage on the skin was observed with the AFM on treated grapes. Full article
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Article
Effects of Hydrothermal Processing Duration on the Texture, Starch and Protein In Vitro Digestibility of Cowpeas, Chickpeas and Kidney Beans
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061415 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Legumes are a vital candidate in the fight for food security as a sustainable and nutritious food source. The current study systematically investigated the effects of hydrothermal processing of varying durations (15–120 min) on the texture, starch and protein digestibility of cowpeas ( [...] Read more.
Legumes are a vital candidate in the fight for food security as a sustainable and nutritious food source. The current study systematically investigated the effects of hydrothermal processing of varying durations (15–120 min) on the texture, starch and protein digestibility of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Texture analysis and in vitro oral-gastro-intestinal digestion of each legume was combined with kinetic modelling to explore the rate and extent of their changes observed during hydrothermal processing. All three legumes showed rapid initial texture decay in the first 30 min of processing. Chickpeas showed the fastest rate of texture degradation with processing duration, whereas texture degradation of kidney bean was slower but reached the lowest hardness value among all beans when processed up to 120 min. The rate of starch and protein digestion increased with prolonged processing duration, whilst showing an inverse relationship with texture values. The extent of starch digestion continually increased with processing duration for all three legumes, whereas the extent of protein digestion decreased after 60 min in cowpeas. This study systematically demonstrated how choosing different processing times can modulate the rate of texture degradation, starch and protein digestion in legumes. The findings of this study can aid consumers and manufacturers on optimal processing to achieve the desired texture or modulate starch and protein digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional and Functional Properties of Grain Legumes)
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Article
Short-Term Implications of Climate Shocks on Wheat-Based Nutrient Flows: A Global “Nutrition at Risk” Analysis through a Stochastic CGE Model
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061414 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Food security analyses of international trade largely overlook the importance of substantial heterogeneity and complexity of nutrient content in food products. This paper quantifies the extent to which wheat-based nutrient supplies, including energy, protein, iron, zinc, and magnesium, are exposed to the risks [...] Read more.
Food security analyses of international trade largely overlook the importance of substantial heterogeneity and complexity of nutrient content in food products. This paper quantifies the extent to which wheat-based nutrient supplies, including energy, protein, iron, zinc, and magnesium, are exposed to the risks of realistic productivity and trade shocks. By employing a static and stochastic world trade computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we find that productivity shocks may result in losses in households’ nutrient consumption of up to 18% for protein, 33.1% for zinc, and 37.4% for magnesium. Significant losses are observed in countries mostly in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia. Since the main centers of wheat exports have recently been shifting to former Soviet Union countries, we also simulated the nutritional risks of export restrictions imposed by the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, which have resorted to this policy instrument in recent years. We find that partial export restrictions increase the probability of nutrient shocks by five times or more in most countries that we studied. Increased nutrient deficiencies have a range of public health implications in the affected countries, which could be mitigated and/or avoided by adjusting production and trade policies and by targeting high nutritional risk groups, such as women and children. Since the potential implications of supply shocks are diffused across countries through international trade, the stricter regulation of export restrictions to enhance the predictably and reliability of global food supplies is also needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
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Article
Measuring the Effect of Blockchain Extrinsic Cues on Consumers’ Perceived Flavor and Healthiness: A Cross-Country Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061413 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Many studies in the related literature have proven that the perception of flavor and healthiness can be affected by both the product’s intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Package designs, brands, colors, labels and other visual elements exert and influence consumers’ expectations and guide them [...] Read more.
Many studies in the related literature have proven that the perception of flavor and healthiness can be affected by both the product’s intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Package designs, brands, colors, labels and other visual elements exert and influence consumers’ expectations and guide them toward food decisions. With the increasing initiatives promoted within Europe in support of the adoption of blockchain technology in supply chains and agri-food contexts, in the coming years, packages will be used with additional product information certified with the technology itself. Cueing packages with blockchain-certified information could affect consumers in their overall flavor and health perceptions, similarly to that previously demonstrated with other extrinsic cues. In the present study, we analyzed a sample of 310 primary grocery shoppers from Germany, Italy and the UK, demonstrating the effectiveness of technology-certified information on the package of animal milk in influencing consumers’ flavor and health perceptions and exploring the differences and similarities across the three countries and milk categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Evaluation and Flavor Analysis of Foods)
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Article
Chemical Extraction and Gastrointestinal Digestion of Honey: Influence on Its Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061412 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
The effect of chemical extraction and in vitro digestion of different kinds of honey on bioactive compounds (total phenolic compounds and flavonoids) and biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory) was investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against three radicals (ABTS•+, ROO [...] Read more.
The effect of chemical extraction and in vitro digestion of different kinds of honey on bioactive compounds (total phenolic compounds and flavonoids) and biological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory) was investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against three radicals (ABTS•+, ROO, OH), and the antimicrobial activity was studied against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomona aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The results show that in comparison with raw honeys, the methanolic extracts exhibited lower values for phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity and higher anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. The higher anti-inflammatory activity indicates a possible use of dried honey extracts in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The digested honeys showed higher total phenolics and higher antioxidant activity than the pre-digested honeys, as well as higher antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, which underlines the possible antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of honey in the human body after the digestion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition and Biological Properties of Bee Products)
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Article
A Methodology Based on FT-IR Data Combined with Random Forest Model to Generate Spectralprints for the Characterization of High-Quality Vinegars
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061411 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Sherry wine vinegar is a Spanish gourmet product under Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Before a vinegar can be labeled as Sherry vinegar, the product must meet certain requirements as established by its PDO, which, in this case, means that it has been [...] Read more.
Sherry wine vinegar is a Spanish gourmet product under Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Before a vinegar can be labeled as Sherry vinegar, the product must meet certain requirements as established by its PDO, which, in this case, means that it has been produced following the traditional solera and criadera ageing system. The quality of the vinegar is determined by many factors such as the raw material, the acetification process or the aging system. For this reason, mainly producers, but also consumers, would benefit from the employment of effective analytical tools that allow precisely determining the origin and quality of vinegar. In the present study, a total of 48 Sherry vinegar samples manufactured from three different starting wines (Palomino Fino, Moscatel, and Pedro Ximénez wine) were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data were combined with unsupervised exploratory techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), as well as other nonparametric supervised techniques, namely, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), for the characterization of the samples. The HCA and PCA results present a clear grouping trend of the vinegar samples according to their raw materials. SVM in combination with leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) successfully classified 100% of the samples, according to the type of wine used for their production. The RF method allowed selecting the most important variables to develop the characteristic fingerprint (“spectralprint”) of the vinegar samples according to their starting wine. Furthermore, the RF model reached 100% accuracy for both LOOCV and out-of-bag (OOB) sets. Full article
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Article
Prevalence of Salmonella in Free-Range Pigs: Risk Factors and Intestinal Microbiota Composition
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061410 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Extensive pig systems are gaining importance as quality production systems and as the standard for sustainable rural development and animal welfare. However, the effects of natural foods on Salmonella epidemiology remain unknown. Herein, we assessed the presence of Salmonella and the composition of [...] Read more.
Extensive pig systems are gaining importance as quality production systems and as the standard for sustainable rural development and animal welfare. However, the effects of natural foods on Salmonella epidemiology remain unknown. Herein, we assessed the presence of Salmonella and the composition of the gut microbiota in pigs from both Salmonella-free and high Salmonella prevalence farms. In addition, risk factors associated with the presence of Salmonella were investigated. The pathogen was found in 32.2% of animals and 83.3% of farms, showing large differences in prevalence between farms. Most isolates were serovars Typhimurium monophasic (79.3%) and Bovismorbificans (10.3%), and exhibited a multi-drug resistance profile (58.6%). Risk factor analysis identified feed composition, type/variety of vegetation available, and silos’ cleaning/disinfection as the main factors associated with Salmonella prevalence. Clear differences in the intestinal microbiota were found between Salmonella-positive and Salmonella-negative populations, showing the former with increasing Proteobacteria and decreasing Bacteroides populations. Butyrate and propionate producers including Clostridium, Turicibacter, Bacteroidaceae_uc, and Lactobacillus were more abundant in the Salmonella-negative group, whereas acetate producers like Sporobacter, Escherichia or Enterobacter were more abundant in the Salmonella-positive group. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of Salmonella in free-range pigs is directly related to the natural vegetation accessible, determining the composition of the intestinal microbiota. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant and Cryoprotective Effects of Bone Hydrolysates from Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in Freeze-Thawed Fish Fillets
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061409 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Bone hydrolysates from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) were prepared using Protamex and Alcalase with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 5%, 10% and 15%. The antioxidant activity of bone hydrolysates was evaluated in vitro and then the hydrolysates with better antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
Bone hydrolysates from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) were prepared using Protamex and Alcalase with degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 5%, 10% and 15%. The antioxidant activity of bone hydrolysates was evaluated in vitro and then the hydrolysates with better antioxidant activity were used to immerse bighead carp fillets through a vacuum impregnation process at concentrations of 1% and 2%. Among the six hydrolysates, fish bone hydrolyzed with Protamex at DH 10% exhibited the highest ability to scavenge 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (88.79%), 2, 2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) (57.76%) and hydroxyl radicals (62.72%), as well as to chelate ferrous ions (91.46%). The hydrolysates effectively postponed freezing- and thawing-induced protein/lipid oxidation. Compared with the fillets without treatment, the impregnated fillets had higher sulfhydryl contents, greater Ca2+-ATPase activity, lower carbonyls and lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Bone hydrolysates also have a positive effect on the texture and water-holding ability of freeze-thawed fish fillets. Fish bone hydrolysates of Protamex could serve as potential antioxidants to preserve fish fillets. Full article
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Article
Effects of Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone (NHDC) on Oxidative Phosphorylation, Cytokine Production, and Lipid Deposition
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061408 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 386
Abstract
The sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a precursor for anthocyanins and has been reported to have various bioactivities, including antioxidant and hepatitis inhibitory effects. However, its inflammatory functions and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In this study, RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were [...] Read more.
The sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a precursor for anthocyanins and has been reported to have various bioactivities, including antioxidant and hepatitis inhibitory effects. However, its inflammatory functions and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In this study, RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were treated with NHDC and its metabolite dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), after which cytokine production and mitochondrial respiration were assessed. DHCA significantly down-regulated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, NHDC had a marginal effect, suggesting that the biological metabolism of NHDC to DHCA is required for its anti-inflammatory function. However, both NHDC and DHCA rescued LPS-induced suppression of oxidative phosphorylation, which is a hallmark of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed lower fat deposition in the presence of DHCA, while sugar-containing NHDC showed a slight increase in fat deposition. In high-fat diet-induced obese mice, treatment with NHDC successfully down-regulated body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, M2 polarized bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from NHDC-fed mice secreted an increased amount of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Overall, these results indicate that NHDC and its physiological metabolite DHCA have the potential to suppress the inflammatory response and obese status. Full article
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Article
Preliminary Investigation of Different Drying Systems to Preserve Hydroxytyrosol and Its Derivatives in Olive Oil Filter Cake Pressurized Liquid Extracts
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061407 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Phenolic compounds present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) could be retained in its byproducts during processing. Among them, hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives deserve special attention due to their health benefits recognized by The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In the present research, [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) could be retained in its byproducts during processing. Among them, hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives deserve special attention due to their health benefits recognized by The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In the present research, the presence of these compounds in the filter cake byproduct was studied by combining pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). The applied optimum extraction parameters were 1500 psi, 120 °C and aqueous ethanol (50:50, v/v). The influence of different drying methods (vacuum-, freeze- and spray-drying) in the recovery of phenolic compounds was also evaluated. A total of 16 compounds from EVOO were identified in the extracts, 3 of them being hydroxytyrosol-related compounds, 6 substances of oleoside and elenolic acid derivatives, together with 6 secoiridoids and 1 lignan. The results highlighted the great number of phenolic compounds recovered from filter cake with these techniques, being even higher than the reported content in EVOO and other byproducts. The combination of PLE and freeze-drying resulted in being the best procedure for the recovery of phenolic compounds from filter cake byproduct. Full article
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