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Cosmetics, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 31 articles

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Open AccessArticle
To Play or Not to Play: Can an Instrument Really Impact Lip and Tongue Performance?
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020050 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
(1) Background: Increasing tongue and lip strength may help improve various speech and swallowing disorders, but it is unclear if instrumentalists who use these muscle groups for long periods of time have greater strength and endurance compared to controls. It is also unclear [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Increasing tongue and lip strength may help improve various speech and swallowing disorders, but it is unclear if instrumentalists who use these muscle groups for long periods of time have greater strength and endurance compared to controls. It is also unclear if instrumentalists can more accurately estimate various exercise intensities. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in lip and tongue strength and endurance between instrumentalists and non-instrumentalists (controls). A secondary purpose was to assess differences in ability to estimate various exercise intensities between the two groups. (2) Methods: Instrumentalists and controls’ maximum strength and endurance were measured using the IOPI Pro medical device. In addition, 40%, 60% and 80% of maximum strength were estimated in a randomized order. (3) Results: No significant differences were found between instrumentalists and controls in strength or endurance or the ability to estimate various intensities. Overall, participants were better at estimating tongue strength at moderate intensities and lip strength at higher intensities. (4) Conclusion: Tongue and lip strength and endurance and the ability to estimate exercise intensities are not impacted by years of instrumentalist training compared to healthy controls. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci Associated with Sensitive Skin
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020049 - 19 Jun 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Individuals suffering from sensitive skin often have other skin conditions and/or diseases, such as fair skin, freckles, rosacea, or atopic dermatitis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for some of these conditions, but not for sensitive skin. In this study, a total [...] Read more.
Individuals suffering from sensitive skin often have other skin conditions and/or diseases, such as fair skin, freckles, rosacea, or atopic dermatitis. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed for some of these conditions, but not for sensitive skin. In this study, a total of 23,426 unrelated participants of European ancestry from the 23andMe database were evaluated for self-declared sensitive skin, other skin conditions, and diseases using an online questionnaire format. Responders were separated into two groups: those who declared they had sensitive skin (n = 8971) and those who declared their skin was not sensitive (controls, n = 14,455). A GWAS of sensitive skin individuals identified three genome-wide significance loci (p-value < 5 × 10−8) and seven suggestive loci (p-value < 1 × 10−6). Of the three most significant loci, all have been associated with pigmentation and two have been associated with acne. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Study on Humans of Natural Compound Synergy as a Multifunctional Approach to Cellulite-Derived Skin Imperfections
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020048 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Aim: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of a nutraceutical ingredient, SelectSIEVE® Rainbow, based on botanical extracts, in ameliorating cellulite-derived skin imperfections and microcirculation. The nutritional supplement contained a mixture of Oryza sativa (L.), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Ananas [...] Read more.
Aim: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of a nutraceutical ingredient, SelectSIEVE® Rainbow, based on botanical extracts, in ameliorating cellulite-derived skin imperfections and microcirculation. The nutritional supplement contained a mixture of Oryza sativa (L.), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr, and Actinidia chinensis Planch; all ingredients were botanicals that can be used in food supplements. Results: In vitro studies showed the high capacity of the supplement to have an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic effect, accompanied by an interesting proteolytic activity. The randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out on 60 women during an 8-week treatment period, confirmed the in vitro study results. SelectSIEVE® Rainbow showed a whole-body shaping activity, with a reduction of the waist, hip, and tight circumference of 0.8, 0.65 and 0.72 cm, respectively. It also showed a reduction of subcutaneous fat mass of 1.24 mm and body weight, with an average of 0.7 kg and positive peaks of −2.9 kg. Skin health and appearance were also improved: +5.4% skin elasticity, +5.5% skin tonicity and +5.7% skin draining. Finally, the dermatological evaluation of the cellulite score and microcirculation showed an improvement in 57% and 60% of the subjects enrolled in the studies. Conclusions: This first study provides interesting inputs on the effectiveness of the nutraceutical complex standardized in polyphenols, anthocyanins and proteolytic enzymes to counteract cellulite blemishes and improve local microcirculation. The positive response encourages deeper studies and further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effect of Manassantin B Isolated from Saururus chinensis on Skin Heat Aging
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020047 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Heat shock treatment-induced skin aging causes a thickened epidermis, increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression, collagen degradation, and deep wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the effect of manassantin B in preventing heat shock treatment-induced aging. We first separated manassantin B (MB) from the [...] Read more.
Heat shock treatment-induced skin aging causes a thickened epidermis, increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression, collagen degradation, and deep wrinkles. In this study, we investigated the effect of manassantin B in preventing heat shock treatment-induced aging. We first separated manassantin B (MB) from the roots of Saururus chinensis, and the structure was identified using 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. RT-PCR and western blotting were applied to investigate the anti-aging effect of manassantin B. Manassantin B decreased MMP-1 expression through transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channel inhibition and significantly increased procollagen expression. In addition, manassantin B suppressed MAPK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that manassantin B, the active ingredient in S. chinensis, can be effectively used to inhibit heat shock treatment-induced skin aging. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Microbial Biosurfactants as Key Multifunctional Ingredients for Sustainable Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020046 - 11 Jun 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
A polar head and an apolar tail chemically characterize surfactants, they show different properties and are categorized by different factors such as head charge and molecular weight. They work by reducing the surface tension between oil and water phases to facilitate the formation [...] Read more.
A polar head and an apolar tail chemically characterize surfactants, they show different properties and are categorized by different factors such as head charge and molecular weight. They work by reducing the surface tension between oil and water phases to facilitate the formation of one homogeneous mixture. In this respect, they represent unavoidable ingredients, their main application is in the production of detergents, one of if not the most important categories of cosmetics. Their role is very important, it should be remembered that it was precisely soaps and hygiene that defeated the main infectious diseases at the beginning of the last century. Due to their positive environmental impact, the potential uses of microbial sourced surfactants are actively investigated. These compounds are produced with different mechanisms by microorganisms in the aims to defend themselves from external threats, to improve the mobility in the environment, etc. In the cosmetic field, biosurfactants, restricted in the present work to those described above, can carry high advantages, in comparison to traditional surfactants, especially in the field of sustainable and safer approaches. Besiede this, costs still remain an obsatcle to their diffusion; in this regard, exploration of possible multifunctional actions could help to contain application costs. To highlight their features and possible multifunctional role, on the light of specific biological profiles yet underestimated, we have approached the present review work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessArticle
Insight of Malaysian Users of Cosmetic Regarding Cosmetovigilance
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020045 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Despite high popularity and demand for cosmetic products among users of cosmetics, there is paucity of work on cosmetovigilance. The objective of this study was to explore the cosmetovigilance-related insight encompassing the knowledge, practices, attitude, and perception of Malaysian users of cosmetics. A [...] Read more.
Despite high popularity and demand for cosmetic products among users of cosmetics, there is paucity of work on cosmetovigilance. The objective of this study was to explore the cosmetovigilance-related insight encompassing the knowledge, practices, attitude, and perception of Malaysian users of cosmetics. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire comprising of 47 items reflecting on demographic profile, knowledge, practices, attitude, and perception toward cosmetics. The questionnaire was administered using the SurveyMonkey website, subject to a convenience sample of 552 users of cosmetics in Malaysia. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Insufficient knowledge of cosmetic safety was found, especially in terms of the ingredients used and the adverse effects related to common cosmetic products. The total knowledge score showed a significant difference between gender (p < 0.001) and monthly expenditure (p = 0.001). The total attitude score showed a significant difference with respect to gender (p = 0.008), age (p < 0.001), marital status (p < 0.001), education (p = 0.014), occupation (p < 0.001), income range (p = 0.009) and monthly expenditure (p = 0.013). The levels of cosmetovigilance-related knowledge, practices, attitude and perception of users of cosmetics in Malaysia are still unsatisfactory. The current research is expected to offer baseline data which can further help in strengthening the knowledge and attitudes of cosmetic consumers, while reinforcing best practices towards cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Salicornia europaea on UVB-Induced Misoriented Cell Divisions in Skin Epithelium
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020044 - 07 Jun 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Correct orientation of cell division is extremely important in the maintenance, regeneration, and repair of continuously proliferating tissues, such as the epidermis. Regulation of the axis of division of epidermal cells prevents the apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, and eventually the cancer. Thus, the orientation [...] Read more.
Correct orientation of cell division is extremely important in the maintenance, regeneration, and repair of continuously proliferating tissues, such as the epidermis. Regulation of the axis of division of epidermal cells prevents the apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, and eventually the cancer. Thus, the orientation of cell division is critical for maintaining the tissue architecture. In this study, we investigated the effects of S. europaea extract on the texture of human skin and the behavior of these cells during skin morphogenesis. In sun-exposed skin, S. europaea improved the texture. A multilayered, highly differentiated in vitro skin model indicated that, S. europaea extract suppressed the UVB-induced changes in the morphology of basal keratinocytes. Orientation of cell division was determined by measuring the axis of mitosis in the vertical sections of our experimental model. Analyses of the digital images revealed that S. europaea preserved the axis of division of basal keratinocytes from UVB-induced perturbations. Our findings uncover a new mechanism by which S. europaea responds to the spindle misorientation induced by UVB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation Utilizing the HLB Concept for the Development of Moisturizing Cream and Lotion: In-Vitro Characterization and Stability Evaluation
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020043 - 05 Jun 2020
Viewed by 563
Abstract
The current study aims to utilize the concept of the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value of ingredients for the development of a stable emulsion-based moisturizing cream and lotion for cosmetic application. The combination of a hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifier such as glyceryl stearate (HLB [...] Read more.
The current study aims to utilize the concept of the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value of ingredients for the development of a stable emulsion-based moisturizing cream and lotion for cosmetic application. The combination of a hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifier such as glyceryl stearate (HLB value 3.8) and PEG-100 stearate (HLB value 18.8) were found to be effective to emulsify the chosen oil phase system at a specific concentration to achieve the required HLB for the development of the stable emulsion-based system. The developed formulation was characterized for pH, viscosity, spreadability, rheology, and droplet morphology. The influence of carbopol® ETD 2020 and the concentration of the oil phase on the rheology of the product was investigated and found to be significant to achieve the required thickening to convert the lotion into a cream. The formulation system developed through utilizing the concept of HLB was compared to a product developed through the conventional approach. It was observed that the utilization of the HLB method for the development of an emulsion-based product is a promising strategy compared to the conventional method. The physical stability and thermodynamic stability tests were carried out under different storage conditions. It was observed that the developed formulation was able to retain its integrity without showing any signs of instability during storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) with Potential as Cosmetic Hair Formulations Made from Otoba Wax and Ultrahigh Pressure Homogenization
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020042 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The development and physicochemical characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with potential for formulating hair cosmetic products were carried out. SLNs were made from Otoba wax, which is native to the tropical Andean region and has a high chemical composition of fatty acids [...] Read more.
The development and physicochemical characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with potential for formulating hair cosmetic products were carried out. SLNs were made from Otoba wax, which is native to the tropical Andean region and has a high chemical composition of fatty acids with intermediate chains. SLNs were formulated by preparing wax-in-water dispersions at two internal phase proportions (low = 5% w/w and high = 20% w/w), using the same ratio of surfactant system and preservatives. The coarse dispersions were subjected to ultrahigh pressure homogenization (UHPH), and thermal stability assays for 4 weeks were carried out, where changes in Creaming Index, droplet size, polydispersity, viscosity, zeta potential, conductivity, and pH were evaluated. The results showed that Otoba wax has a required HLB value around 9 and is mainly composed of lauric (~35%) and myristic (~45%), which have been reported to improve the condition of hair loss. Regarding the development on SLNs, it was found that the internal phase concentration did not considerably affect the physicochemical and microbiological properties. Likewise, it was found that UHPH enabled the production of SLNs with particle sizes <200 nm, low polydispersity (<0.3), high zeta potential values, and suitable physical and microbiological stability. Therefore, Otoba wax has potential for the development of SLNs applicable to cosmetic formulations, especially for hair products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cosmetic Use-Related Adverse Events: Findings from Lay Public in Malaysia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020041 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Objectives: Although the occurrence of adverse cosmetic reactions is often underestimated by the consumers, the documentation of the incident might be helpful for the authority in regulating the cosmetic products. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and type of [...] Read more.
Objectives: Although the occurrence of adverse cosmetic reactions is often underestimated by the consumers, the documentation of the incident might be helpful for the authority in regulating the cosmetic products. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and type of adverse cosmetic event (ACE), as well as the measures adopted by those experiencing the ACE. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a structured questionnaire comprised of 11 questions. The questionnaire was divided into two sections: demographic profile and adverse cosmetic reaction. A total of 552 cosmetic users in Malaysia participated in this study. Data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and descriptive statistics was applied. Findings: A total of 29% respondents have experienced ACEs. Eczema was found to be the most frequent type of ACE. Facial area (n = 178) was reported to be the most frequent body site affected by ACEs. A mere 41% attempted to consult health professionals. Conclusions: Few respondents consulted health professionals for recommendations, indicating that they misjudge occurrences related to adverse outcomes. The high diversity and non-specificity of cosmetic adverse reactions reported in the current research highlighted the need for a vigorous cosmetovigilance system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmetovigilance: Public Health Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Broussonetia papyrifera Promotes Hair Growth Through the Regulation of β-Catenin and STAT6 Target Proteins: A Phototrichogram Analysis of Clinical Samples
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020040 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Broussonetia papyrifera (B.papyrifera), belonging to the Moraceae family, is known to elicit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, anticancer, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial effects. The present study has been designed to examine the effects of B. papyrifera extract on hair growth through in vitro and [...] Read more.
Broussonetia papyrifera (B.papyrifera), belonging to the Moraceae family, is known to elicit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, anticancer, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial effects. The present study has been designed to examine the effects of B. papyrifera extract on hair growth through in vitro and clinical samples. Real-time cell growth assay, T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF), activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-6(STAT6) and STAT3 reporter gene function, and Western blotting was performed to examine whether B. papyrifera regulates the expression of target proteins implicated in the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla (hHFDP) cells. In this human trial, using a phototrichogram, the effect of B. papyrifera on hair growth was examined by reconstitution analysis after shaving the hair of the clinical subject’s dorsal skin. B. papyrifera promoted growth equally in hHFDP cells, which is comparable to that of minoxidil and tofacitinib. Treatment with B. papyrifera extract enhanced the TCF/LEF-luciferase activity and increased the level of β-catenin protein. Moreover, B. papyrifera extract significantly suppressed interleukin-4 (IL4)-induced STAT6 phosphorylation. In clinical trial, using a phototrichogram, we assessed the hair density and total hair counts at 0, 6, and 12 weeks after the use of hair tonic containing B. papyrifera extract. After using the hair tonic for 12 weeks, the total hair count was significantly increased as compared with the subjects at the start date (n = 11). B. papyrifera promotes dermal papilla cells proliferation in vitro and clinically among human volunteers through the regulation of WNT-β-catenin and STAT6 pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Activities of Jeju Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense) and Safety of Human Keratinocytes and Primary Skin Irritation Test
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020039 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 756
Abstract
This study analyzed the antioxidant activity, cell viability, and human skin primary irritation test using the hot-water extracts of the Syzygium samarangense. As a result of the recent warmer climate, tropical plants have flourished on Jeju Island, and S. samarangense is one [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the antioxidant activity, cell viability, and human skin primary irritation test using the hot-water extracts of the Syzygium samarangense. As a result of the recent warmer climate, tropical plants have flourished on Jeju Island, and S. samarangense is one of these plants known to have biological activities. In this study, the hot-water extract of S. samarangense leaf and branch was analyzed. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assays, and the DMPD (dimethyl-4-phenylenediamine) radical scavenging activity, nitrite scavenging activity, ferrous-ion chelating activity, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, reducing power assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total phenol content, and total flavonoid content were also measured. In addition, cell viability was measured by MTT assay in human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT), and the safety of the extract for use on the skin was evaluated in the human skin primary irritation test. The antioxidant activities, except DMPD radical scavenging activity and ferrous-ion chelating activity, were stronger in the branch extract than in leaf extract, and the total phenol and flavonoid contents were also higher in the branch extract. Slight irritation was observed in the human skin primary irritation test. However, it was possible to observe sufficient antioxidant capacity at a concentration lower than the concentration used in the irritation test; therefore, if the concentration of the extract is appropriately adjusted, this suggests that it is a possible natural material suitable for use in cosmetics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tracking Bacterial Spoilage in Cosmetics by a New Bioanalytical Approach: API-SPME-GC-MS to Monitor MVOCs
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020038 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 781
Abstract
The main goal of this work was the use of the powerful solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) technique to unequivocally identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) derived from the enzymatic activity produced during metabolic processes using analytical profile index (API) biochemical tests. Three [...] Read more.
The main goal of this work was the use of the powerful solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) technique to unequivocally identify microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) derived from the enzymatic activity produced during metabolic processes using analytical profile index (API) biochemical tests. Three bacteria were selected for this study: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were inoculated and incubated to both API components and real cosmetics, as well as to a mixture of them. Specific MVOCs were successfully identified as biomarkers for each one of the studied microorganisms: Indole and 2-nitrophenol as Escherichia coli markers, 2-undecanone and phenylethyl alcohol as Proteus mirabilis-specific markers, and 1-undecene and 2′-aminoacetophenone as Pseudomonas aeruginosa ones. In addition, a high number of MVOCs were identified as general markers of bacterial presence. The results revealed that the MVOCs’ formation is highly subtract dependent. Therefore, the ultimate and most challenging objective is to establish a relationship between the identified MVOCs and the original compound present in the substrate. This work establishes the design and development of this original approach, and its practical application to the control of microbial contamination in real cosmetic samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessLetter
Anti-Wrinkle Efficacy of Neuropeptide Substance P-Based Hydrogel in Human Volunteers
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020037 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 716
Abstract
This letter is intended to clarify the clinical effectiveness of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in reducing age-related skin wrinkling. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of the topical application of SP on wrinkle reduction. For the clinical study, we [...] Read more.
This letter is intended to clarify the clinical effectiveness of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in reducing age-related skin wrinkling. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of the topical application of SP on wrinkle reduction. For the clinical study, we tested the efficacy of a stable SP formulation known as SP-based hydrogel against skin aging in study participants. We found that this SP-based hydrogel reduced skin aging based on changes observed in several cutaneous parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inonotus obliquus Extracts Decreased Expression of MMP1 mRNA via JNK-AP-1 Axis
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020036 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Inonotus obliquus, which is parasitic on birch and other trees, is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae. In this study, we investigated whether Inonotus obliquus extracts used in traditional medicine were decreased in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in the normal human [...] Read more.
Inonotus obliquus, which is parasitic on birch and other trees, is a fungus in the family Hymenochaetaceae. In this study, we investigated whether Inonotus obliquus extracts used in traditional medicine were decreased in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) in the normal human dermal fibroblasts. As shown in our results, extracts of Inonotus obliquus decreased MMP1 expression in oxidative stress-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. Additionally, Inonotus obliquus extracts decreased AP-1 transcriptional activity and phospho-JNK in oxidative stress-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts. Oxidative stress mediated the elevation of MMP1 mRNA expression and was well regulated by the JNK-AP-1 axis. Therefore, the results suggest that Inonotus obliquus extracts decreased MMP1 mRNA expression by regulating JNK-AP-1 axis. Additionally, Inonotus obliquus extracts have the potential to reduce collagen destruction and the formation of wrinkles and to be used as a cosmetic ingredient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Rabbit Ear Membranes as an Interesting Alternative for Permeability Tests in the Preformulation Stages of Cosmetic Products
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020035 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 739
Abstract
In the pre-formulation stages of cosmetic products, in vitro permeability tests correspond to an important alternative for making better decisions regarding the stability, performance and biocompatibility of these products. Moreover, these tests allow us to establish whether a cosmetic ingredient can penetrate the [...] Read more.
In the pre-formulation stages of cosmetic products, in vitro permeability tests correspond to an important alternative for making better decisions regarding the stability, performance and biocompatibility of these products. Moreover, these tests allow us to establish whether a cosmetic ingredient can penetrate the different layers of the skin, which is essential in these products. This study was focused on the extraction, characterization and preservation of rabbit ear membranes and their subsequent performance comparison against two synthetic membranes (cellulose and Strat-MTM). For this, the rabbit ear stratum corneum was isolated and characterized histologically, using the Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining protocol along with light microscopy and image analysis. Then, the Frank diffusion cell (FC) model was employed to evaluate and compare the permeability of the model compound Naproxen sodium (NPX) between the three membrane systems. The results show that NPX permeability is strongly affected by the type of membrane, and the implementation of rabbit ear membranes shows high reproducibility, demonstrating that this model could be implemented during pre-formulation studies of cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Fermented Oils on Alpha-Biodiversity and Relative Abundance of Cheek Resident Skin Microbiota
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020034 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 776
Abstract
The skin microbiome is in a very close mutualistic relationship with skin cells, influencing their physiology and immunology and participating in many dermatological conditions. Today, there is much interest in cosmetic ingredients that may promote a healthy microbiome, especially postbiotics, mainly derived from [...] Read more.
The skin microbiome is in a very close mutualistic relationship with skin cells, influencing their physiology and immunology and participating in many dermatological conditions. Today, there is much interest in cosmetic ingredients that may promote a healthy microbiome, especially postbiotics, mainly derived from fermented products. In the present work, we studied the effects on skin microbiota of new patented natural oils obtained by unique fermentation technology in vivo. Three fermented oils were evaluated: F-Shiunko (FS), F-Artemisia® (FA) and F-Glycyrrhiza® (FG). The active components were included as single active component or in combination (FSAG) in an emulsion system. A total of 20 healthy women were recruited, and skin microbiota from cheek were analyzed by mean of swab sampling at T0 and T1 (after 4 weeks of a one-day treatment). 16S sequencing revealed that the treatment with fermented oils improved microbiome composition and alpha-diversity. It was shown that higher biodiversity reflects in a healthier microbial ecosystem since microbial diversity decreases in the presence of a disease or due to aging. The treatment also resulted in a more “beneficial” and “younger” microbial community since a significant decrease in Proteobacteria and the increase in Staphylococcus were reported after the treatment with fermented oils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Biotechnology Applied to Cosmetics and Aesthetic Medicines
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020033 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Biotechnology uses microorganisms and/or enzymes to obtain specific products through fermentative processes and/or genetic engineering techniques. Examples of these products are active ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, kojic acid, resveratrol, and some enzymes, which are used in skin anti-aging products. In addition, certain [...] Read more.
Biotechnology uses microorganisms and/or enzymes to obtain specific products through fermentative processes and/or genetic engineering techniques. Examples of these products are active ingredients, such as hyaluronic acid, kojic acid, resveratrol, and some enzymes, which are used in skin anti-aging products. In addition, certain growth factors, algae, stem cells, and peptides have been included in cosmetics and aesthetic medicines. Thus, biotechnology, cosmetics and aesthetic medicines are now closely linked, through the production of high-quality active ingredients, which are more effective and safer. This work describes the most used active ingredients that are produced from biotechnological processes. Although there are a vast number of active ingredients, the number of biotechnological active ingredients reported in the literature is not significantly high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessArticle
Mosaic-CLSM Assessment of Bacterial Spatial Distribution in Cosmetic Matrices According to Matrix Viscosity and Bacterial Hydrophobicity
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020032 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The reliability of the challenge test depends, among other parameters, on the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the matrix. The present study aims to quickly identify factors that are susceptible to impair a uniform distribution of inoculated bacteria in cosmetic matrices in this [...] Read more.
The reliability of the challenge test depends, among other parameters, on the spatial distribution of microorganisms in the matrix. The present study aims to quickly identify factors that are susceptible to impair a uniform distribution of inoculated bacteria in cosmetic matrices in this context. We used mosaic confocal laser scanning microscopy (M-CLSM) to obtain rapid assessment of the impact of the composition and viscosity of cosmetic matrices on S. aureus spatial distribution. Several models of cosmetic matrices were formulated with different concentrations of two thickeners and were inoculated with three S. aureus strains having different levels of hydrophobicity. The spatial distribution of S. aureus in each matrix was evaluated according to the frequency distribution of the fluorescence values of at least 1350 CLSM images. We showed that, whatever the thickener used, an increasingly concentration of thickener results in increasingly bacterial clustered distribution. Moreover, higher bacterial hydrophobicity also resulted in a more clustered spatial distribution. In conclusion, CLSM-based method allows a rapid characterization of bacterial spatial distribution in complex emulsified systems. Both matrix viscosity and bacterial surface hydrophobicity affect the bacterial spatial distribution which can have an impact on the reliability of bacterial enumeration during challenge test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Photodynamic Therapy by Diaryl-Porphyrins to Control the Growth of Candida albicans
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020031 - 09 May 2020
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes skin infections such as oral thrush, nail fungus, athlete’s foot, and diaper rash. Under particular conditions, C. albicans alters the natural balance of the host microbiota, and as a result, the skin or its [...] Read more.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that often causes skin infections such as oral thrush, nail fungus, athlete’s foot, and diaper rash. Under particular conditions, C. albicans alters the natural balance of the host microbiota, and as a result, the skin or its accessory structures lose their function and appearance. Conventional antimycotic drugs are highly toxic to host tissues, and long-lasting drug administration induces the arising of resistant strains that make the antimycotic therapy ineffective. Among new antimicrobial approaches to combine with traditional drugs, light-based techniques are very promising. In this study, a panel of dyes was considered for photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications to control the growth of the model strain C. albicans ATCC 14053. The chosen photosensitizers (PSs) belong to the family of synthetic porphyrins, and in particular, they are diaryl-porphyrins. Among these, two monocationic PSs were shown to be particularly efficient in killing C. albicans upon irradiation with light at 410 nm, in a light-dose-dependent manner. The elicited photo-oxidative stress induced the loss of the internal cellular architecture and death. The photodynamic treatment was also successful in inhibiting the biofilm formation of clinical C. albicans strains. In conclusion, this study supports the great potential of diaryl-porphyrins in antimicrobial PDT to control the growth of yeasts on body tissues easily reachable by light sources, such as skin and oral cavity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Age-Deterring and Skin Care Function of a Polyphenol Rich Sugarcane Concentrate
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020030 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stress, such as UV radiation, generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin cells, leading to histochemical changes including skin disorders and aging, hyper pigmentation, and increased formation of wrinkles. Besides the defensive system in skin composed of [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stress, such as UV radiation, generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in skin cells, leading to histochemical changes including skin disorders and aging, hyper pigmentation, and increased formation of wrinkles. Besides the defensive system in skin composed of vitamins and intrinsic antioxidant enzymes, topical and skin conditioning products have been used commonly to eradicate or eliminate these skin ailments. Among various ingredients providing nourishing and moisturizing effect in skin, antioxidants have been reported to be a key ingredient to counteract skin aging processes and skin disorders. Derived from a patented extraction process, a polyphenol rich sugarcane concentrate (Officinol™) becomes the focus of this study due to its rich content of polyphenols known to be strong antioxidants. In this work, we carried out a series of cell-based in vitro studies to examine the use of Officinol™ in anti-aging and skin care functions. Our studies show that Officinol™ activated telomerase, a major biomarker that have been reported to be associated with slowed cellular aging process. When skin cells were under environmental stress such as UV radiation, Officinol™ inhibited MMP-1, an interstitial collagenase in skin cells, and deterred the breakdown of collagen that provides supple texture in skin. Officinol™ also inhibited cellular expression of melanin pigmentation and tyrosinase activity, two major biomarkers causing skin pigmentation and aging spots, and inhibited elastase, an enzyme that facilities the reduction of skin elasticity. At the end of the investigation, we carried out a 10-person, pilot study to examine the effect of Officinol™ on skin lightening and fine line and wrinkle reduction in human skin. The combination of the in vitro and the human pre-study indicates that Officinol™ could provide significant preventative and protective functions including antioxidant, anti-aging, wrinkle reduction, and skin brightening for human skin suffering from aging and other stress. These findings are to be confirmed with a larger scale clinical study at a later stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Controlled Release of Retinol in Cationic Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles for Topical Application
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020029 - 29 Apr 2020
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Retinol is a compound used in many skin care formulations to act against skin conditions like acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as an active ingredient, its efficacy is limited by an extreme sensitivity to light and temperature. Retinol can [...] Read more.
Retinol is a compound used in many skin care formulations to act against skin conditions like acne, wrinkles, psoriasis, and ichthyosis. While retinol is used as an active ingredient, its efficacy is limited by an extreme sensitivity to light and temperature. Retinol can also generate toxicity at high concentrations. Microencapsulation is an alternative method to help overcome these issues. In this study, we develop a new encapsulation of retinol by solvent evaporation using a cationic polymer. We show that our particles have a narrow size distribution (350 nm), can encapsulate retinol with high efficiency, and protect it from oxidation for at least eight weeks. Finally, to demonstrate that the release of retinol from the particles can be controlled, we performed a kinetic study and showed that the particle releases the drug during 18 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Hemocompatible Chitin-Chitosan Composite Fibers
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020028 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Composite chitosan fibers filled with chitin nanofibrils (CNF) were obtained by the wet spinning method. The paper discusses the mechanical properties of such type fibers and their hemocompatibility, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It was [...] Read more.
Composite chitosan fibers filled with chitin nanofibrils (CNF) were obtained by the wet spinning method. The paper discusses the mechanical properties of such type fibers and their hemocompatibility, as well as the possibility of optimizing these properties by adding chitin nanofibrils. It was shown that low CNF concentration (about 0.5%) leads to an increase in fiber tensile strength due to the additional orientation of chitosan macromolecules. At the same time, with an increase in the content of CNF, the stability of the mechanical properties of composite fibers in a humid medium increases. All chitosan fibers, except 0.5% CNF, showed good hemocompatibility, even on prolonged contact with human blood. The addition of chitin nanofibers leads to decrease in hemoglobin molecules sorption due to the decline in optical density at wavelengths of 414 nm and 540 nm. Nevertheless, the hemolysis of fibers was comparable or even lesser that carbon hemosorbent, which is actively used in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Enigmatic Microalgae from Aeroterrestrial and Extreme Habitats in Cosmetics: The Potential of the Untapped Natural Sources
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020027 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
With the increasing demand for natural and safe products in cosmetics, algae with their diverse and valuable bioactive compounds are gaining vital importance. Until now, cosmetics have focused mainly on the use of freshwater and marine algae. However, algae are not restricted to [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for natural and safe products in cosmetics, algae with their diverse and valuable bioactive compounds are gaining vital importance. Until now, cosmetics have focused mainly on the use of freshwater and marine algae. However, algae are not restricted to aquatic habitats. They are found in essentially every type of aeroterrestrial and extreme environment on the Earth. There, they have to cope with harsh ecological conditions and have developed special strategies to thrive in these inimical habitats. Although not thoroughly studied, their adaptations include protective biochemical compounds which can find their application or are already used in the field of cosmetics. With proper cultivation techniques, algae from these habitats can provide novel sources of high-value functional products for the cosmetics industry, which have the advantage of being obtained in eco-friendly and cost-effective processes. However, it has to be considered that a few aeroterrestrial and extremophilic algae can be toxin producers, and in order to ensure conformity to the safe quality standards, all new ingredients must be properly tested. The aim of the present review is to unveil the hidden and underestimated potential of the enigmatic algae of aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats for the rapidly developing modern cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
Open AccessReview
Physicochemical Aspects of the Performance of Hair-Conditioning Formulations
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020026 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Most of the currently used products for repairing and conditioning hair rely on the deposition of complex formulations, based on mixtures involving macromolecules and surfactants, onto the surface of hair fibers. This leads to the partial covering of the damaged areas appearing in [...] Read more.
Most of the currently used products for repairing and conditioning hair rely on the deposition of complex formulations, based on mixtures involving macromolecules and surfactants, onto the surface of hair fibers. This leads to the partial covering of the damaged areas appearing in the outermost region of capillary fibers, which enables the decrease of the friction between fibers, improving their manageability and hydration. The optimization of shampoo and conditioner formulations necessitates a careful examination of the different physicochemical parameters related to the conditioning mechanism, e.g., the thickness of the deposits, its water content, topography or frictional properties. This review discusses different physicochemical aspects which impact the understanding of the most fundamental bases of the conditioning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Treatment of Head Louse Infestation with a Novel Mixture Made of Semi-Crystalline Polymers and Plant Extracts: Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Superiority Trial
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020025 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The rate of head louse infestations is increasing. Most of the neurotoxic treatments are not reliably ovicidal and are faced with genetic resistance. The treatments based on a mechanical mode of action show no sufficient efficacy, transferring the chances of a cure on [...] Read more.
The rate of head louse infestations is increasing. Most of the neurotoxic treatments are not reliably ovicidal and are faced with genetic resistance. The treatments based on a mechanical mode of action show no sufficient efficacy, transferring the chances of a cure on a tedious combing or leaving the hair fatty. This double-blinded, randomized, controlled, superiority trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of a novel mixture made of semi-crystalline polymers and plant extracts. Forty-five participants received a single application of either 1% Permethrin lotion or the novel lotion, applied for 15 minutes. Untreated and treated nits were collected and placed in an incubator during 10 days. The worst case intent-to-treat analysis found the novel lotion significantly more effective than 1% Permethrin, with 21/22 (95.5%) participants cured and 9/23 (39.1%), respectively (p < 0.0001). Rate of viable nymphs was 0.5 (2.1) for the new lotion and 40.8 (20.4) for the 1% Permethrin. The new lotion cures head louse infestations, offering an effective alternative treatment, with a high efficacy for inhibiting the hatching of eggs. Its physical actions on lice and their eggs should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Insights on Unique Features and Role of Nanostructured Materials in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020024 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The cosmetics industry has boomed in recent years as one of the markets that holds enormous growth potential. Among several industrial sectors, the cosmetics industry has considered nanotechnology-based principles and implemented in product management practices. Out of 1000 registered products available on the [...] Read more.
The cosmetics industry has boomed in recent years as one of the markets that holds enormous growth potential. Among several industrial sectors, the cosmetics industry has considered nanotechnology-based principles and implemented in product management practices. Out of 1000 registered products available on the global market, up to 13% were referred to as products for cosmetic use. A large number of nanoscale materials with unique physicochemical properties are currently being used in the cosmetics formulations or recommended for future use as nano-systems or novel nanocarriers to encapsulate active ingredients for their efficient delivery through the skin barriers. These nano-systems have demonstrated potential in targeted-oriented drug delivery and offered remarkable features such as better stability, site-specificity, excellent encapsulation efficiency, prolonged action, enhanced skin penetration, and high drug-loading capability. Nevertheless, nanotoxicology research has raised concerns over the excessive use of nanomaterials/nanoparticles in cosmetics, as nanoparticles might enter the skin resulting in health problems. This review provides insights on the characteristic physicochemical features and the potential use of various nanostructured materials, including liposomes, noisome, nanoemulsions, nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials (graphene, fullerenes), carbon nanotubes, dendrimers, and nanospheres in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, the regulatory aspects of nanomaterials in cosmetics, along with concluding remarks and outlook in this field, were also vetted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Chewing Training on Orofacial and Cognitive Function in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020023 - 06 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1358
Abstract
Background: There is some evidence showing significant correlations between acute chewing gum and orofacial function, and between acute chewing gum and cognitive function; however, as far as we are aware, little is known about the chronic effects of chewing gum training on cognitive [...] Read more.
Background: There is some evidence showing significant correlations between acute chewing gum and orofacial function, and between acute chewing gum and cognitive function; however, as far as we are aware, little is known about the chronic effects of chewing gum training on cognitive and orofacial functions in healthy adults. Objectives: To evaluate the chronic effects of chewing gum training on orofacial and cognitive functions in healthy adults. Method: Searches of the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, BVS, CENTRAL, Scopus, and Google Scholar were conducted from inception to 14 January 2020. The inclusion criteria used were: clinical trial or randomized controlled trial lasting a minimum of four weeks, chewing gum intervention in at least one arm of the study, presence of a non-exercise control group, study population consisting of healthy adults, study outcomes consisting of orofacial function and/or cognitive function. Results: Starting from 5973 sources, a total of six articles met the inclusion criteria, and they were subjected to a systematic review. The main findings were that chewing gum training improved some variables related to orofacial function. No clear effect of chewing gum training on cognitive function was found. Conclusions: Chronic chewing gum training has an unclear positive effect on specific variables related to orofacial and cognitive function in healthy adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simil-Microfluidic Nanotechnology in Manufacturing of Liposomes as Hydrophobic Antioxidants Skin Release Systems
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020022 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 1350
Abstract
Novel nanotechnologies represent the most attractive and innovative tools to date exploited by cosmetic companies to improve the effectiveness of their formulations. In this context, nanoliposomes have had a great impact in topical preparations and dermocosmetics, allowing the transcutaneous penetration and absorption of [...] Read more.
Novel nanotechnologies represent the most attractive and innovative tools to date exploited by cosmetic companies to improve the effectiveness of their formulations. In this context, nanoliposomes have had a great impact in topical preparations and dermocosmetics, allowing the transcutaneous penetration and absorption of several active ingredients and improving the stability of sensitive molecules. Despite the recent boom of this class of delivery systems, their industrial production is still limited by the lack of easily scalable production techniques. In this work, nanoliposomes for the topical administration of vitamin D3, K2, E, and curcumin, molecules with high antioxidant and skin curative properties but unstable and poorly absorbable, were produced through a novel simil-microfluidic technique. The developed high-yield semi continuous method is proposed as an alternative to face the problems linked with low productive conventional methods in order to produce antioxidant formulations with improved features. The novel technique has allowed to obtain a massive production of stable antioxidant vesicles of an 84–145 nm size range, negatively charged, and characterized by high loads and encapsulation efficiencies. The obtained products as well as the developed high-performance technology make the achieved formulations very interesting for potential topical applications in the cosmetics/cosmeceutical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Topical Minoxidil-Loaded Nanotechnology Strategies for Alopecia
Cosmetics 2020, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics7020021 - 27 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a multifactorial and age-related condition characterized by substantial hair loss affecting both men and women. Conventional treatments include the use of topical minoxidil (MNX) formulations to stimulate hair growth and restore hair condition. However, those treatments are associated with [...] Read more.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a multifactorial and age-related condition characterized by substantial hair loss affecting both men and women. Conventional treatments include the use of topical minoxidil (MNX) formulations to stimulate hair growth and restore hair condition. However, those treatments are associated with limited performance and a lack of tolerability and compliance due to the emergence of adverse effects. Considering that the development of nanotechnology-based formulations as hair loss therapeutic strategies has been clearly growing, topical MNX delivery by means of these innovative formulations is known to enhance MNX skin permeation and depot formation into hair follicles, allowing for MNX-controlled release, increased MNX skin bioavailability and enhanced therapeutic efficacy with minimal adverse effects. This review highlights the potential of nanotechnology-based MNX delivery formulations for improved hair loss therapeutics, including a thorough assessment of their in vitro and in vivo performances, as well as regulatory and nanosafety considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2020)
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