Next Issue
Volume 29, October
Previous Issue
Volume 29, August
 
 

Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 9 (September 2022) – 55 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is an aggressive blood cancer with heterogeneous genomic drivers and a complex clonal structure at the time of diagnosis. Historically, the overall mortality associated with AML has been high; however, the prognosis for individual patients varies significantly and is primarily dependent on the baseline genetic risk and on response to therapy. In conjunction with the increasing knowledge of the genomics of AML, the therapeutic landscape has evolved significantly in recent times. Targeted treatments are now a mainstay of therapy for many patients in the frontline and relapsed/refractory setting. Newer treatments such as FLT3-inhibitors, BCL2-inhibitors and antibody-drug conjugates are improving outcomes for specific subsets of patients. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Case Report
Dealing with the Vicissitudes and Abject Consequences of Head and Neck Cancer: A Vital Role for Psycho-Oncology
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6714-6723; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090527 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Patients with head and neck cancer face important life-altering effects in appearance and function, affecting distress and quality of life and requiring the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Psycho-oncology makes an important contribution to the field, as head and neck cancers carry a [...] Read more.
Patients with head and neck cancer face important life-altering effects in appearance and function, affecting distress and quality of life and requiring the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Psycho-oncology makes an important contribution to the field, as head and neck cancers carry a huge adaptational toll. To illustrate the value of this discipline, we report two cases of patients with advanced head and neck cancer for which the treatment-related body changes were of major significance. A commentary by the treating surgeons and psycho-oncologists precedes a general discussion about the clinical management of such patients. The article outlines strategies to address health literacy, doctor–patient communication, treatment decision-making, and emotional distress; placing the person at the center of oncological care. It calls for the broad application of principles of psychological first aid by healthcare professionals in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
Review
Immunogenic Cell Death Role in Urothelial Cancer Therapy
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6700-6713; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090526 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Purpose: Bladder cancer is the 13th most common cause of cancer death with the highest lifetime cost for treatment of all cancers. This scoping review clarifies the available evidence on the role of a novel therapeutic approach called immunogenic cell death (ICD) in [...] Read more.
Purpose: Bladder cancer is the 13th most common cause of cancer death with the highest lifetime cost for treatment of all cancers. This scoping review clarifies the available evidence on the role of a novel therapeutic approach called immunogenic cell death (ICD) in urothelial cancer of the bladder. Methods: In accordance with the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CENTRAL databases, and supplemented with manual searches through the conferences, Google scholar, and clinicaltrials.gov for published studies up to April 2022. We included literature that studied molecular mechanisms of ICD and the role of certain danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in generating ICD, safety and efficacy of different ICD inducers, and their contributions in combination with other urothelial cancer treatments. Results: Oncolytic viruses, radiotherapy, certain chemo/chemo radiation therapy combinations, photodynamic therapy, and novel agents were studied as ICD-inducing treatment modalities in the included studies. ICD was observed in vitro (murine or human urothelial carcinoma) in ten studies, eight studies were performed on mouse models (orthotopic or subcutaneous), and five clinical trials assessed patient response to ICD inducing agents. The most common studied DAMPs were Calreticulin, HMGB1, ATP, and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) 70 and 90, which were either expressed on the cancer cells or released. Conclusion: ICD inducers were able to generate lasting antitumor immune responses with memory formation in animal studies (vaccination effect). In clinical trials these agents generally had low side effects, except for one trial, and could be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatment strategies in urothelial cancer patients. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Down-Regulation of Circ_0059707 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Promotes Cell Growth and Inhibits Apoptosis by Regulating miR-1287-5p
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6688-6699; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090525 - 18 Sep 2022
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of hematological malignancy. Recently, an increasing number of reports have shown that many circular RNAs can act as effective targets for AML. However, the roles of circ_0059707 in AML remain largely unclear. In this [...] Read more.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of hematological malignancy. Recently, an increasing number of reports have shown that many circular RNAs can act as effective targets for AML. However, the roles of circ_0059707 in AML remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that the expression levels of circ_0059707 were significantly decreased in AML patients with respect to normal controls (p < 0.001). Low expression levels of circ_0059707 were also associated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, circ_0059707 overexpression inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis in leukemia cells, compared with control cells. Circ_0059707- and empty plasmid-transfected cells were injected subcutaneously into BALB/c nude mice. We found that the tumor volume was significantly lower in mice in the circ_0059707 group than in control mice (p < 0.01). Nuclear pyknosis, nuclear fragmentation, nuclear dissolution, and cell necrosis were observed in the circ_0059707 group by HE staining. CircInteractome analysis showed that 25 microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-1287-5p, ©-miR-1825, a©hsa-miR-326, may be potential targets for circ_0059707. The expression of these miRNAs was analyzed in both the GEO GSE51908 and the GSE142700 databases. miR-1287-5p expression was lower in AML patients compared with controls in both the GSE51908 and the GSE142700 datasets. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-1287-5p expression was down-regulated in AML patients and up-regulated in circ_0059707-overexpressing cells. Collectively, our research demonstrated that the down-regulation of circ_0059707 was highly evident in de novo AML patients. Our analysis also demonstrated that circ_0059707 inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis by up-regulating miR-1287-5p. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Haematological Neoplasms: Diagnosis and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Surgical Treatment of Distal Cholangiocarcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6674-6687; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090524 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA) is a rare malignancy arising from the epithelial cells of the distal biliary tract and has a poor prognosis. dCCA is often clinically silent and patients commonly present with locally advanced and/or distant disease. For patients identified with early stage, [...] Read more.
Distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA) is a rare malignancy arising from the epithelial cells of the distal biliary tract and has a poor prognosis. dCCA is often clinically silent and patients commonly present with locally advanced and/or distant disease. For patients identified with early stage, resectable disease, surgical resection with negative margins remains the only curative treatment strategy available. However, despite appropriate treatment and diligent surveillance, risk of recurrence remains high with nearly 50% of patients experiencing recurrence at 5 years subsequent to surgical resection; therefore, it is prudent to continue to optimize neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in order to reduce the risk of recurrence and improve overall survival. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, workup and surgical treatment of dCCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Strategies in Cholangiocarcinoma)
Systematic Review
Efficacy and Safety of the Addition of Internal Mammary Irradiation to Standard Adjuvant Radiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6657-6673; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090523 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
Background: Existing data on adding internal mammary nodal irradiation (IMNI) to the regional nodal fields are inconsistent. Methods: Randomized trials investigating the addition of IMNI to standard adjuvant radiation were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted for overall-survival [...] Read more.
Background: Existing data on adding internal mammary nodal irradiation (IMNI) to the regional nodal fields are inconsistent. Methods: Randomized trials investigating the addition of IMNI to standard adjuvant radiation were identified. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted for overall-survival (OS), breast cancer specific-survival (BCSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) as well as distant-metastasis free survival (DMFS). The odds ratios (ORs) for regional and loco-regional recurrence, non-breast cancer mortality, secondary non-breast cancer, contralateral breast cancer, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were also extracted. Results: Analysis included five trials comprising 10,994 patients, predominantly with higher risk, lymph node positive disease. Compared to the control group, IMNI was associated with significant improvement in OS (HR = 0.91, p = 0.004), BCSS (HR = 0.84, p < 0.001), DFS (HR = 0.89, p= 0.01), and DMFS (HR = 0.89, p = 0.02). IMNI was also associated with reduced odds for regional (OR = 0.58, p < 0.001) and loco-regional recurrence (OR = 0.85, p = 0.04). The odds for cardiotoxicity were not statistically significantly higher (OR = 1.23, p = 0.07). There were comparable odds for cardiovascular mortality (OR = 1.00, p = 1.00), non-breast cancer mortality (OR = 1.05, p = 0.74), secondary cancer (OR = 0.95, p = 0.51), and contra-lateral breast cancer (OR = 1.07, 95% 0.77–1.51, p = 0.68). Conclusions: Compared to the control group, the addition of IMNI in high-risk patients is associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival, albeit with a magnitude of questionable clinical meaningfulness. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Analysis of Key Factors Associated with Response to Salvage High-Dose Methotrexate Rechallenge in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma with First Relapse
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6642-6656; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090522 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that occurs in the central nervous system. Although sensitive to chemotherapy, 35–60% of PCNSL patients still relapse within 2 years after the initial treatment. High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) rechallenge is generally [...] Read more.
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that occurs in the central nervous system. Although sensitive to chemotherapy, 35–60% of PCNSL patients still relapse within 2 years after the initial treatment. High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) rechallenge is generally used in recurrent PCNSL, especially for patients who have achieved a response after initial methotrexate (MTX) treatment. However, the overall remission rate (ORR) of HD-MTX rechallenge is about 70–80%. Additionally, the side effects of HD-MTX treatment endanger the health of patients and affect their quality of life. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with first relapse PCNSL at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University between January 2000 and November 2020. By comparing the clinical characteristics and radiological manifestations of first relapsed PCNSL patients with remission and non-remission after receiving HD-MTX rechallenge, we screened out the key factors associated with HD-MTX rechallenge treatment response, to provide some help for the selection of salvage treatment strategies for patients with recurrent PCNSL. Additionally, patients with remission after HD-MTX rechallenge were followed up to identify the factors related to progression-free survival of the second time (PFS2) (time from the first relapse to second relapse/last follow-up). The Kruskal–Wallis and Pearson chi-square tests were performed to examine the univariate association. Further, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to study the simultaneous effect of different variables. Results: A total of 207 patients were enrolled in the study based on the inclusion criteria, including 114 patients in the remission group (RG) and 81 patients in the non-remission group (nRG), and 12 patients were judged as having a stable disease. In Kruskal–Wallis and Pearson chi-square tests, progression-free survival rates for first time (PFS1) and whether the initial treatment was combined with consolidated whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were related to the response to HD-MTX rechallenge treatment, which was further validated in regression analysis. Further, after univariate analysis and regression analysis, KPS was related to PFS2. Conclusions: For PCNSL patients in their first relapse, HD-MTX rechallenge may be an effective salvage treatment. PFS1 and whether initial treatment was combined with consolidation WBRT were associated with HD-MTX rechallenge treatment response. In addition, patients with higher KPS at the time of the first relapse had a longer PFS2 after HD-MTX rechallenge treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Real-World Clinical Outcomes of Ribociclib in Combination with a Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitor and a Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist in Premenopausal HR+/HER2− Advanced Breast Cancer Patients: An Italian Managed Access Program
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6635-6641; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090521 - 17 Sep 2022
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Ribociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor and ovarian function suppression is the preferred first-line option for pre-/perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We opened an italian managed access program (MAP) that permitted access to ribociclib to [...] Read more.
Ribociclib plus an aromatase inhibitor and ovarian function suppression is the preferred first-line option for pre-/perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We opened an italian managed access program (MAP) that permitted access to ribociclib to selected patients and allowed to collect informative results on the clinical impact of the therapy. The MAP (April 2018–May 2020) included 64 premenopausal patients, with characteristics similar to those of the MONALEESA-7 trial. Of 57 patients with a known response, 48 (84.2%) achieved a clinical benefit (i.e., complete response, N = 7 (12.3%); partial response, N = 17 (29.8%); stable disease, N = 24 (42.1%)), while 9 (15.8%) experienced tumor progression. Some patients (N = 15–23.4%) needed ribociclib dose reduction because of adverse events. Thereafter, the treatment was well tolerated, and no new safety signals emerged. Our study is the first reported Italian real-world evidence of ribociclib effectiveness in premenopausal HR+/HER2− advanced breast cancer patients. Response and clinical benefit rates were particularly encouraging compared with those of the ribociclib group of MONALEESA-7. Our work confirms that ribociclib in combination with endocrine therapy is highly effective in the treatment of premenopausal HR+/HER2− advanced breast cancer patients with an expected safety profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection New Insights into Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment)
Case Report
Acquired G2032R Resistance Mutation in ROS1 to Lorlatinib Therapy Detected with Liquid Biopsy
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6628-6634; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090520 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Lorlatinib, a third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ROS1), demonstrated efficacy in ROS1 positive (ROS1+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although approval is currently limited to the treatment of ALK+ patients. However, lorlatinib-induced resistance mechanisms, and its efficacy against the resistance [...] Read more.
Lorlatinib, a third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ROS1), demonstrated efficacy in ROS1 positive (ROS1+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although approval is currently limited to the treatment of ALK+ patients. However, lorlatinib-induced resistance mechanisms, and its efficacy against the resistance mutation G2032R in ROS1, respectively, have not yet been fully understood. Furthermore, concomitant tumor suppressor gene p53 (TP53) mutations occur in driver alteration positive NSCLC, but their prognostic contribution in the context of ROS1 inhibition remains unclear. Here we report a ROS1+ NSCLC patient who developed an on target G2032R resistance mutation during second-line lorlatinib treatment, indicating the lack of activity of lorlatinib against ROS1 G2032R. The resistance mutation was detected in plasma-derived ctDNA, signifying the clinical utility of liquid biopsies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Taxanes Plus Platinum and Fluorouracil Plus Platinum in the First-Line Treatment of Esophageal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6610-6627; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090519 - 16 Sep 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Fluoropyrimidine plus platinum (FP) and taxanes plus platinum (TP) are standard treatments for esophageal cancer (EC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to explore the difference in the therapeutic effect and toxicity of FP and TP regimens in EC patients. PubMed, Embase, and [...] Read more.
Fluoropyrimidine plus platinum (FP) and taxanes plus platinum (TP) are standard treatments for esophageal cancer (EC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to explore the difference in the therapeutic effect and toxicity of FP and TP regimens in EC patients. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were fully searched and analyzed to find relevant articles on EC patients treated with FP and TP regimens up to 22 March 2022. Thirty-one studies, with a total of 3432 participants, were included in this review. The primary outcomes showed that the prognosis and therapeutic efficacy of TP groups were better than those of FP groups for the EC patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy treatment (3-year OS: RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08–1.44, p = 0.003; 3-year PFS: RR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.17–1.75, p = 0.0006; ORR: RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06–1.29, p = 0.001). However, TP therapy was significantly correlated with a higher incidence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia (p < 0.05). In the preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group, these two groups had a similar survival time (p > 0.05). The FP regimen corresponded to a higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, while the TP regimen was associated with an increased incidence of febrile leukopenia (p < 0.05). Therefore, TP regimens could generate both superior clinical response and survival benefits when compared with FP regimens in EC patients undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of a Navigated 3D Ultrasound Integration for Brain Tumor Surgery: First Results of an Ongoing Prospective Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6594-6609; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090518 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 516
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the quality, accuracy and benefit of navigated 2D and 3D ultrasound for intra-axial tumor surgery in a prospective study. Patients intended for gross total resection were consecutively enrolled. Intraoperatively, a 2D and 3D iUS-based resection [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the quality, accuracy and benefit of navigated 2D and 3D ultrasound for intra-axial tumor surgery in a prospective study. Patients intended for gross total resection were consecutively enrolled. Intraoperatively, a 2D and 3D iUS-based resection was performed. During surgery, the image quality, clinical benefit and navigation accuracy were recorded based on a standardized protocol using Likert’s scales. A total of 16 consecutive patients were included. Mean ratings of image quality in 2D iUS were significantly higher than in 3D iUS (p < 0.001). There was no relevant decrease in rating during the surgery in 2D and 3D iUS (p > 0.46). The benefit was rated 2.2 in 2D iUS and 2.6 in 3D iUS (p = 0.08). The benefit remained stable in 2D, while there was a slight decrease in the benefit in 3D after complete tumor resection (p = 0.09). The accuracy was similar in both (mean 2.2 p = 0.88). Seven patients had a small tumor remnant in intraoperative MRT (mean 0.98 cm3) that was not appreciated with iUS. Crucially, 3D iUS allows for an accurate intraoperative update of imaging with slightly lower image quality than 2D iUS. Our preliminary data suggest that the benefit and accuracy of 2D and 3D iUS navigation do not undergo significant variations during tumor resection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in the Surgical Treatment of Brain Tumors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Silico Identification and Validation of Cuproptosis-Related LncRNA Signature as a Novel Prognostic Model and Immune Function Analysis in Colon Adenocarcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6573-6593; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090517 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Background: Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is the most common subtype of colon cancer, and cuproptosis is a recently newly defined form of cell death that plays an important role in the development of several malignant cancers. However, studies of cuproptosis-related lncRNAs (CRLs) involved in [...] Read more.
Background: Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is the most common subtype of colon cancer, and cuproptosis is a recently newly defined form of cell death that plays an important role in the development of several malignant cancers. However, studies of cuproptosis-related lncRNAs (CRLs) involved in regulating colon adenocarcinoma are limited. The purpose of this study is to develop a new prognostic CRLs signature of colon adenocarcinoma and explore its underlying biological mechanism. Methods: In this study, we downloaded RNA-seq profiles, clinical data and tumor mutational burden (TMB) data from the TCGA database, identified cuproptosis-associated lncRNAs using univariate Cox, lasso regression analysis and multivariate Cox analysis, and constructed a prognostic model with risk score based on these lncRNAs. COAD patients were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups based on the risk score. Cox regression was also used to test whether they were independent prognostic factors. The accuracy of this prognostic model was further validated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), C-index and Nomogram. In addition, the lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network were constructed based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Results: We constructed a prognostic model based on 15 cuproptosis-associated lncRNAs. The validation results showed that the risk score of the model (HR = 1.003, 95% CI = 1.001–1.004; p < 0.001) could serve as an independent prognostic factor with accurate and credible predictive power. The risk score had the highest AUC (0.793) among various factors such as risk score, stage, gender and age, also indicating that the model we constructed to predict patient survival was better than other clinical characteristics. Meanwhile, the possible biological mechanisms of colon adenocarcinoma were explored based on the lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA ceRNA network and PPI network constructed by WGCNA. Conclusion: The prognostic model based on 15 cuproptosis-related lncRNAs has accurate and reliable predictive power to effectively predict clinical outcomes in colon adenocarcinoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy for Gastrointestinal Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Relationship between Salivary Amylase and Xerostomia in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer: A Prospective Pilot Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6564-6572; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090516 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Purpose. A single-institution prospective pilot study was conducted to the assess correlation between salivary amylase and xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and materials. Serum saliva amylase, clinician-reported xerostomia (using Common Terminology [...] Read more.
Purpose. A single-institution prospective pilot study was conducted to the assess correlation between salivary amylase and xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and materials. Serum saliva amylase, clinician-reported xerostomia (using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), and patient-reported xerostomia (using 8-item self-reported xerostomia-specific questionnaire) were prospectively collected at baseline, during treatment and thereafter. Correlations between variables were assessed by correlation matrices. Results. Twelve patients with locally advanced HNSCC formed the cohort. Eighty-three percent were male, 75% were smokers, 100% had clinical positive lymph nodes at diagnosis, and 42% received induction chemotherapy. All patients received IMRT with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. No grade ≥4 xerostomia was observed. Severe (G3) acute and late xerostomia occurred in five cases (41.7%) and two cases (16.7%), respectively. Patient-reported xerostomia scores were highly correlated with the clinician-reported scores (ρ = 0.73). A significant correlation was recorded between the concentration of amylase and the acute (ρ = −0.70) and late (ρ = −0.80) xerostomia. Conclusion. Preliminary results are encouraging. Prospective clinical trials are needed to define the value of salivary amylase in the management of HNSCC tumors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Prognostic Impact of Resection Margin Status on Distal Pancreatectomy for Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6551-6563; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090515 - 14 Sep 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. While surgical resection is the only treatment option with curative intent, most patients die of locoregional and/or distant recurrence. The prognostic impact of the resection margin status has received much attention. However, the evidence is [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. While surgical resection is the only treatment option with curative intent, most patients die of locoregional and/or distant recurrence. The prognostic impact of the resection margin status has received much attention. However, the evidence is almost exclusively related to pancreatoduodenectomies, while corresponding data for distal pancreatectomy specimens are limited. The key data, such as the rate of microscopic margin involvement (“R1”), the site of margin involvement, and the impact of R1 on patient outcome, are divergent between studies and do not currently allow any general conclusions. The main reasons for the variability in the published data are the small size of the study cohorts and their heterogeneity, as well as the marked divergence in pathology examination practices. The latter is a consequence of the lack of concrete guidance, both for grossing and microscopic examination. The increasing administration of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy introduces a further factor of uncertainty as the conventional definition of a tumour-free margin (“R0”) based on 1 mm clearance is inadequate for these specimens. This review discusses the published data regarding the prognostic impact of margin status in distal pancreatectomy specimens along with the challenges and uncertainties that are related to the assessment of the margins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Head and Neck Region with Skull Base/Intracranial Invasion: Review of Surgical Outcomes and Multimodal Treatment Strategies: A Retrospective Case Series
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6540-6550; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090514 - 14 Sep 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) invading the skull base are rare with little data to guide surgical management. Here we aimed to determine the factors affecting tumor control rates and survival in patients with T4 stage head and neck STS involving the skull base. [...] Read more.
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) invading the skull base are rare with little data to guide surgical management. Here we aimed to determine the factors affecting tumor control rates and survival in patients with T4 stage head and neck STS involving the skull base. A retrospective review of STS patients, surgically treated at our institution between 1994 and 2017 was conducted. Variables were collected and assessed against progression-free survival. Tumors were graded using the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) system. A total of 51 patients (mean age of 35) were included, of whom 17 (33.3%) patients were FNCLCC grade 1, 8 (15. 7%) were FNCLCC grade 2 and 26 (51%) were FNCLCC grade 3. The median PFS was 236.4 months while the 5- and 10-year PFS rates were 44% and 17%, respectively. Recurrence occurred in 17 (33.3%) patients. Local recurrence occurred in 10 (58.8%). Univariate analysis revealed R0 resection had a near-significant impact on tumor control in radiation-naïve patients. Otherwise, prior radiation (HR 6.221, CI 1.236–31.314) and cavernous sinus involvement (HR 14.464, CI 3.326–62.901) were negative predictors of PFS. The most common cause of treatment failure was local recurrence. In T4 stage head and neck STS with skull-base involvement, FNCLCC grade, radiation status, and anatomic spread should be considered in determining the overall treatment strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Head and Neck Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
PET/CT for Predicting Occult Lymph Node Metastasis in Gastric Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6523-6539; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090513 - 11 Sep 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
A portion of gastric cancer patients with negative lymph node metastasis at an early stage eventually die from tumor recurrence or advanced metastasis. Occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM] is a potential risk factor for the recurrence and metastasis in these patients, and it [...] Read more.
A portion of gastric cancer patients with negative lymph node metastasis at an early stage eventually die from tumor recurrence or advanced metastasis. Occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM] is a potential risk factor for the recurrence and metastasis in these patients, and it is highly important for clinical prognosis. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to assess lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer due to its advantages in anatomical and functional imaging and non-invasive nature. Among the major metabolic parameters of PET, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) is commonly used for examining lymph node status. However, SUVmax is susceptible to interference by a variety of factors. In recent years, the exploration of new PET metabolic parameters, new PET imaging agents and radiomics, has become an active research topic. This paper aims to explore the feasibility and predict the effectiveness of using PET/CT to detect OLNM. The current landscape and future trends of primary metabolic parameters and new imaging agents of PET are reviewed. For gastric cancer patients, the possibility to detect OLNM non-invasively will help guide surgeons to choose the appropriate lymph node dissection area, thereby reducing unnecessary dissections and providing more reasonable, personalized and comprehensive treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Cancer Imaging)
Article
Direct Targeting of the Raf-MEK-ERK Signaling Cascade Inhibits Neuroblastoma Growth
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6508-6522; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090512 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The Raf-MEK-ERK signaling network has been the subject of intense research due to its role in the development of human cancers, including pediatric neuroblastoma (NB). MEK and ERK are the central components of this signaling pathway and are attractive targets for cancer therapy. [...] Read more.
The Raf-MEK-ERK signaling network has been the subject of intense research due to its role in the development of human cancers, including pediatric neuroblastoma (NB). MEK and ERK are the central components of this signaling pathway and are attractive targets for cancer therapy. Approximately 3–5% of the primary NB samples and about 80% of relapsed samples contain mutations in the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. In the present study, we analyzed the NB patient datasets and revealed that high RAF and MEK expression leads to poor overall survival and directly correlates with cancer progression and relapse. Further, we repurposed a specific small-molecule MEK inhibitor CI-1040 to inhibit the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway in NB. Our results show that CI-1040 potently inhibits NB cell proliferation and clonogenic growth in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway by CI-1040 significantly enhances apoptosis, blocks cell cycle progression at the S phase, inhibits expression of the cell cycle-related genes, and significantly inhibits phosphorylation and activation of the ERK1/2 protein. Furthermore, CI-1040 significantly inhibits tumor growth in different NB 3D spheroidal tumor models in a dose-dependent manner and by directly inhibiting spheroidal tumor cells. Overall, our findings highlight that direct inhibition of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway is a novel therapeutic approach for NB, and further developing repurposing strategies using CI-1040 is a clinically tractable strategy for effectively treating NB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Therapeutic and Management Strategies for Childhood Cancers)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Risk Factors and Prognostic Impact of Postoperative Complications in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6496-6507; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090511 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is important to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, it may result in postoperative complications (POCs). The aim of this study is to evaluate risk factors and prognostic impact of POCs in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. [...] Read more.
Background: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is important to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer. However, it may result in postoperative complications (POCs). The aim of this study is to evaluate risk factors and prognostic impact of POCs in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively collected clinical information of patients who underwent curative gastrectomy after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 2011 and 2018. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Logistic regression and Fisher’s exact test were used to evaluate risk factors for complications. Results: A total of 176 patients were included in our study. The 3-year OS rates for the complication group (n = 30) and non-complication group (n = 146) were 36.7% and 52.7%, respectively (p = 0.0294). Age, BMI, multivisceral resection and operation time were independent risk factors for POCs in patients. Patients with multivisceral resection were more likely to suffer from grade III-IV complications (p = 0.026). Inflammation complications might occur in patients with high BMI (p = 0.017). Low preoperative albumin seemed to be a risk factor for leakage complications (p = 0.033). Conclusions: Our study revealed that patients with POCs had a poor prognosis and we identified the risk factors for complications so that POCs can be avoided in time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Towards a Postgraduate Oncology Training Model for Family Medicine: Mixed Methods Evaluation of a Breast Oncology Rotation
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6485-6495; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090510 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Background: Family physicians have low knowledge and preparedness to manage patients with cancer. A breast oncology clinical rotation was developed for family medicine residents to address this gap in medical education. Objectives and Methods: A breast oncology rotation for family residents was evaluated [...] Read more.
Background: Family physicians have low knowledge and preparedness to manage patients with cancer. A breast oncology clinical rotation was developed for family medicine residents to address this gap in medical education. Objectives and Methods: A breast oncology rotation for family residents was evaluated using a pre-post knowledge questionnaire and semi-structured interviews comparing rotation (RRs) versus non-rotation (NRRs) residents. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via a pre-post knowledge questionnaire and semi-structured interviews, respectively. Analysis: Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests to compare pre-post-rotation knowledge and preparedness. Qualitative data were coded inductively, analysed, and grouped into categories and themes. Data sets were integrated. Results: The study was terminated early due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Six RRs completed the study; 19 and 2 NRRs completed the quantitative and qualitative portions, respectively. RRs’ knowledge scores did not improve, but there was a non-significant increase in preparedness (5.3 to 8.4, p = 0.17) post-rotation. RRs described important rotation outcomes: knowledge of the patient work-up, referral process, and patient treatment trajectory; skills in risk assessment, clinical examination, and empathy, and comfort in counseling. Discussion and Conclusion: Important educational outcomes were obtained despite no change in knowledge scores. This rotation can be adapted to other training programs including an oncology primer to enable trainee integration of new information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Breast Cancer)
Article
A Study of Peripheral Blood Parameters to Predict Response to Induction Chemotherapy and Overall Survival in Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6472-6484; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090509 - 09 Sep 2022
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Purpose: the purpose of this study was to screen peripheral blood parameters and construct models predicting the prognosis and induction chemotherapy (IC) response in locally advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. Methods: A total of 128 stage III/IVa LSCC patients (who required [...] Read more.
Purpose: the purpose of this study was to screen peripheral blood parameters and construct models predicting the prognosis and induction chemotherapy (IC) response in locally advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. Methods: A total of 128 stage III/IVa LSCC patients (who required a total laryngectomy) were enrolled in a retrospective study from January 2013 to September 2020 at Beijing Tongren Hospital of Capital Medical University. Among them, 62 patients received IC (IC group), and 66 patients immediately underwent a total laryngectomy (TL) after diagnosis (surgery group). Demographic information and peripheral blood parameters were collected for further analysis. The overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were compared between the two groups. The prognosis and survival were also compared between patients with laryngeal function preservation (LFP) and those with TL. Results: The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve for IC response in the IC group showed that the AUC of the blood model based on the four peripheral blood parameters of fibrinogen (FIB), platelet (PLT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and albumin (ALB) was significantly higher than the TNM stage model’s AUC (0.7932 vs. 0.6568). We constructed a nomogram blood model to predict IC response (C-Index = 0.793). Regarding the OS of all patients, an ROC analysis for overall survival, the Kaplan–Meier (K-M) method with a log-rank test, and multivariate analysis indicated age, clinical stage, FIB, and hemoglobin (HGB) were independent prognostic factors for the OS of LSCC patients. The blood–clinical logistic model (AUC = 0.7979) was constructed based on the four prognosis factors, which were superior to the blood (AUC = 0.6867) or clinical models (AUC = 0.7145) alone to predict OS. We constructed a nomogram model based on age, clinical stage, FIB, and HGB to predict OS for LSCC patients (C-Index = 0.792). Besides this, there were no significant differences in OS, PFS, and DSS between IC and surgery groups or LFP and TL groups. Conclusion: Peripheral blood parameters help predict IC response and overall survival. Furthermore, induction chemotherapy significantly improves laryngeal function preservation without lowering the survival prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association between Temporal Muscle Thickness and Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastasis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6463-6471; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090508 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has recently been suggested as a novel biomarker of sarcopenia in head and neck malignancies. However, few studies have evaluated TMT as a prognostic marker in patients with brain metastasis. This study investigated the association of TMT with overall [...] Read more.
Temporal muscle thickness (TMT) has recently been suggested as a novel biomarker of sarcopenia in head and neck malignancies. However, few studies have evaluated TMT as a prognostic marker in patients with brain metastasis. This study investigated the association of TMT with overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis. The records of all NSCLC patients with brain metastasis between 2009 and 2018 at St. Vincent’s Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 221 patients met our eligibility criteria. In the group with TMT thicker than the median, OS was longer than the group with TMT thinner than the median (240 days versus 139 days, p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, the thicker TMT group had longer survival (HR 0.73 CI 0.56–0.96, p = 0.024). Male (HR 1.58 CI 1.19–2.09, p = 0.002) and older age (≥65 years) (HR 2.05 CI 1.53–2.74, p < 0.001) also showed statistical significance. We also performed subgroup analysis in older patients (≥65 years). In this subgroup of 107 patients, the thicker TMT group also showed longer OS than the thinner TMT group (209 days versus 82 days, p = 0.009). Our findings suggest that TMT can be a useful biomarker for OS in NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
A Review of Current and Emerging Therapies for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6445-6462; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090507 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Liver disease including cirrhosis and viral hepatitis remains among the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and despite increased screening, many patients are diagnosed in the advanced stages precluding them from locoregional therapy. Therapeutic [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Liver disease including cirrhosis and viral hepatitis remains among the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and despite increased screening, many patients are diagnosed in the advanced stages precluding them from locoregional therapy. Therapeutic agents for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma were limited to Sorafenib for several years; however, with the emergence of molecular targeted therapies including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, in addition to immunotherapies, the way hepatocellular carcinoma is treated has changed significantly. In this review, we summarize the key clinical trials that lead to the approval of these agents for systemic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and discuss the preferred sequence of treatment options as well as prospective studies for management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Third- and Late Line Treatments of Metastatic Gastric Cancer: Still More to Be Done
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6433-6444; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090506 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 522
Abstract
In recent years, advances of anticancer and supportive therapies have determined a gradual improvement in survival rates and patients’ general conditions in metastatic gastric cancer (mGC), allowing them to receive further treatments. The choice of treatment is driven by performance status, age, stage [...] Read more.
In recent years, advances of anticancer and supportive therapies have determined a gradual improvement in survival rates and patients’ general conditions in metastatic gastric cancer (mGC), allowing them to receive further treatments. The choice of treatment is driven by performance status, age, stage of disease, number of metastatic sites and time from the first to third line of treatment. Targets such as microsatellite instability, PD-L1 expression, and HER2 overexpression or amplification may be addressed to personalise treatment and prolong survival. Despite a growing number of third line options that have provided clinicians with greater opportunities to customise treatments, up to date few agents have been demonstrated as effective after two standard lines for mGC; for these reasons, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy were all widely investigated in both phase II and phase III studies. Overall, TAS-102, apatinib, regorafenib, nilotinib, trastuzumab, and pembrolizumab were demonstrated to be valid options in the third line scenario for mGC patient refractory to at least two lines of therapy. A multimodal approach based on chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agents, a personalised nutritional programme as well as the research of new predictive biomarkers may pave the way to new strategies to identify the best treatment for each patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Practical Considerations for the Management of Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: A Guide for the General Oncology Practitioner
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6419-6432; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090505 - 08 Sep 2022
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism is a devastating complication of cancer and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism treatment is anticoagulation, and in recent years, there have been notable randomized clinical trials that have revealed insights into the [...] Read more.
Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism is a devastating complication of cancer and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism treatment is anticoagulation, and in recent years, there have been notable randomized clinical trials that have revealed insights into the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants and low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis. Deciding on the ideal anticoagulation treatment plan for a patient with a cancer-associated thrombosis is a complex task that requires an understanding of clinical trial data, society guidelines, and, most importantly, consideration of many cancer-related, treatment-related, and patient-related factors. This article summarizes important factors to consider when deciding on anticoagulation therapy for a patient with cancer-associated thrombosis. Full article
Review
Updates in Pathology for Retroperitoneal Soft Tissue Sarcoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6400-6418; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090504 - 07 Sep 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Retroperitoneal tumors are extremely rare. More than 70% of primary retroperitoneal soft tissue tumors are malignant. The most common sarcomas in the retroperitoneum include liposarcomas and leiomyosarcoma, however other sarcomas, along with benign mesenchymal tumors, can occur. Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of [...] Read more.
Retroperitoneal tumors are extremely rare. More than 70% of primary retroperitoneal soft tissue tumors are malignant. The most common sarcomas in the retroperitoneum include liposarcomas and leiomyosarcoma, however other sarcomas, along with benign mesenchymal tumors, can occur. Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of tumors with overlapping microscopic features, posing a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Correct tumor classification has become important for prognostication and the evolving targeted therapies for sarcoma subtypes. In this review, the pathology of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas is discussed, which is important to the surgical oncologist. In addition, less common sarcomas and benign mesenchymal tumors of the retroperitoneum, which may mimic sarcoma clinically and pathologically, are also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Outcome of Reoperation for Local Recurrence Following En Bloc Resection for Bone Giant Cell Tumor of the Extremity
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6383-6399; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090503 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
En bloc resection is typically performed to treat giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB), particularly when curettage can be challenging owing to extensive bone cortex destruction with soft tissue extension. Few reports have addressed the clinical outcomes after reoperation for local recurrence in [...] Read more.
En bloc resection is typically performed to treat giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB), particularly when curettage can be challenging owing to extensive bone cortex destruction with soft tissue extension. Few reports have addressed the clinical outcomes after reoperation for local recurrence in patients with GCTB who underwent en bloc resection. In this multicenter retrospective study, we investigated local recurrence, distant metastasis, malignant transformation, mortality, and limb function in patients treated for local recurrence following en bloc resection for GCTB. Among 205 patients who underwent en bloc resection for GCTB of the extremities between 1980 and 2021, we included 29 with local recurrence. En bloc resection was performed for large tumors with soft tissue extension, pathological fractures with joint invasion, complex fractures, and dispensable bones, such as the proximal fibula and distal ulna. Local re-recurrence, distant metastasis, malignant transformation, and mortality rates were 41.4% (12/29), 34.5% (10/29), 6.9% (2/29), and 6.9% (2/29), respectively. The median Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 26 (interquartile range, 23–28). The median follow-up period after surgery for local recurrence was 70.1 months (interquartile range, 40.5–123.8 months). Local recurrence following en bloc resection for GCTB could indicate an aggressive GCTB, necessitating careful follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New in Musculoskeletal Oncology?)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Diagnostic Value of PI-RADS v2.1 in Patients with a History of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6373-6382; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090502 - 05 Sep 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
To explore the diagnostic value of the Prostate Imaging–Reporting and Data System version 2.1 (PI-RADS v2.1) for clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) in patients with a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), we conducted a retrospective study of 102 patients who [...] Read more.
To explore the diagnostic value of the Prostate Imaging–Reporting and Data System version 2.1 (PI-RADS v2.1) for clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) in patients with a history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), we conducted a retrospective study of 102 patients who underwent systematic prostate biopsies with TURP history. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed to demonstrate the diagnostic value of PI-RADS v2.1 and other clinical characteristics, including PSA and free/total PSA (F/T PSA). Of 102 patients, 43 were diagnosed with CSPCa. In ROC analysis, PSA, F/T PSA, and PI-RADS v2.1 demonstrated significant diagnostic value in detecting CSPCa in our cohort (AUC 0.710 (95%CI 0.608–0.812), AUC 0.768 (95%CI 0.676–0.860), AUC 0.777 (95%CI 0.688–0.867), respectively). Further, PI-RADS v2.1 scores of the peripheral and transitional zones were analyzed separately. In ROC analysis, PI-RADS v2.1 remained valuable in identifying peripheral-zone CSPCa (AUC 0.780 (95%CI 0.665–0.854; p < 0.001)) while having limited capability in distinguishing transitional zone lesions (AUC 0.533 (95%CI 0.410–0.557; p = 0.594)). PSA and F/T PSA retain significant diagnostic value for CSPCa in patients with TURP history. PI-RADS v2.1 is reliable for detecting peripheral-zone CSPCa but has limited diagnostic value when assessing transitional zone lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Growing Teratoma Syndrome with Synchronous Gliomatosis Peritonei during Chemotherapy in Ovarian Immature Teratoma: A Case Report and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6364-6372; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090501 - 04 Sep 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Coexistent growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) and gliomatosis peritonei (GP) arising during chemotherapy of ovarian immature teratoma (IMT) is extremely rare and can be misdiagnosed as recurrent or progressive disease. We present a 33-year-old woman diagnosed with GTS with synchronous GP during chemotherapy of [...] Read more.
Coexistent growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) and gliomatosis peritonei (GP) arising during chemotherapy of ovarian immature teratoma (IMT) is extremely rare and can be misdiagnosed as recurrent or progressive disease. We present a 33-year-old woman diagnosed with GTS with synchronous GP during chemotherapy of IMT. She underwent ovarian cystectomy due to ovarian immature teratoma and chemotherapy were administered. The α-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration decreased from 28.7 ng/mL to normal after the second cycle. Four days after the third cycle of chemotherapy, ultrasound and CT revealed an 8-cm mass with negative tumor markers in the pouch of Douglas. An exploratory laparotomy was conducted, and a smooth round cystic-solid 8-cm mass was noted in the pouch of Douglas. Extensive peritoneal seeding glial nodules were also observed on the surface of the uterus, peritoneum, and omentum. The patient underwent a partial omentectomy, intact resection of the tumor, and resection of most of the glial nodules. Postoperative pathology demonstrated a pure mature cystic teratoma component in the mass, as well as diffuse GP involving the uterine serosa, peritoneum, and omentum; this diagnosis of GTS with synchorous GP should be considered in IMT patients with mass newly identified during chemotherapy while tumor markers are normal after treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Impact of Exercise on Cardiotoxicity in Pediatric and Adolescent Cancer Survivors: A Scoping Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6350-6363; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090500 - 03 Sep 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors are disproportionately more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases from the late effects of cardiotoxic therapies (e.g., anthracycline-based chemotherapy and chest-directed radiotherapy). Currently, dexrazoxane is the only approved drug for preventing cancer treatment-related cardiac damage. While animal models highlight [...] Read more.
Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors are disproportionately more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases from the late effects of cardiotoxic therapies (e.g., anthracycline-based chemotherapy and chest-directed radiotherapy). Currently, dexrazoxane is the only approved drug for preventing cancer treatment-related cardiac damage. While animal models highlight the beneficial effects of exercise cancer treatment-related cardiac dysfunction, few clinical studies have been conducted. Thus, the objective of this scoping review was to explore the designs and impact of exercise-based interventions for managing cancer treatment-related cardiac dysfunction in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Reviewers used Joanna Briggs Institute’s methodology to identify relevant literature. Then, 4616 studies were screened, and three reviewers extracted relevant data from six reports. Reviewers found that exercise interventions to prevent cancer treatment-related cardiac dysfunction in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors vary regarding frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise intervention. Further, the review suggests that exercise promotes positive effects on managing cancer treatment-related cardiac dysfunction across numerous indices of heart health. However, the few clinical studies employing exercise interventions for childhood and adolescent cancer survivors highlight the necessity for more research in this area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Consolidation Chemotherapy Rather than Induction Chemotherapy Can Prolong the Survival Rate of Inoperable Esophageal Cancer Patients Who Received Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6342-6349; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090499 - 02 Sep 2022
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is regarded as the standard treatment for inoperable esophageal cancers (EC). It is still controversial whether consolidation chemotherapy (CCT) or induction chemotherapy (IC) is beneficial for the patients who received CRT. Therefore, we carried out a retrospective analysis at our [...] Read more.
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is regarded as the standard treatment for inoperable esophageal cancers (EC). It is still controversial whether consolidation chemotherapy (CCT) or induction chemotherapy (IC) is beneficial for the patients who received CRT. Therefore, we carried out a retrospective analysis at our institution. A total of 186 inoperable EC patients from 20 October 2017 to 7 June 2021 who have previously received CRT were included in our study. The patients were divided into IC + CRT (n = 52), CCRT (n = 64), and CRT + CCT (n = 70) groups according to whether they received induction chemotherapy, consolidation chemotherapy, or not. We used Kaplan–Meier statistics to analyze their 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS. The median follow-up time for the whole group was 14.15 months. The 1-, 2-, 3- year overall survival (OS) for the CCRT group were 72.2%, 52.5%, and 29.5%, and 50.9%, 37.5%, and 25% for the IC + CRT group (p > 0.05). For the CRT + CCT group,1-, 2-, and 3-year OS were 89.8%, 59.0%, and 42.5% (p < 0.05). Adverse reactions in the three groups were mainly graded 0–3. The difference between the three groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). For non-surgical EC patients who received CRT, CCT after CRT but not IC before CRT can improve 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS with a low incidence of associated severe adverse effects. As a result, the addition of consolidation chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy has significant prognostic advantages for inoperable EC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Efficacy of Immunotherapy Combined with Antiangiogenic Therapy in Treatment-Failure Patients with Advanced Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Submandibular Gland: A Case Report
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(9), 6334-6341; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29090498 - 01 Sep 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a rare malignant tumor that arises from a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Ca ex PA has an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. To date, there are no standardized therapeutic methods. Herein, we [...] Read more.
Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca ex PA) is a rare malignant tumor that arises from a primary or recurrent benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Ca ex PA has an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. To date, there are no standardized therapeutic methods. Herein, we reported a case of a 57-year-old Chinese female with Ca ex PA of the submandibular gland. After surgery, cervical lymph nodes recurred, and multiple distant metastases were detected. During the treatment, she received multiple chemotherapies and radiotherapy but suffered from multidrug resistance and repeated disease progression. Hence, PD-1 inhibitor (sintilimab), in combination with anlotinib, was administered, which resulted in better control of pulmonary metastases compared to the other treatment regimens. This provided an alternative treatment option for Ca ex PA of the submandibular gland patients with failed multiple therapies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop