Previous Issue
Volume 29, September
 
 

Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 51 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
The Use of Breath Analysis in the Management of Lung Cancer: Is It Ready for Primetime?
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7355-7378; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100578 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for the detection and management of lung cancer. Exhaled breath contains a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile organic compounds that are produced as end-products of metabolism. Several studies have explored the patterns of these compounds [...] Read more.
Breath analysis is a promising non-invasive method for the detection and management of lung cancer. Exhaled breath contains a complex mixture of volatile and non-volatile organic compounds that are produced as end-products of metabolism. Several studies have explored the patterns of these compounds and have postulated that a unique breath signature is emitted in the setting of lung cancer. Most studies have evaluated the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify these unique breath signatures. With recent advances in the field of analytical chemistry and machine learning gaseous chemical sensing and identification devices have also been created to detect patterns of odorant molecules such as volatile organic compounds. These devices offer hope for a point-of-care test in the future. Several prospective studies have also explored the presence of specific genomic aberrations in the exhaled breath of patients with lung cancer as an alternative method for molecular analysis. Despite its potential, the use of breath analysis has largely been limited to translational research due to methodological issues, the lack of standardization or validation and the paucity of large multi-center studies. It is clear however that it offers a potentially non-invasive alternative to investigations such as tumor biopsy and blood sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Article
The Association between Survivorship Care Plans and Patient-Reported Satisfaction and Confidence with Follow-Up Cancer Care Provided by Primary Care Providers
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7343-7354; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100577 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Survivorship care plans aim to facilitate a smooth transition from tertiary to primary care settings after primary cancer treatment is completed. This study sought to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with receiving a survivorship care plan and examine the relationship between receiving a [...] Read more.
Survivorship care plans aim to facilitate a smooth transition from tertiary to primary care settings after primary cancer treatment is completed. This study sought to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with receiving a survivorship care plan and examine the relationship between receiving a plan and confidence in follow-up care delivered by primary care providers. A cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer’s Experiences of Cancer Patients in Transition Study was conducted (n = 9970). Separate adjusted multinomial logistic regression models assessed the relationship between survivorship care plans and follow-up care outcomes. Proportion of survivors more likely to receive a survivorship care plan varied by numerous sociodemographic and medical factors, such as cancer type (colorectal and prostate), gender (male), and education (high school or less). In unadjusted and adjusted models, individuals who received a Survivorship Care Plan had significantly higher odds of: having felt their primary care providers were involved; agreeing that their primary care providers understood their needs, knew where to find supports and services, and were able to refer them directly to services; and were confident that their primary care provider could meet their follow-up care needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
Article
Prognostic Factors of Low-Grade Gliomas in Adults
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7327-7342; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100576 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 181
Abstract
Adult low-grade gliomas are a rare and aggressive pathology of the central nervous system. Some of their characteristics contribute to the patient’s life expectancy and to their management. This study aimed to characterize and identify the main prognostic factors of low-grade gliomas. The [...] Read more.
Adult low-grade gliomas are a rare and aggressive pathology of the central nervous system. Some of their characteristics contribute to the patient’s life expectancy and to their management. This study aimed to characterize and identify the main prognostic factors of low-grade gliomas. The six-year retrospective study statistically analyzed the demographic, imaging, and morphogenetic characteristics of the patient group through appropriate parameters. Immunohistochemical tests were performed: IDH1, Ki-67, p53, and Nestin, as well as FISH tests on the CDKN2A gene and 1p/19q codeletion. The pathology was prevalent in females, with patients having an average age of 56.31 years. The average tumor volume was 41.61 cm3, producing a midline shift with an average of 7.5 mm. Its displacement had a negative impact on survival. The presence of a residual tumor resulted in decreased survival and is an independent risk factor for mortality. Positivity for p53 identified a low survival rate. CDKN2A mutations were an independent risk factor for mortality. We identified that a negative prognosis is influenced by the association of epilepsy with headache, tumor volume, and immunoreactivity to IDH1 and p53. Independent factors associated with mortality were midline shift, presence of tumor residue, and CDKN2A gene deletions and amplifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
Systematic Review
First- and Second-Line Treatments for Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in China: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7305-7326; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100575 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Chinese national guidelines recommend various systemic therapies for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but optimal treatment selection remains uncertain. To summarize the evidence supporting the systemic treatment of Chinese patients with advanced HCC, we performed a systematic review using a literature search [...] Read more.
Chinese national guidelines recommend various systemic therapies for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but optimal treatment selection remains uncertain. To summarize the evidence supporting the systemic treatment of Chinese patients with advanced HCC, we performed a systematic review using a literature search of PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Scientific Journal Database between 1 January 2009 and 15 June 2021, and abstracts from ASCO 2020, ASCO GI 2021, ESMO 2020, and ESMO GI 2020. The inclusion criteria were: Chinese patients aged ≥18 years with advanced HCC; first- or second-line systemic therapy; an evaluation of the efficacy or safety outcomes; and a randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled, prospective, or retrospective design. Thirty reports were identified for the following therapies: the single-agent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI; n = 10), single-agent programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor (n = 4), chemotherapy (n = 5), PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor plus TKI (n = 6), PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor plus bevacizumab or biosimilar (n = 4), and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor plus chemotherapy (n = 1). The heterogeneity between the studies precluded statistical analysis and the data were summarized using tables. In the first-line setting, evidence supported the use of atezolizumab or sintilimab plus bevacizumab or a biosimilar. There remains insufficient evidence to determine the optimal approved TKI-based therapeutic option, and active controlled trials in the second-line setting were lacking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Oncology)
Review
Rapid Review of Real-World Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Cancer Interventions in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7285-7304; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100574 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CE Analysis) provides evidence about the incremental gains in patient outcomes costs from new treatments and interventions in cancer care. The utilization of “real-world” data allows these analyses to better reflect differences in costs and effects for actual patient populations with [...] Read more.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CE Analysis) provides evidence about the incremental gains in patient outcomes costs from new treatments and interventions in cancer care. The utilization of “real-world” data allows these analyses to better reflect differences in costs and effects for actual patient populations with comorbidities and a range of ages as opposed to randomized controlled trials, which use a restricted population. This rapid review was done through PubMed and Google Scholar in July 2022. Relevant articles were summarized and data extracted to summarize changes in costs (in 2022 CAD) and effectiveness in cancer care once funded by the Canadian government payer system. We conducted statistical analyses to examine the differences between means and medians of costs, effects, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Twenty-two studies were selected for review. Of those, the majority performed a CE Analysis on cancer drugs. Real-world cancer drug studies had significantly higher costs and effects than non-drug therapies. Studies that utilized a model to project longer time-horizons saw significantly smaller ICER values for the treatments they examined. Further, differences in drug costs increased over time. This review highlights the importance of performing real-world CE Analysis on cancer treatments to better understand their costs and impacts on a general patient population. Full article
Review
Current Clinical Practice of Precision Medicine Using Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Tests in Biliary Tract Cancer in Japan
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7272-7284; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100573 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 113
Abstract
With the recent advances of next generation sequencing technologies, comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) tests, which are designed to measure more than hundreds of cancer-related genes at a time, have now been widely introduced into daily clinical practice. For the patients whose tumor samples [...] Read more.
With the recent advances of next generation sequencing technologies, comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) tests, which are designed to measure more than hundreds of cancer-related genes at a time, have now been widely introduced into daily clinical practice. For the patients whose tumor samples are not fit for tissue-based CGP tests, a blood-based CGP test (liquid biopsy) is available as an alternative option. Three CGP tests, “OncoGuide NCCTMOncopanel System (124 genes)”, “FoundationOne®CDx (324 genes)”, and “Founda-tionOne®CDx Liquid (324 genes)”, are now reimbursed by public insurance in 233 hospitals designated for cancer genomic medicine in Japan. In biliary tract cancer, the prevalence of druggable variants is relatively higher compared to other cancer types and the European Society for Medical Oncology recommends routine use of CGP tests for advanced biliary tract cancer to guide treatment options. The latest National Cancer Center Network guideline lists eight druggable markers (NTRK fusion, MSI-H, TMB-H, BRAF V600E, FGFR2 fusions/rearrangement, IDH1 mutations, RET fusion, and HER2 overexpression) and matched therapies. In Japan, matched therapies for four markers (NTRK, MSI-H, TMB-H, and FGFR2) are reimbursed by public insurance (as of September 2022). The progress of genomic profiling technology will contribute to the improvement of the dismal clinical outcomes of this disease in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
Article
Precision Oncology in Canada: Converting Vision to Reality with Lessons from International Programs
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7257-7271; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100572 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Canada’s healthcare system, like others worldwide, is immersed in a process of evolution, attempting to adapt conventional frameworks of health technology assessment (HTA) and funding models to a new landscape of precision medicine in oncology. In particular, the need for real-world evidence in [...] Read more.
Canada’s healthcare system, like others worldwide, is immersed in a process of evolution, attempting to adapt conventional frameworks of health technology assessment (HTA) and funding models to a new landscape of precision medicine in oncology. In particular, the need for real-world evidence in Canada is not matched by the necessary infrastructure and technologies required to integrate genomic and clinical data. Since healthcare systems in many developed nations face similar challenges, we adopted a solutions-based approach and conducted a search of worldwide programs in personalized medicine, with an emphasis on precision oncology. This search strategy included review articles published between 1 January 2016 and 1 March 2021 and hand-searches of their reference lists for relevant publications back to 1 December 2005. Thirty-nine initiatives across 37 countries in Europe, Australasia, Africa, and the Americas had the potential to lead to real-world data (RWD) on the clinical utility of oncology biomarkers. We highlight four initiatives with helpful lessons for Canada: Genomic Medicine France 2025, UNICANCER, the German Medical Informatics Initiative, and CANCER-ID. Among the 35 other programs evaluated, the main themes included the need for collaboration and systems to support data harmonization across multiple jurisdictions. In order to generate RWD in precision oncology that will prove acceptable to HTA bodies, Canada must take a national approach to biomarker strategy and unite all stakeholders at the highest level to overcome jurisdictional and technological barriers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Pathological Reporting of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Following ICCR Recommendation: Impact of Electronic Reporting Tool Implementation on Quality and Interdisciplinary Communication in a Large University Hospital
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7245-7256; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100571 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Prostate cancer represents one of the most common malignant tumors in male patients in Germany. The pathological reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens following a structured process constitutes an excellent prototype for the introduction of software-based standardized structured reporting in pathology. This can lead [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer represents one of the most common malignant tumors in male patients in Germany. The pathological reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens following a structured process constitutes an excellent prototype for the introduction of software-based standardized structured reporting in pathology. This can lead to reports of higher quality and could create a fundamental improvement for future AI applications. A software-based reporting template was used to generate standardized structured pathological reports of radical prostatectomy specimens of patients treated at the University Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar of Technische Universität München, Germany. Narrative reports (NR) and standardized structured reports (SSR) were analyzed with regard to completeness, and clinicians’ satisfaction with each report type was evaluated. SSR show considerably higher completeness than NR. A total of 10 categories out of 32 were significantly more complete in SSR than in NR (p < 0.05). Clinicians awarded overall high scores in NR and SSR reports. One rater acknowledged a significantly higher level of clarity and time saving when comparing SSR to NR. Our findings highlight that the standardized structured reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens, qualifying as level 5 reports, significantly increases objectively measured content quality and the level of completeness. The implementation of nationwide SSR in Germany, particularly in oncologic pathology, can serve pathologists, clinicians, and patients. Full article
Article
A Regional Survey on Merkel Cell Carcinoma: A Plea for Uniform Patient Journey Modeling and Diagnostic–Therapeutic Pathway
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7229-7244; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100570 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 159
Abstract
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer that usually affects the elderly and immunosuppressed in sun-exposed areas. Due to its rarity, it is frequently unrecognized, and its management is not standardized across medical centers, despite the more recent [...] Read more.
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine cancer that usually affects the elderly and immunosuppressed in sun-exposed areas. Due to its rarity, it is frequently unrecognized, and its management is not standardized across medical centers, despite the more recent availability of immunotherapy, with avelumab as first-line treatment improving the prognosis even in advanced stages of disease. We conducted a purpose-designed survey of a selected sample of physicians working in the Lazio region, in Italy, to assess their awareness and knowledge of MCC as well as their perspective on assisted diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Lazio region, and in particular Rome, is one of the most important academic and non- academic centers in Italy dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer. A total of 368 doctors (including 100 general practitioners, 72 oncologists, 87 dermatologists, 59 surgeons, and 50 anatomopathologists) agreed to be part of this survey. Surgeons, oncologists, and dermatologists thought themselves significantly more updated on MCC than primary care physicians, but more than half of the interviewees are interested in CCM training courses and training with clearer and more standardized care pathways. Significant differences have been reported from survey participants in terms of multidisciplinary team set up for MCC management. The identification of specialized centers and the improvement of communication pathways among different specialties, as well as between patients and physicians, could be very beneficial in improving patients’ journey modeling and starting a uniform diagnostic and therapeutic pathway for MCC patients in the new era of immunotherapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Skin Cancer)
Article
Prospective Study Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of a Scalp Cooling Device for the Prevention of Alopecia in Women Undergoing (Neo)Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7218-7228; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100569 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 74
Abstract
The prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia still represents an urgent need for every day clinical practice. In this regard, this prospective single-center study included breast cancer (BC) patients who underwent a scalp cooling device (Dignicap®) during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy with the aim to [...] Read more.
The prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia still represents an urgent need for every day clinical practice. In this regard, this prospective single-center study included breast cancer (BC) patients who underwent a scalp cooling device (Dignicap®) during (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this device in preventing alopecia. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (median age 43 years) were enrolled. The chemotherapy regimen included anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy (68.1%), docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (25.8%), anthracycline and taxane-based plus carboplatin (3.9%), and paclitaxel alone (2.2%). In 25.3% of cases, a dose dense schedule was used. Overall, the success rate was 68.0%: 100% in paclitaxel alone, 87.0% in docetaxel-cyclophosphamide, 59.5% in anthracycline and taxane, and 71.4% in the sequential regimen plus carboplatin group (anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy versus taxane-based chemotherapy, p ≤ 001. No difference in terms of hair preservation between dose-dense or standard schedule was found (p = 0.557). Early discontinuation of the scalp cooling was observed in 50 patients (28.1%). Although 138 patients (77.5%) experienced adverse events, 70.2% of patients were satisfied with this device. In conclusion, this large prospective study confirmed the helpful effect of the scalp cooling system in preventing alopecia in BC patients also undergoing sequential anthracyclines and taxane-based chemotherapy. Full article
Article
Mutational Landscape of Patients Referred for Elevated Hemoglobin Level
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7209-7217; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100568 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Background: Since the identification of JAK2 V617F and exon 12 mutations as driver mutations in polycythemia vera (PV) in 2005, molecular testing of these mutations for patients with erythrocytosis has become a routine clinical practice. However, the incidence of myeloid mutations other than [...] Read more.
Background: Since the identification of JAK2 V617F and exon 12 mutations as driver mutations in polycythemia vera (PV) in 2005, molecular testing of these mutations for patients with erythrocytosis has become a routine clinical practice. However, the incidence of myeloid mutations other than the common JAK2 V617F mutation in unselected patients referred for elevated hemoglobin is not well studied. This study aimed to characterize the mutational landscape in a real-world population of patients referred for erythrocytosis using a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay. Method: A total of 529 patients (hemoglobin levels >160 g/L in females or >165 g/L in males) were assessed between January 2018 and May 2021 for genetic variants using the Oncomine Myeloid Research Assay (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) targeting 40 key genes with diagnostic and prognostic implications in hematological conditions (17 full genes and 23 genes with clinically relevant “hotspot” regions) and a panel of 29 fusion driver genes (>600 fusion partners). Results: JAK2 mutations were detected in 10.9% (58/529) of patients, with 57 patients positive for JAK2 V617F, while one patient had a JAK2 exon 12 mutation. Additional mutations were detected in 34.5% (20/58) of JAK2-positive patients: TET2 (11; 19%), DNMT3A (2;3.4%), ASXL1 (2; 3.4%), SRSF2 (2; 3.4%), BCOR (1; 1.7%), TP53 (1; 1.7%), and ZRSR2 (1; 1.7%). Diagnosis of PV was suspected in 2 JAK2-negative patients based on the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Notably, one patient carried mutations in the SRSF2 and TET2 genes, and the other patient carried mutations in the SRSF2, IDH2, and ASXL1 genes. Three JAK2-negative patients with elevated hemoglobin who tested positive for BCR/ABL1 fusion were diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and excluded from further analysis. The remaining 466 JAK2-negative patients were diagnosed with secondary erythrocytosis and mutations were found in 6% (28/466) of these cases. Conclusion: Mutations other than JAK2 mutations were frequently identified in patients referred for erythrocytosis, with mutations in the TET2, DNMT3A, and ASXL1 genes being detected in 34.5% of JAK2-positive PV patients. The presence of additional mutations, such as ASXL1 mutations, in this population has implications for prognosis. Both the incidence and mutation type identified in patients with secondary erythrocytosis likely reflects incidental, age-associated clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Prevalence, Treatment Patterns, and Outcomes of Individuals with EGFR Positive Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in a Canadian Real-World Setting: A Comparison of Exon 19 Deletion, L858R, and Exon 20 Insertion EGFR Mutation Carriers
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7198-7208; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100567 (registering DOI) - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Real-world evidence surrounding EGFR positive NSCLC patients in Canada is limited. Administrative databases in Alberta, Canada were used to evaluate EGFR testing and mutation prevalence in de novo metastatic NSCLC, as well as the characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of individuals with Exon [...] Read more.
Real-world evidence surrounding EGFR positive NSCLC patients in Canada is limited. Administrative databases in Alberta, Canada were used to evaluate EGFR testing and mutation prevalence in de novo metastatic NSCLC, as well as the characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of individuals with Exon 19, L858R and Exon20ins mutations. Between 2013–2019, 2974 individuals underwent EGFR testing, of which 451 (15.2%) were EGFR positive. Among EGFR positive individuals, 221 (49.0%) had an Exon 19 mutation, 159 (35.3%) had an L858R mutation, and 18 (4%) had an Exon20ins mutation. The proportion of individuals who initiated 1L systemic therapy was 89.1% for Exon19, 85.5% for L858R, and 72.2% for Exon20ins carriers. The primary front-line systemic therapy was gefitinib or afatinib monotherapy for individuals with Exon 19 (93.4%) and L858R (94.1%) mutations versus platinum combination therapy for individuals with Exon20ins mutations (61.5%). The Exon20ins cohort had worse median overall survival from initiation of 1L systemic therapy (10.5 months [95% CI: 8.0-not estimable]) than the Exon19 (20.6 months [95% CI: 18.4–24.9]), and L858R cohorts (19.1 months [95% CI: 14.5–23.1]). These findings highlight that Exon20ins mutations represent a rare subset of NSCLC in which treatment options are limited and survival outcomes are worse relative to individuals with more common types of EGFR mutations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Extra-Nodal Lymphomas of the Head and Neck and Oral Cavity: A Retrospective Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7189-7197; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100566 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Disease Overview: Lymphomas, both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, are one of the most common cancers in the head and neck area. The extra-nodal variant of lymphoma is rare, but it is the most common non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ENHL). Furthermore, it is difficult to diagnose [...] Read more.
Disease Overview: Lymphomas, both Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, are one of the most common cancers in the head and neck area. The extra-nodal variant of lymphoma is rare, but it is the most common non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (ENHL). Furthermore, it is difficult to diagnose due to its non-specific clinical and radiological features, which can mimic other benign or malignant clinical manifestations. The study: This retrospective study involved 72 patients affected by head and neck ENHL in the period between 2003 and 2017. All patients underwent a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure according to the guidelines, and a 5-year follow-up. Based on the location of the swelling at the time of diagnosis, patients were divided into two groups: oral and non-oral ENHLs. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan–Meier analysis with the log-rank test. In addition, Fisher’s exact test was applied to the two groups to evaluate and compare variances (the acceptable significance level was set at p < 0.05). Conclusion: ENHL with oral localization is much more aggressive than ENHL with non-oral localization, with a death rate of 40% (versus 4.76 for the non-oral one). In fact, between the two groups, there is a statistically significant difference in mortality, with a p-value of 0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively. Full article
Communication
External Validation of the Graded Prognostic Assessment in Patients with Brain Metastases from Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7181-7188; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100565 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 232
Abstract
Background: Recently, graded prognostic assessment (GPA) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with brain metastases has been developed. This includes age, performance status, number of brain metastases and presence of extracranial metastases. The aim of the present study was to validate this [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, graded prognostic assessment (GPA) for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with brain metastases has been developed. This includes age, performance status, number of brain metastases and presence of extracranial metastases. The aim of the present study was to validate this four-tiered prognostic score in a European cohort of patients. Methods: The retrospective validation study included 180 patients from two centers in Germany and Norway. Results: Median survival from radiological diagnosis of brain metastases was 7 months. The GPA point sum as continuous variable (0–4 points) was significantly associated with survival (p < 0.001). However, no significant survival difference was observed between patients in the two strata with better survival (3.5–4 and 2.5–3 points, respectively). Long-term survival in the poor prognosis group (0–1 points) was better than expected. Conclusion: This study supports the prognostic impact of all four parameters contributing to the GPA. The original way of grouping the parameters and breaking the final strata did not give optimal results in this cohort. Therefore, additional validation databases from different countries should be created and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Commentary
Lessons Learned from the Implementation of a Person-Centred Digital Health Platform in Cancer Care
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7171-7180; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100564 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the development and use of digital health platforms to support individuals with health-related challenges. This is even more frequent in the field of cancer care as the global burden of the disease continues to increase every year. [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has accelerated the development and use of digital health platforms to support individuals with health-related challenges. This is even more frequent in the field of cancer care as the global burden of the disease continues to increase every year. However, optimal implementation of these platforms into the clinical setting requires careful planning and collaboration. An implementation project was launched between the Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux (CIUSSS) du Centre-Ouest-de-I’Île-de-Montreal and BELONG—Beating Cancer Together—a person-centred cancer navigation and support digital health platform. The goal of the project was to implement content and features specific to the CIUSSS, to be made available exclusively for individuals with cancer (and their caregivers) treated at the institution. Guided by Structural Model of Interprofessional Collaboration, we report on implementation processes involving diverse stakeholders including clinicians, hospital administrators, researchers and local community/patient representatives. Lessons learned include earlier identification of shared goals and clear expectations, more consistent reliance on virtual means to communicate among all involved, and patient/caregiver involvement in each step to ensure informed and shared decision making. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Systematic Review
Surgical Management for Transposed Ovarian Recurrence of Cervical Cancer: A Systematic Review with Our Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7158-7170; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100563 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
In early-stage cervical cancer, ovarian metastasis is relatively rare, and ovarian transposition is often performed during surgery. Although rare, the diagnosis and surgical approach for recurrence at transposed ovaries are challenging. This study focused on the diagnosis and surgical management of transposed ovarian [...] Read more.
In early-stage cervical cancer, ovarian metastasis is relatively rare, and ovarian transposition is often performed during surgery. Although rare, the diagnosis and surgical approach for recurrence at transposed ovaries are challenging. This study focused on the diagnosis and surgical management of transposed ovarian recurrence in cervical cancer patients. A 45-year-old premenopausal woman underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy following postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stage IB1 cervical cancer. During the initial surgery, the ovary was transposed to the paracolic gutter, and no postoperative complications were observed. Ovarian recurrence was diagnosed using positron emission tomography–computed tomography, and a laparoscopic bilateral oophorectomy was performed. A systematic review identified nine women with transposed ovarian recurrence with no other metastases of cervical cancer, and no studies have discussed the optimal surveillance of transposed ovaries. Of those (n = 9), four women had died of the disease within 2 years of the second surgery, and the prognosis of transposed ovarian cervical cancer seemed poor. Nevertheless, three women underwent laparoscopic oophorectomies, none of whom experienced recurrence after the second surgery. Few studies have examined the surgical management of transposed ovarian recurrence. The optimal surgical approach for transposed ovarian recurrence of cervical cancer requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: 10-Year Experience in Cancer Center—The Ottawa Hospital (TOH)
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7148-7157; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100562 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
(1) Background: The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has significantly evolved over the last two decades, with the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). We aim to report 10 years of experience of GIST management at a regional cancer center in Canada. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has significantly evolved over the last two decades, with the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). We aim to report 10 years of experience of GIST management at a regional cancer center in Canada. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 248 consecutive patients diagnosed with GIST between 2011 and 2021. We describe the clinical and pathological data, management, and outcome, including survival. (3) Results: The most common GIST sites were the stomach 63% (156), followed by the small bowel 29% (73). At diagnosis, 83% (206) of patients had localized disease (stage I–III). According to the modified National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NIH) for GIST, around 45% (90) had intermediate or high-risk disease. Most patients, 86% (213), underwent curative surgical resection. Forty-nine patients received adjuvant imatinib, while forty-three patients had advanced disease and received at least one line of TKI. With a median follow-up of 47 months, the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for very low and low risk were 100% and 94%, respectively, while those for intermediate and high risk were 84% and 51%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates for very low and low risk were 100% and 94%, while intermediate, high risk, and advanced were 91%, 88%, and 65%, respectively. Using the Kaplan–Meier method, there were statistically significant differences in RFS and OS between NIH risk groups, p < 0.0005. In univariate analysis, ECOG, site, mitosis, secondary malignancy, and size were predictors for OS. High mitosis and large size (>5 cm) were associated with worse RFS. (4) Conclusions: Curative surgical resection remains the gold standard management of GIST. Our results are comparable to the reported literature. Further research is needed to explore histology’s role in risk stratification and initiating adjuvant TKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Palliative Care Outcome Scale Assessment for Cancer Patients Eligible for Palliative Care: Perspectives on the Relationship between Patient-Reported Outcome and Objective Assessments
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7140-7147; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100561 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
(1) Background: The importance of patient-reported outcome (PRO), i.e., prioritizing patient voice, has increased in cancer treatment, as well as palliative and supportive settings. The Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS), a hybrid evaluation consisting of “patient evaluation” (PRO) and “peer evaluation” by [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The importance of patient-reported outcome (PRO), i.e., prioritizing patient voice, has increased in cancer treatment, as well as palliative and supportive settings. The Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale (IPOS), a hybrid evaluation consisting of “patient evaluation” (PRO) and “peer evaluation” by medical professionals, was developed as a successor version of the Support Team Assessment Schedule (STAS) in 2013 and has been utilized worldwide. The Japanese version of the IPOS (IPOS-J) was developed and released in 2019. The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the IPOS-J to clinical practice in the future. (2) Methods: We conducted the following two studies with terminally ill cancer patients: (i) Can an evaluation with the IPOS-J performed by medical professionals (peer evaluation) replace the STAS-J evaluation? (ii) Can the quality of palliative care improve by combining the IPOS-J patient evaluation with the peer evaluation? (3) Results: The overall intervention rate and urgent intervention rate for the STAS-J and IPOS-J was 34.4 vs. 34.1% (p = 0.91) and 10.4 vs. 9.9% (p = 0.78), respectively. The patients selected “intervention required” but the medical professionals selected “no intervention required” in 47 cases. The medical team performed appropriate intervention after re-assessment. As a result, more than 70% of the patients were “intervention-free” after 1 week of intervention. (4) Conclusions: The IPOS-J peer evaluation was as useful as the STAS-J evaluation. A hybrid type of evaluation, combining patient evaluation (PRO) and peer evaluation, may help us to understand patient needs and improve the quality of palliative care. Full article
Perspective
A Canadian Perspective on the Treatment of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7122-7139; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100560 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a slowly progressing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by monoclonal IgM gammopathy in the blood and infiltration of the bone marrow by clonal lymphoplasmacytic cells. As an incurable disease, the goals for therapy for WM are to relieve symptoms, slow [...] Read more.
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a slowly progressing B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by monoclonal IgM gammopathy in the blood and infiltration of the bone marrow by clonal lymphoplasmacytic cells. As an incurable disease, the goals for therapy for WM are to relieve symptoms, slow disease progression, prevent organ damage, and maintain quality of life. However, given the rarity of WM, clinical trials comparing treatments for WM are limited and there is no definitive standard of care. The selection of first-line WM therapy is thus based on patient factors, disease characteristics, and drug access, with bendamustine-rituximab and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor therapy considered preferred treatments. Other treatments such as proteasome inhibitor- or purine analogue-based therapy, alternative chemoimmunotherapy, and autologous stem cell transplantation are generally reserved for the relapsed setting but may be used in rare circumstances in earlier lines of therapy. This paper summarizes the efficacy and safety of these WM therapies and discusses considerations for treatment from a Canadian perspective. Full article
Article
Psychoneurological Symptoms and Biomarkers of Stress and Inflammation in Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Network Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7109-7121; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100559 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Psychoneurological symptoms are commonly reported by newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, yet there is limited research on the associations of these symptoms with biomarkers of stress and inflammation. In this article, pre-treatment data of a multi-center cohort of HNC patients [...] Read more.
Psychoneurological symptoms are commonly reported by newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, yet there is limited research on the associations of these symptoms with biomarkers of stress and inflammation. In this article, pre-treatment data of a multi-center cohort of HNC patients were analyzed using a network analysis to examine connections between symptoms (poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and oral pain), biomarkers of stress (diurnal cortisol slope), inflammation markers (c-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]), and covariates (age and body mass index [BMI]). Three centrality indices were calculated: degree (number of connections), closeness (proximity of a variable to other variables), and betweenness (based on the number of times a variable is located on the shortest path between any pair of other variables). In a sample of 264 patients, poor sleep quality and fatigue had the highest degree index; fatigue and CRP had the highest closeness index; and IL-6 had the highest betweenness index. The model yielded two clusters: a symptoms—cortisol slope—CRP cluster and a IL-6—IL-10—TNF-α—age—BMI cluster. Both clusters were connected most prominently via IL-6. Our findings provide evidence that poor sleep quality, fatigue, CRP, and IL-6 play an important role in the interconnections between psychoneurological symptoms and biomarkers of stress and inflammation in newly diagnosed HNC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Head and Neck Oncology)
Editorial
Treatments for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Multiple Options for Precision Medicine
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7106-7108; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100558 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
In recent years, advances in molecular diagnostics have transformed the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), allowing for increasingly personalized approaches [...] Full article
Article
Botulinum Neurotoxin A in the Treatment of Pharyngocutaneous Fistula after Salvage Surgery in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Our Preliminary Results
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7099-7105; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100557 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the effect of intraparotid injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) on salivary production and the course of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) in post-radiation therapy salvage surgery. Methods: A total of 13 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze the effect of intraparotid injection of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) on salivary production and the course of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) in post-radiation therapy salvage surgery. Methods: A total of 13 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy were treated with BoNT-A to both parotid glands, within three days from PCF onset. The salivary flow was evaluated using a subjective rating scale as the percentage of normal function from 0% (no saliva) to 100% (normal saliva flow), before injection, every day for 2 weeks, and once a week for three months. PCFs were monitored daily. Results: Spontaneous closure of PCF occurred in 7/13 (53.84%) cases 13.6 days (range: 7–18) after treatment; 6/13 (46.16%) patients needed revision surgery. Salivary flow significantly decreased in all patients seven days after injection (from 67.2% to 36.4%; p < 0.05). Patients who had undergone either conservative or surgical treatment did not differ in salivary flow before injection, whereas the mean percentages of salivary flow calculated at each time point after injection were different (p < 0.05). Conclusions: BoNT-A contributed to the closure of the fistula in most of our cases. The subjective perception of salivary flow predicted the closure of PCF. The mean time to closure may contribute to establishing the timing of PCF surgical treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Head and Neck Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Preoperative Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Could Predict Postoperative Outcomes in Patients with Surgically Resected Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7086-7098; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100556 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether preoperative nutritional status and inflammatory status, specifically polyunsaturated acids and the omega 6/3 ratio, would affect postoperative outcomes and complications in patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection. Methods: This prospective observational study [...] Read more.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether preoperative nutritional status and inflammatory status, specifically polyunsaturated acids and the omega 6/3 ratio, would affect postoperative outcomes and complications in patients with lung cancer undergoing lung resection. Methods: This prospective observational study included 68 patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer who were candidates for radical surgery. A complete nutritional assessment was performed. The primary study variable was postoperative complications and mortality in the first 30 days. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results: A total of 50 men (73.53%) and 18 women (26.47%) underwent surgery, with a median age of 64.2 (±9.74) years. The mean omega 6/3 ratio was 17.39 (±9.45). A complication occurred in 39.7% of the study sample (n = 27), the most common being persistent air leak in 23.53% (n = 16). After performing the bivariate analysis, the only variable that remained significant was the omega 6/3 ratio; we observed that it had a prognostic value for persistent air leak (p = 0.001) independent of age, sex, comorbidity, preoperative respiratory function, and approach or type of surgery. The remaining nutritional and inflammatory markers did not have a statistically significant association (p > 0.05) with postoperative complications. However, this significance was not maintained in the multivariate analysis by a small margin (p = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.77–1.41). Conclusions: Omega 6/3 ratio may be a prognostic factor for air leak, independent of the patient’s clinical and pathological characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Perspective
Emerging Systemic Therapies in Advanced Unresectable Biliary Tract Cancer: Review and Canadian Perspective
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7072-7085; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100555 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a group of rare and aggressive malignancies with a dismal prognosis. There is currently a significant lack in effective treatment options for BTC, with gemcitabine-cisplatin remaining the first-line standard of care treatment for over a decade. A wave [...] Read more.
Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a group of rare and aggressive malignancies with a dismal prognosis. There is currently a significant lack in effective treatment options for BTC, with gemcitabine-cisplatin remaining the first-line standard of care treatment for over a decade. A wave of investigational therapies, including new chemotherapy combinations, immunotherapy, and biomarker-driven targeted therapy have demonstrated promising results in BTC, and there is hope for many of these therapies to be incorporated into the Canadian treatment landscape in the near future. This review discusses the emerging therapies under investigation for BTC and provides a perspective on how they may fit into Canadian practice, with a focus on the barriers to treatment access. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantitative Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Levels in Cancer Patients Post Three Doses of Immunization and Prior to Breakthrough COVID-19 Infections
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7059-7071; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100554 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 362
Abstract
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness should be carefully evaluated and explicitly defined. To our knowledge, this is the first report to quantitatively evaluate humoral responses post 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 immunization and prior to breakthrough COVID-19 infection in Canadian cancer patients. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness should be carefully evaluated and explicitly defined. To our knowledge, this is the first report to quantitatively evaluate humoral responses post 3 doses of SARS-CoV-2 immunization and prior to breakthrough COVID-19 infection in Canadian cancer patients. (2) Methods: In a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 185 cancer participants post COVID-19 vaccination in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor–binding domain were quantified by immunoassay post three doses of immunization. With the COVID-19 rapid antigen test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 16 breakthrough infections were identified. Results: Following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (including BNT162b2, AZD1222, and mRNA-1273), the mean serum anti-spike protein antibody level was 197.2 BAU/mL (binding antibody unit, SD ± 393.9), 1335.9 BAU/mL (±3337.8), and 3164.8 BAU/mL (±6500.9) post the first, second, and third dose of vaccination. Observed differences were significant (p ≤ 0.001). The average antibody level of 3164.8 BAU/mL post the third dose was 89.9 times that of the seroconversion level (35.2 BAU/mL). This indicates that most vaccines approved are effective in producing robust antibody responses. In 11 breakthrough cases confirmed by PCR, prior to infection, the average antibody concentration was 3675.6 BAU/mL with the highest concentration being 9107.4 BAU/mL. Compared with this average antibody concentration of 3675.6 BAU/mL (104.4 times that of the seroconversion concentration), 0% of single dosed, 9.6% of double vaccinated, and 29.5% of triple vaccinated cancer patients had higher SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels. When patients were split into hematological and solid cancer, the hematological cancer group demonstrated lower serological responses than the solid cancer group in the first and second doses (first dose, average concentration 11.1 vs. 201.4 BAU/mL, respectively, p < 0.05; second dose, average concentration 441.5 vs. 1725.9 BAU/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). There was no difference in the third dose level (1756.3 vs. 2548.0 BAU/mL, p = 0.21). (4) Conclusions: Most vaccines were effective in producing robust antibody responses when more than one dose was given, and the more doses the higher the serological response. Likely due to the highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2 variants, a significant number of participants had SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses lower than the average antibody concentration prior to the known breakthrough infections. Additional vaccination is likely required to ensure immunity against infection by SARS-CoV-2. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hepatic Abscess following Yttrium-90 Radioembolization in Patients with Surgical Bilioenteric Anastomosis or Compromised Sphincter of Oddi: A Tertiary Cancer Center Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7051-7058; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100553 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Purpose: We describe our experience with the development of hepatobiliary infection in patients with prior surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic biliary interventions who are receiving transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium-90 (90Y) for primary or metastatic hepatobiliary lesions. Methods: Records of [...] Read more.
Purpose: We describe our experience with the development of hepatobiliary infection in patients with prior surgical, percutaneous, or endoscopic biliary interventions who are receiving transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium-90 (90Y) for primary or metastatic hepatobiliary lesions. Methods: Records of 15 patients with a history of prior biliary intervention and liver malignancy subsequently treated with TARE at the participating medical center from November 2009 to September 2015 were reviewed. The primary endpoint was the development of a hepatic abscess or cholangitis in a patient after radioembolization. Results: A total of 15 patients comprising 9 men and 6 women, with a median age of 49 years (range 30–73), underwent 17 TARE with 90Y procedures. Of the 15 patients, 2 (13.3%) of them developed a hepatobiliary infection. A single patient (6.6%) developed a hepatobiliary abscess. Conclusion: Our study shows a low incidence rate of hepatic abscess following TARE in patients with prior biliary intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatobiliary Malignancies: Recent Advancements and Future Directions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Dose–Volume Constraints fOr oRganS at Risk in Radiotherapy (CORSAIR): An “All-in-One” Multicenter–Multidisciplinary Practical Summary
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7021-7050; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100552 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Background: The safe use of radiotherapy (RT) requires compliance with dose/volume constraints (DVCs) for organs at risk (OaRs). However, the available recommendations are sometimes conflicting and scattered across a number of different documents. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide, in [...] Read more.
Background: The safe use of radiotherapy (RT) requires compliance with dose/volume constraints (DVCs) for organs at risk (OaRs). However, the available recommendations are sometimes conflicting and scattered across a number of different documents. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide, in a single document, practical indications on DVCs for OaRs in external beam RT available in the literature. Material and Methods: A multidisciplinary team collected bibliographic information on the anatomical definition of OaRs, on the imaging methods needed for their definition, and on DVCs in general and in specific settings (curative RT of Hodgkin’s lymphomas, postoperative RT of breast tumors, curative RT of pediatric cancers, stereotactic ablative RT of ventricular arrythmia). The information provided in terms of DVCs was graded based on levels of evidence. Results: Over 650 papers/documents/websites were examined. The search results, together with the levels of evidence, are presented in tabular form. Conclusions: A working tool, based on collected guidelines on DVCs in different settings, is provided to help in daily clinical practice of RT departments. This could be a first step for further optimizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Radiotherapy and Prognosis)
Article
Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life and Distress in an Asian Community-Based Cancer Rehabilitation Program
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 7012-7020; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100551 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Cancer survivors have reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and high levels of distress during and after active treatment, due to physical, psychological, and social problems. Understanding the prevalence and associations of HRQOL and distress in a patient population in the community is [...] Read more.
Cancer survivors have reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and high levels of distress during and after active treatment, due to physical, psychological, and social problems. Understanding the prevalence and associations of HRQOL and distress in a patient population in the community is important when designing rehabilitation programs. This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at a community-based cancer rehabilitation center, with the aim of investigating the prevalence and associations of HRQOL and distress in cancer patients. There were 304 patients who were recruited. We found low levels of HRQOL and high levels of distress in patients, with a mean FACT-G7 total score of 11.68, and a mean distress thermometer score of 3.51. In the multivariate regression model, significant factors for low HRQOL were metastatic disease (p = 0.025) and Malay ethnicity (p < 0.001). Regression analyses also found that significant distress was associated with family health issues (p = 0.003), depression (p = 0.001), worry (p = 0.005), breathing (p = 0.007), getting around (p = 0.012) and indigestion (p = 0.039). A high prevalence of impaired HRQOL and distress was reported in cancer survivors even in a community rehabilitation setting. The physical and psychosocial well-being of cancer survivors should be monitored and managed as part of community-based cancer rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Palliative and Supportive Care)
Article
A Novel Ferroptosis-Related Signature for Prediction of Prognosis, Immune Profiles and Drug Sensitivity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 6992-7011; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100550 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant disease with an increasing incidence and a high mortality rate. Ferroptosis, a novel type of cell death, has been reported to be closely associated with the progression of HCC. The aim of our study was to construct [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant disease with an increasing incidence and a high mortality rate. Ferroptosis, a novel type of cell death, has been reported to be closely associated with the progression of HCC. The aim of our study was to construct a novel ferroptosis-related signature (nFRGs) for prediction of prognosis, immune features and drug sensitivity of HCC patients. Data were obtained from the TCGA, ICGC, GSE104580, CCLE and IMvigor210 datasets, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was used to construct nFRGs. In addition, the analyses involved in prognoses, molecular function, stemness indices, somatic mutation, responses to immunologic therapy, efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy and drug sensitivity were performed using diverse packages of R 4.1.3 between the low- and high-risk groups. The nFRGs included seven ferroptosis-related genes. Our results showed that nFRGs was an independent risk factor for prognoses of HCC patients, and HCC patients in the high-risk group presented with worse prognosis. Compared with the results of other studies, nFRGs was superior to other promising signatures in predicting prognoses of patients with HCC. In addition, most of the enriched pathways of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these subgroups were related to immune features. The molecular functions, genetic mutation and mRNAsi were varied between the high- and low-risk groups. Moreover, we observed significant immunosuppression state in the high-risk group. Patients in the high-risk group might benefit from immunotherapy, whereas patients in the low-risk group may be susceptible to TACE therapy. Finally, five sensitive drugs and four sensitive drugs were screened for patients in the high- and low-risk groups, respectively. nFRGs may served as a novel biomarker of prognosis and aid in personalized therapeutic strategies for patients with HCC. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Lessons from Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Smoking Cessation Programs for Cancer Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(10), 6982-6991; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29100549 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Background: Smoking among patients diagnosed with cancer poses important health and financial challenges including reduced effectiveness of expensive cancer therapies. This study explores the value of smoking cessation programs (SCPs) for patients already diagnosed with cancer. It also identifies conditions under which SPCs [...] Read more.
Background: Smoking among patients diagnosed with cancer poses important health and financial challenges including reduced effectiveness of expensive cancer therapies. This study explores the value of smoking cessation programs (SCPs) for patients already diagnosed with cancer. It also identifies conditions under which SPCs may be wise investments. Methods: Using a simplified decision analytic model combined with insights from a literature review, we explored the cost-effectiveness of SCPs. Results: The findings provide insights about the potential impact of cessation probabilities among cancer patients in SCPs and the potential impact of SCPs on cancer patients’ lives. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that there is good reason to believe that SCPs are an economically attractive way to improve outcomes for cancer patients when SCPs are offered in conjunction with standard cancer care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smoking Cessation after a Cancer Diagnosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop