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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 36 articles

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Commentary
Misinformation and Facts about Breast Cancer Screening
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5644-5654; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080445 (registering DOI) - 09 Aug 2022
Abstract
Quality medical practice is based on science and evidence. For over a half-century, the efficacy of breast cancer screening has been challenged, particularly for women aged 40–49. As each false claim has been raised, it has been addressed and refuted based on science [...] Read more.
Quality medical practice is based on science and evidence. For over a half-century, the efficacy of breast cancer screening has been challenged, particularly for women aged 40–49. As each false claim has been raised, it has been addressed and refuted based on science and evidence. Nevertheless, misinformation continues to be promoted, resulting in confusion for women and their physicians. Early detection has been proven to save lives for women aged 40–74 in randomized controlled trials of mammography screening. Observational studies, failure analyses, and incidence of death studies have provided evidence that there is a major benefit when screening is introduced to the general population. In large part due to screening, there has been an over 40% decline in deaths from breast cancer since 1990. Nevertheless, misinformation about screening continues to be promoted, adding to the confusion. Despite claims to the contrary, a careful reading of the guidelines issued by major groups such as the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American College of Physicians shows that they all agree that most lives are saved by screening starting at the age of 40. There is no scientific support for using the age of 50 as a threshold for screening. All women should be provided with the facts and not false information about breast cancer screening so that they can make “informed decisions” for themselves about whether to participate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
Article
The Impact of Organised Screening Programs on Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis for Canadian Women Aged 40–49 and 50–59
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5627-5643; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080444 (registering DOI) - 09 Aug 2022
Abstract
The relationship between Canadian mammography screening practices for women 40–49 and breast cancer (BC) stage at diagnosis in women 40–49 and 50–59 years was assessed using data from the Canadian Cancer Registry, provincial/territorial screening practices, and screening information from the Canadian Community Health [...] Read more.
The relationship between Canadian mammography screening practices for women 40–49 and breast cancer (BC) stage at diagnosis in women 40–49 and 50–59 years was assessed using data from the Canadian Cancer Registry, provincial/territorial screening practices, and screening information from the Canadian Community Health Survey. For the 2010 to 2017 period, women aged 40–49 were diagnosed with lesser relative proportions of stage I BC (35.7 vs. 45.3%; p < 0.001), but greater proportions of stage II (42.6 vs. 36.7%, p < 0.001) and III (17.3 vs. 13.1%, p < 0.001) compared to women 50–59. Stage IV was lower among women 40–49 than 50–59 (4.4% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.005). Jurisdictions with organised screening programs for women 40–49 with annual recall (screeners) were compared with those without (comparators). Women aged 40–49 in comparator jurisdictions had higher proportions of stages II (43.7% vs. 40.7%, p < 0.001), III (18.3% vs. 15.6%, p < 0.001) and IV (4.6% vs. 3.9%, p = 0.001) compared to their peers in screener jurisdictions. Based on screening practices for women aged 40–49, women aged 50–59 had higher proportions of stages II (37.2% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.003) and III (13.6% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.001) in the comparator versus screener groups. The results of this study can be used to reassess the optimum lower age for BC screening in Canada. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
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Commentary
Engaging Patients in the Canadian Real-World Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Initiative: Processes and Lessons Learned
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5616-5626; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080443 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration established the Engagement Working Group (WG) to ensure that all key stakeholders had an opportunity to provide input into the development and implementation of the CanREValue Real-World Evidence (RWE) Framework. Two consultations [...] Read more.
The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration established the Engagement Working Group (WG) to ensure that all key stakeholders had an opportunity to provide input into the development and implementation of the CanREValue Real-World Evidence (RWE) Framework. Two consultations were held in 2021 to solicit patient perspectives on key policy and data access issues identified in the interim policy and data WG reports. Over 30 individuals, representing patients, caregivers, advocacy leaders, and individuals engaged in patient research were invited to participate. The consultations provided important feedback and valuable lessons in patient engagement. Patient leaders actively shaped the process and content of the consultation. Breakout groups facilitated by patient advocacy leaders gave the opportunity for open and thoughtful contributions from all participants. Important recommendations were made: the RWE framework should not impede access to new drugs; it should be used to support conditional approvals; patient relevant endpoints should be captured in provincial datasets; access to data to conduct RWE should be improved; and privacy issues must be considered. The manuscript documents the CanREValue experience of engaging patients in a consultative process and the useful contributions that can be achieved when the processes to engage are guided by patients themselves. Full article
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Article
The Screening and COnsensus Based on Practices and Evidence (SCOPE) Program Results of a Survey on Daily Practice Patterns for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer—A Swiss Perspective in the Context of an International Viewpoint
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5604-5615; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080442 - 06 Aug 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In Switzerland, physicians do not have national guidelines for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patient care and utilize international versions for management recommendations. Moreover, information about adherence to these guidelines and real-world practice patterns in Switzerland or other countries is lacking. The Screening and [...] Read more.
In Switzerland, physicians do not have national guidelines for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patient care and utilize international versions for management recommendations. Moreover, information about adherence to these guidelines and real-world practice patterns in Switzerland or other countries is lacking. The Screening and COnsensus based on Practices and Evidence (SCOPE) program were designed by an international expert panel of gastrointestinal oncologists to gather real-world insights in the current clinical setting to manage patients with mCRC who have received prior treatment. We sought to understand general practice patterns, the influence of molecular diagnostics (e.g., testing for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and MSI), tumor sidedness, and patient-centric factors on treatment selection utilizing in-person surveys and three hypothetical patient case scenarios. Here, we describe and evaluate the Swiss data from the SCOPE program within the context of an international viewpoint and discuss the findings of our analysis. In general, we find that the real-world clinical decisions of Swiss physicians (SWI) closely follow international (INT) recommendations and guidelines, largely paralleling their regional and international counterparts in using the two approved treatments in the third- and fourth-line settings, namely trifluridine-tipiracil and regorafenib. Finally, our data suggest a tendency toward the use of trifluridine-tipiracil (SWI: 79%; INT: 66%) over regorafenib (SWI: 18%; INT: 18%) as the preferred third-line treatment choice in mCRC patients regardless of KRAS status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Immune Biomarkers in Blood from Sarcoma Patients: A Pilot Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5585-5603; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080441 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 280
Abstract
The main role of the host immune system is to identify and eliminate cancer cells, which is a complex process, but it is not a fail-safe mechanism. Many sarcoma patients succumb to this disease despite treatments rendered. The aim of this pilot study [...] Read more.
The main role of the host immune system is to identify and eliminate cancer cells, which is a complex process, but it is not a fail-safe mechanism. Many sarcoma patients succumb to this disease despite treatments rendered. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the levels of CD4+ T-cells, T-regulatory (Treg) cells, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) in peripheral blood leukocytes of sarcoma patients and healthy controls. For gene expression studies, total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genes that were differentially regulated in peripheral blood leukocytes of sarcoma patients compared with healthy controls were determined using a commercial T-helper cell differentiation quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array. Flow cytometer analysis was performed on blood samples from 26 sarcoma patients and 10 healthy controls to identify the levels of CD4+ T-cells and T-reg cells. The level of cytokines in plasma and culture supernatant were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. A marked reduction in the percentage of CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.037) and levels of TNF-α (p = 0.004) and IFN-γ (0.010) was observed in sarcoma patients. Gene expression analysis showed five genes (homeobox A10 (HOXA10), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (PTGDR2), thymocyte selection associated high mobility group box (TOX), and C-C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3)) were dysregulated (p < 0.05) in sarcoma patients. This study suggests that T-helper-1 immune responses are reduced in sarcoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
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Commentary
Training for Wellness in Pediatric Oncology: A Focus on Education and Hidden Curricula
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5579-5584; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080440 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Pediatric oncologists have the privilege of caring for children and families facing serious, often life-threatening, illnesses. Providing this care is emotionally demanding and associated with significant risks of stress and burnout for oncologists. Traditional approaches to physician burnout and wellbeing have not emphasized [...] Read more.
Pediatric oncologists have the privilege of caring for children and families facing serious, often life-threatening, illnesses. Providing this care is emotionally demanding and associated with significant risks of stress and burnout for oncologists. Traditional approaches to physician burnout and wellbeing have not emphasized the potential roles of education and training in mitigating this stress. In this commentary, we discuss the contribution that education, particularly in the areas of palliative and psychosocial oncology, can make in preparing oncologists for the work that they do. We argue that by adequately providing oncologists with the skills they need for their work, we can reduce their risk of burning out. We also discuss the importance of paying attention to hidden and formal curricula to ensure that messages provided in formal education programs are supported by informal training experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mental Health and Well-Being of Oncology Providers)
Article
Satisfaction with Telemedicine for Cancer Pain Management: A Model of Care and Cross-Sectional Patient Satisfaction Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5566-5578; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080439 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Background: Since cancer pain requires complex modalities of care, the proper strategy for addressing its telemedicine-based management should be better defined. This study aimed to trace a pathway for a progressive implementation of the telemedicine process for the treatment of pain in the [...] Read more.
Background: Since cancer pain requires complex modalities of care, the proper strategy for addressing its telemedicine-based management should be better defined. This study aimed to trace a pathway for a progressive implementation of the telemedicine process for the treatment of pain in the setting of cancer patients. Methods: The features of the model were investigated to dissect the dropout from the telemedicine pathway. A cross-sectional patient satisfaction study was conducted. The degree of satisfaction was evaluated through a developed 22-item questionnaire (Likert scale 0–7). Results: A total of 375 video consultations for 164 patients (mean age 62.9 years) were performed through remote consultations for cancer pain management between March 2021 and February 2022. After the exclusion of 72 patients, 92 (56.1%) were included in the analysis. The dropout ratio was 8.7%. The number of visits and pharmacological therapies for neuropathic pain correlated with the risk for readmission (p < 0.05). Overall, the satisfaction was very high (mean > 5.5 for all items). Conclusion: Feedback from patients reflected high satisfaction rates with the care provided. A methodological approach based on the degree of satisfaction combined with the analysis of the pathways can help to implement the quality of a service provided through telemedicine. While not without limitations, our hybrid protocol can be useful for addressing cancer pain through a patient-centered approach. Full article
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Article
Somatostatin Receptor Theranostics for Refractory Meningiomas
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5550-5565; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080438 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) represents a promising approach for treatment-refractory meningiomas progressing after surgery and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to provide outcomes of patients harboring refractory meningiomas treated by 177Lu-DOTATATE and an overall analysis of progression-free [...] Read more.
Somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) represents a promising approach for treatment-refractory meningiomas progressing after surgery and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to provide outcomes of patients harboring refractory meningiomas treated by 177Lu-DOTATATE and an overall analysis of progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS-6) of the same relevant studies in the literature. Eight patients with recurrent and progressive WHO grade II meningiomas were treated after multimodal pretreatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE between 2019 and 2022. Primary and secondarily endpoints were progression-free survival at 6-months (PFS-6) and toxicity, respectively. PFS-6 analysis of our case series was compared with other similar relevant studies that included 86 patients treated with either 177Lu-DOTATATE or 90Y-DOTATOC. Our retrospective study showed a PFS-6 of 85.7% for WHO grade II progressive refractory meningiomas. Treatment was clinically and biologically well tolerated. The overall analysis of the previous relevant studies showed a PFS-6 of 89.7% for WHO grade I meningiomas (n = 29); 57.1% for WHO grade II (n = 21); and 0 % for WHO grade III (n = 12). For all grades (n = 86), including unknown grades, PFS-6 was 58.1%. SSTR-targeted PRRT allowed us to achieve prolonged PFS-6 in patients with WHO grade I and II progressive refractory meningiomas, except the most aggressive WHO grade II tumors. Large scale randomized trials are warranted for the better integration of PRRT in the treatment of refractory meningioma into clinical practice guidelines. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Tobacco Smoke N-Nitrosamines, NNK and NDEA, and Nicotine, on DNA Mismatch Repair Mechanism and miRNA Markers, in Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An In Vivo Model and Clinical Evidence
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5531-5549; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080437 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Deregulation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism has been linked to poor prognosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Our recent in vitro data have provided evidence of crosstalk between deregulated miRNAs and MMR genes, caused by tobacco smoke (TS) N-Nitrosamines, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [...] Read more.
Deregulation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism has been linked to poor prognosis of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Our recent in vitro data have provided evidence of crosstalk between deregulated miRNAs and MMR genes, caused by tobacco smoke (TS) N-Nitrosamines, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in hypopharyngeal cells. Here, we explored whether chronic exposure to TS components can affect MMR mechanism and miRNA profiles in hypopharyngeal mucosa. Using a mouse model (C57Bl/6J wild type) of in vivo 14-week exposure to NNK (0.2 mmol/L) and N-Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA; 0.004 mmol/L), with or without nicotine (0.02 μmol/L), we provide direct evidence that TS components can promote dysplasia, significant downregulation of Msh2 and Mlh1 genes and deregulation of miR-21, miR-155, miR-34a, and miR-451a. By analyzing eight human specimens from tobacco smokers and eight controls, we provide clinical evidence of a significant reduction in hMSH2 and hMLH1 mRNAs in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). In summary, deregulation of the MMR mechanism and miRNAs is caused by chronic exposure to TS-related N-Nitrosamines, with or without nicotine, in the early stages of upper aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis, and can also be detected in human HSCC. Thus, we encourage future studies to further elucidate a possible in vivo dose-dependent effect of individual or combined N-Nitrosamines, NNK and/or NDEA, and nicotine, on the MMR mechanism and their clinical testing to elaborate prognosis and risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck)
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Systematic Review
Role of Polygenic Risk Score in Cancer Precision Medicine of Non-European Populations: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5517-5530; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080436 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 392
Abstract
The development of new screening methods and diagnostic tests for traits, common diseases, and cancer is linked to the advent of precision genomic medicine, in which health care is individually adjusted based on a person’s lifestyle, environmental influences, and genetic variants. Based on [...] Read more.
The development of new screening methods and diagnostic tests for traits, common diseases, and cancer is linked to the advent of precision genomic medicine, in which health care is individually adjusted based on a person’s lifestyle, environmental influences, and genetic variants. Based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis, rapid and continuing progress in the discovery of relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for traits or complex diseases has increased interest in the potential application of genetic risk models for routine health practice. The polygenic risk score (PRS) estimates an individual’s genetic risk of a trait or disease, calculated by employing a weighted sum of allele counts combined with non-genetic variables. However, 98.38% of PRS records held in public databases relate to the European population. Therefore, PRSs for multiethnic populations are urgently needed. We performed a systematic review to discuss the role of polygenic risk scores in advancing precision medicine for different cancer types in multiethnic non-European populations. Full article
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Article
Reducing Unnecessary Biopsies Using Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Ultrasound in Dense and Nondense Breasts
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5508-5516; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080435 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Aim: To compare digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and ultrasound in women recalled for assessment after a positive screening mammogram and assess the potential for each of these tools to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Methods: This data linkage study included 538 women recalled for assessment [...] Read more.
Aim: To compare digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and ultrasound in women recalled for assessment after a positive screening mammogram and assess the potential for each of these tools to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Methods: This data linkage study included 538 women recalled for assessment from January 2017 to December 2019. The association between the recalled mammographic abnormalities and breast density was analysed using the chi-square independence test. Relative risks and the number of recalled cases requiring DBT and ultrasound assessment to prevent one unnecessary biopsy were compared using the McNemar test. Results: Breast density significantly influenced recall decisions (p < 0.001). Ultrasound showed greater potential to decrease unnecessary biopsies than DBT: in entirely fatty (21% vs. 5%; p = 0.04); scattered fibroglandular (23% vs. 10%; p = 0.003); heterogeneously dense (34% vs. 7%; p < 0.001) and extremely dense (39% vs. 9%; p < 0.001) breasts. The number of benign cases needing assessment to prevent one unnecessary biopsy was significantly lower with ultrasound than DBT in heterogeneously dense (1.8 vs. 7; p < 0.001) and extremely dense (1.9 vs. 5.1; p = 0.03) breasts. Conclusion: Women with dense breasts are more likely to be recalled for assessment and have a false-positive biopsy. Women with dense breasts benefit more from ultrasound assessment than from DBT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
Article
Drug Treatment for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: First-Line and Beyond
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5489-5507; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080434 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high mortality. The option of systemic therapy has increased significantly over the past five years. Sorafenib was the first multikinase inhibitor, introduced in 2007, as a treatment option for HCC, and it was the only effective systemic treatment for [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high mortality. The option of systemic therapy has increased significantly over the past five years. Sorafenib was the first multikinase inhibitor, introduced in 2007, as a treatment option for HCC, and it was the only effective systemic treatment for more than ten years. It was not until 2017 that several breakthroughs were made in the development of systemic strategies. Lenvatinib, another multikinase inhibitor, stood out successfully after sorafenib, and has been applied to clinical use in the first-line setting. Other multikinase inhibitors such as regorafenib, ramucirumab and cabozantinib, were approved in quick succession as second-line therapies. Concurrently, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have readily become established treatments for many solid tumors, including HCC. The most studied ICIs to date, target programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), its ligand PD-L1, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). These ICIs have demonstrated efficacy in treating advanced HCC. More recently, combination of bevacizumab and atezolizumab (ICI targeting PD-L1) was approved as the gold-standard first-line therapy. Combination of ICIs with nivolumab and ipilimumab was also approved in the second-line setting for those who failed sorafenib. At the moment, numerous clinical trials in advanced HCC are underway, which will bring continuous change to the management, and increase the survival, for patients with advanced HCC. Our review article: (1) summarizes United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved systemic therapies in advanced HCC, (2) reports the evidence of currently approved treatments, (3) discusses potential drugs/drug combinations being currently tested in phase III clinical trials, and (4) proposes possible future directions in drug development for advanced HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Liver Cancer and Its Treatment)
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Case Report
The Role of Cytoreductive Nephrectomy in Renal Cell Carcinoma with Sarcomatoid Histology: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5475-5488; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080433 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Background: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation represents a rare histological entity characterized by aggressive behavior, limited efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or mTOR inhibitors, and poor outcome. The immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy regimen combining ipilimumab with nivolumab represents a new standard of [...] Read more.
Background: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation represents a rare histological entity characterized by aggressive behavior, limited efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors or mTOR inhibitors, and poor outcome. The immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy regimen combining ipilimumab with nivolumab represents a new standard of care for this patient population due to a hitherto unprecedented response rate and overall survival. On the other hand, the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma, in particular, with sarcomatoid histology, remains controversial. Patient and Methods: In the present case series, we report six patients with locally advanced or synchronous metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and intermediate or poor International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk score, five of whom were successfully subjected to cytoreductive nephrectomy. Results: All six patients received the combination regimen of ipilimumab with nivolumab. Five of these patients underwent upfront cytoreductive nephrectomy followed by systemic treatment without any significant delay, with a durable treatment outcome. Notably, two patients with poor prognostic features achieved a long-term major partial response to therapy. We also performed a review of the literature on optimal treatment strategies for patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Herein, we highlight the feasibility of performing cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with intermediate/poor prognosis metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation followed by immunotherapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab. To enhance the chances of immunotherapy success, cytoreductive nephrectomy should also be considered for patients presenting with a disease with adverse prognostic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Article
Clinical Lymph Node Involvement as a Predictor for Cancer-Specific Survival in Patients with Penile Squamous Cell Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5466-5474; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080432 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 359
Abstract
We aimed to identify prognostic predictive factors of patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC). This retrospective study reviewed the clinical and pathological data of patients with PSCC at 10 institutions in Japan between January 2008 and December 2019. The primary endpoint was [...] Read more.
We aimed to identify prognostic predictive factors of patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC). This retrospective study reviewed the clinical and pathological data of patients with PSCC at 10 institutions in Japan between January 2008 and December 2019. The primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS). We also identified useful predictive factors for CSS in patients with PSCC. In total, 64 patients with PSCC were enrolled. At the end of the follow-up period, 15 patients (23.4%) died owing to PSCC and six (9.4%) died owing to other causes. The 2- and 3-year CSS rates were 78.9% and 76.6%, respectively. Using the Kaplan–Meier method, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0, serum albumin levels ≥4.2 g/dL, hemoglobin levels ≥13.2 g/dL, C-reactive protein levels <0.21 mg/dL, clinical T stage ≤2, clinically negative lymph node (LN) status, and tumor size <30 mm were associated with a significantly better CSS. In the multivariate analysis, the clinically positive LN status was a significant predictive factor for CSS in patients with PSCC. Further prospective large-scale and long-term studies are required to validate our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Communication
Liver Cancer-Specific Isoform of Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results from a Pilot Study in Patients with Dysmetabolic Liver Disease
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5457-5465; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080431 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Reliable non-invasive biomarkers for the surveillance of patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development represent an unmet medical need. Recently, the liver-cancer-specific isoform of serine protease inhibitor Kazal (LC-SPIK) has been proposed as a valuable biomarker for the detection of HCC in [...] Read more.
Reliable non-invasive biomarkers for the surveillance of patients at risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development represent an unmet medical need. Recently, the liver-cancer-specific isoform of serine protease inhibitor Kazal (LC-SPIK) has been proposed as a valuable biomarker for the detection of HCC in patients with chronic liver disease of viral etiology. In the present study, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of LC-SPIK, alone or in combination with standard serologic biomarkers (i.e., alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, PIVKA-II), for the detection of HCC among patients with dysmetabolic liver disease. A total of 120 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including 62 patients with a diagnosis of HCC and 58 with cirrhosis but without tumor, were retrospectively analyzed. The serum levels of LC-SPIK were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ImCare Biotech, Doylestown, PA). The serum LC-SPIK values were significantly different between patients with HCC (24.3, 17.6–39.8 ng/mL) and those with cirrhosis but without tumor (11.7, 8.7–18.2 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we observed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.841 for the detection of HCC; the combination with PIVKA-II further increased the accuracy to AUC = 0.926 (cross-validation). The promising results observed in the present pilot study foster additional research to investigate the usefulness of LC-SPIK for the stratification of the risk of HCC development in patients with NAFLD and advanced liver disease. Full article
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Article
Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis for the Determination of Non-Muscle Invasive vs. Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Pilot Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5442-5456; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080430 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Objectives: The molecular landscape of non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer based on molecular characteristics is essential but poorly understood. In this pilot study we aimed to identify a multi-omics signature that can distinguish MIBC from NMIBC. Such a signature can assist [...] Read more.
Objectives: The molecular landscape of non-muscle-invasive (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive (MIBC) bladder cancer based on molecular characteristics is essential but poorly understood. In this pilot study we aimed to identify a multi-omics signature that can distinguish MIBC from NMIBC. Such a signature can assist in finding potential mechanistic biomarkers and druggable targets. Methods: Patients diagnosed with NMIBC (n = 15) and MIBC (n = 11) were recruited at a tertiary-care hospital in Nanjing from 1 April 2021, and 31 July 2021. Blood, urine and stool samples per participant were collected, in which the serum metabolome, urine metabolome, gut microbiome, and serum extracellular vesicles (EV) proteome were quantified. The differences of the global profiles and individual omics measure between NMIBC vs. MIBC were assessed by permutational multivariate analysis and the Mann–Whitney test, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of each identified analyte with NMIBC vs. MIBC, and the Spearman correlation was used to investigate the correlations between identified analytes, where both were adjusted for age, sex and smoking status. Results: Among 3168 multi-omics measures that passed the quality control, 159 were identified to be differentiated in NMIBC vs. MIBC. Of these, 46 analytes were associated with bladder cancer progression. In addition, the global profiles showed significantly different urine metabolome (p = 0.029), gut microbiome (p = 0.036), and serum EV (extracellular vesicles) proteome (p = 0.039) but not serum metabolome (p = 0.059). We also observed 17 (35%) analytes that had been developed as drug targets. Multiple interactions were obtained between the identified analytes, whereas for the majority (61%), the number of interactions was at 11–20. Moreover, unconjugated bilirubin (p = 0.009) and white blood cell count (p = 0.006) were also shown to be different in NMIBC and MIBC, and associated with 11 identified omics analytes. Conclusions: The pilot study has shown promising to monitor the progression of bladder cancer by integrating multi-omics data and deserves further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Review
Next Wave of Targets in the Treatment of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5426-5441; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080429 - 30 Jul 2022
Viewed by 598
Abstract
While surgical resection has remained the mainstay of treatment in early-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC), therapeutic options in the advanced setting have remarkably expanded over the last 20 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-TKIs) and anti-programmed cell [...] Read more.
While surgical resection has remained the mainstay of treatment in early-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC), therapeutic options in the advanced setting have remarkably expanded over the last 20 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-TKIs) and anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-based immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become globally accepted options in the upfront metastatic setting, with different ICI-based combination strategies improving overall survival compared to single-agent Sunitinib. Although some patients benefit from long-term responses, most eventually develop disease progression. Ongoing efforts to better understand the biology of RCC and the different mechanisms of acquired resistance have led to the identification of promising therapeutic targets. Belzutifan, a novel agent targeting the angiogenic pathway involving hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), has already been approved for the treatment of early-stage tumors associated with VHL disease and represents a very promising therapy in advanced RCC. Other putative targets include epigenetic regulation enzymes, as well as several metabolites such as adenosine, glutaminase and tryptophan, which are critical players in cancer cell metabolism and in the tumor microenvironment. Different methods of immune regulation are also being investigated, including CAR-T cell therapy and modulation of the gut microbiome, in addition to novel agents targeting the interleukin-2 (IL-2) pathway. This review aims to highlight the emergent novel therapies for RCC and their respective completed and ongoing clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond Immunotherapy in the Management of Genito-Urinary Malignancies)
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Article
Recruiting Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Patient-Reported Outcome Research: Experiences and Sample Characteristics of the SURVAYA Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5407-5425; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080428 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Background: Participation of Adolescents and Young Adults with cancer (AYAs: 18–39 years at time of diagnosis) in patient-reported outcome studies is warranted given the limited knowledge of (long-term) physical and psychosocial health outcomes. We examined the representativeness of AYAs participating in the study, [...] Read more.
Background: Participation of Adolescents and Young Adults with cancer (AYAs: 18–39 years at time of diagnosis) in patient-reported outcome studies is warranted given the limited knowledge of (long-term) physical and psychosocial health outcomes. We examined the representativeness of AYAs participating in the study, to observe the impact of various invitation methods on response rates and reasons for non-participation. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was performed among long-term (5–20 years) AYA cancer survivors. All participants were invited using various methods to fill in a questionnaire on their health outcomes, including enclosing a paper version of the questionnaire, and sending a reminder. Those who did not respond received a postcard in which they were asked to provide a reason for non-participation. Results: In total, 4.010 AYAs (response 36%) participated. Females, AYAs with a higher socio-economic status (SES), diagnosed more than 10 years ago, diagnosed with a central nervous system tumor, sarcoma, a lymphoid malignancy, stage III, or treated with systemic chemotherapy were more likely to participate. Including a paper questionnaire increased the response rate by 5% and sending a reminder by 13%. AYAs who did not participate were either not interested (47%) or did want to be reminded of their cancer (31%). Conclusions: Study participation was significantly lower among specific subgroups of AYA cancer survivors. Higher response rates were achieved when a paper questionnaire was included, and reminders were sent. To increase representativeness of future AYA study samples, recruitment strategies could focus on integrating patient-reported outcomes in clinical practice and involving AYA patients to promote participation in research. Full article
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Review
Exosomal Non-Coding RNAs: New Insights into the Biology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5383-5406; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080427 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Exosomes, extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 40 to 160 nm, are among the smallest extracellular vesicles released by cells. They deliver different cargoes, including proteins, DNAs, and RNAs, and facilitate communication between cells to coordinate a variety of physiological and pathological functions. [...] Read more.
Exosomes, extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 40 to 160 nm, are among the smallest extracellular vesicles released by cells. They deliver different cargoes, including proteins, DNAs, and RNAs, and facilitate communication between cells to coordinate a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Its molecular mechanism remains largely unknown, and there is a lack of reliable and noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction. Mounting evidence has shown that exosomes carry a variety of ncRNAs, such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), which play critical roles in the occurrence and progression of HCC. In this review, we summarize the recent findings of exosomal miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in HCC from their impact on the development of HCC to their potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Full article
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Article
Combined Exoscopic and Endoscopic Two-Step Keyhole Approach for Intracranial Meningiomas
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5370-5382; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080426 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The advantages of neuroendoscopic surgery are the wide viewing angle and the freedom of an axis of view with minimal surgical trauma. With the advent of the exoscope, which has similar advantages to endoscopy, such as a small body and ergonomically superior heads-up [...] Read more.
The advantages of neuroendoscopic surgery are the wide viewing angle and the freedom of an axis of view with minimal surgical trauma. With the advent of the exoscope, which has similar advantages to endoscopy, such as a small body and ergonomically superior heads-up surgery, it has become possible to add a field of view that is similar to that of microsurgery to endoscopic surgery. By taking advantage of the features of these scopes, we report the usefulness of the minimally invasive combined exoscopic and endoscopic two-step keyhole approach (EEKA) for various types of meningiomas. We reviewed data from 34 consecutive cases of EEKA for various types of intracranial meningiomas compared with that of conventional microsurgery. All of the tumors were resected as planned without severe complications. Significantly better outcome data were obtained in terms of the blood loss and the surgical time in the EEKA group, in addition to the craniotomy size. The well-illuminated fine vision in the deep corners by the endoscope enabled radical resection of the tumors with minimum burden on the patients. This technique has the potential for minimally invasive surgery in intracranial meningioma patients, including the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in the Surgical Treatment of Brain Tumors)
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Comment
A Case for Offering HPV Self-Sampling to Well-Screened Women. Comment on Lesack et al. Willingness to Self-Collect a Sample for HPV-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in a Well-Screened Cohort: HPV FOCAL Survey Results. Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29, 3860–3869
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5368-5369; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080425 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Lesack et al. recently published a cross-sectional study that focused on human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling in the screened population, a population not conventionally thought of for HPV self-sampling. They found 52% of well-screened, highly educated women who participated in the Human Papillomavirus For [...] Read more.
Lesack et al. recently published a cross-sectional study that focused on human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling in the screened population, a population not conventionally thought of for HPV self-sampling. They found 52% of well-screened, highly educated women who participated in the Human Papillomavirus For Cervical Cancer (HPV FOCAL) screening trial in British Columbia, Canada, would be willing to self-collect an HPV sample. We published a similar study in 2021 on well-screened, highly educated women affiliated with a family medicine clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and found that 60% of these women preferred to have the option of HPV self-sampling. Our findings reinforce Lesack et al.’s results and together provide evidence for offering HPV self-sampling as an option for the well-screened population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecologic Oncology)
Article
Identifying Breast Cancer Recurrence in Administrative Data: Algorithm Development and Validation
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5338-5367; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080424 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Breast cancer recurrence is an important outcome for patients and healthcare systems, but it is not routinely reported in cancer registries. We developed an algorithm to identify patients who experienced recurrence or a second case of primary breast cancer (combined as a “second [...] Read more.
Breast cancer recurrence is an important outcome for patients and healthcare systems, but it is not routinely reported in cancer registries. We developed an algorithm to identify patients who experienced recurrence or a second case of primary breast cancer (combined as a “second breast cancer event”) using administrative data from the population of Ontario, Canada. A retrospective cohort study design was used including patients diagnosed with stage 0-III breast cancer in the Ontario Cancer Registry between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 and alive six months post-diagnosis. We applied the algorithm to healthcare utilization data from six months post-diagnosis until death or 31 December 2013, whichever came first. We validated the algorithm’s diagnostic accuracy against a manual patient record review (n = 2245 patients). The algorithm had a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 94%, a positive predictive value of 67%, a negative predictive value of 98%, an accuracy of 93%, a kappa value of 71%, and a prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa value of 85%. The second breast cancer event rate was 16.5% according to the algorithm and 13.0% according to manual review. Our algorithm’s performance was comparable to previously published algorithms and is sufficient for healthcare system monitoring. Administrative data from a population can, therefore, be interpreted using new methods to identify new outcome measures. Full article
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Article
Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Electrochemotherapy: Insights from the InspECT Registry (2008–2019)
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5324-5337; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080423 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 459
Abstract
This prospective registry-based study aims to describe electrochemotherapy (ECT) modalities in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients and evaluate its efficacy, safety, and predictive factors. The International Network for Sharing Practices of Electrochemotherapy (InspECT) multicentre database was queried for BCC cases treated with bleomycin-ECT [...] Read more.
This prospective registry-based study aims to describe electrochemotherapy (ECT) modalities in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients and evaluate its efficacy, safety, and predictive factors. The International Network for Sharing Practices of Electrochemotherapy (InspECT) multicentre database was queried for BCC cases treated with bleomycin-ECT between 2008 and 2019 (n = 330 patients from seven countries, with 623 BCCs [median number: 1/patient; range: 1–7; size: 13 mm, range: 5–350; 85% were primary, and 80% located in the head and neck]). The procedure was carried out under local anaesthesia in 68% of cases, with the adjunct of mild sedation in the remaining 32%. Of 300 evaluable patients, 242 (81%) achieved a complete response (CR) after a single ECT course. Treatment naïvety (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.19–0.67, p = 0.001) and coverage of deep tumour margin with electric pulses (O.R. 5.55, 95% C.I. 1.37–21.69, p = 0.016) predicted CR, whereas previous radiation was inversely correlated (O.R. 0.25, p = 0.0051). Toxicity included skin ulceration (overall, 16%; G3, 1%) and hyperpigmentation (overall, 8.1%; G3, 2.5%). At a 17-month follow-up, 28 (9.3%) patients experienced local recurrence/progression. Despite no convincing evidence that ECT confers improved outcomes compared with standard surgical excision, it can still be considered an opportunity to avoid major resection in patients unsuitable for more demanding treatment. Treatment naïvety and coverage of the deep margin predict tumour clearance and may inform current patient selection and management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Skin Cancer)
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Case Report
Morphogenetic and Imaging Characteristics in Giant Cell Glioblastoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5316-5323; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080422 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Giant cell glioblastoma is a rare tumor entity of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. It is usually found in the pediatric population. We describe a particular case of a female patient diagnosed histopathologically with giant cell glioblastoma, who had two recurrences in different lobes of the [...] Read more.
Giant cell glioblastoma is a rare tumor entity of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. It is usually found in the pediatric population. We describe a particular case of a female patient diagnosed histopathologically with giant cell glioblastoma, who had two recurrences in different lobes of the same cerebral hemisphere, despite positive prognostic factors and appropriate treatment. We performed an immunohistochemical characterization of giant cell glioblastoma as well as an analysis of its aggressiveness using the cytogenetic markers TP53, CDKN2A, and TP73 using the FISH technique. The clinical picture was inconsistant, the suspicion being completely different initially. Paraclinical examination and imaging initially suggested a metastasis to the insular lobe. After surgery, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were the basis for the diagnosis. Despite the prognostic factors known so far in the literature, the aggressiveness denoted by multiple relapses and morphogenetic tests particularizes the case and improves the literature by bringing new information about this rare neoplasm of the central nervous system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
Prospective Evaluation of Kidney Function in Long-Term Survivors of Pediatric CNS Tumors
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5306-5315; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080421 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Purpose: Numerous acute effects of chemotherapeutics on kidney function are well described. However, data on the long-term effects of chemotherapy in the growing population of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors is limited. We aimed to evaluate the kidney function of a [...] Read more.
Purpose: Numerous acute effects of chemotherapeutics on kidney function are well described. However, data on the long-term effects of chemotherapy in the growing population of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors is limited. We aimed to evaluate the kidney function of a cohort of long-term CNS tumor survivors treated with different standard chemotherapeutic regimens. Methods: Patients treated for a CNS tumor were prospectively evaluated up to 12 years after completion of their therapy. Examination of kidney function was performed during routine follow-up visits. Blood pressure and blood and urine parameters were analyzed for kidney function evaluation. Glomerular function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), tubular functions were analyzed by measuring serum electrolytes, bicarbonate and phosphate reabsorption, and proteinuria was assessed by calculating the protein/creatinine ratio and phosphate reabsorption. Results: None of the 65 patients evaluated suffered from clinically relevant kidney impairment (eGFR < 90 mL/min/L, 73 m2). There was no association between chemotherapy dose and eGFR. Only two patients showed mild signs of tubulopathy and 11 patients were diagnosed with elevated blood pressure. Conclusion: With adequate supportive measures, such as sufficient hydration according to chemotherapy protocol guidelines, as well as avoidance or close monitoring of additional nephrotoxic medication, impaired kidney function is rare in CNS tumor survivors treated with standard chemotherapy. Nonetheless, long-term follow-up is essential for early detection of mild impairment of kidney function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
Article
Intraoperative Positive Pancreatic Parenchymal Resection Margin: Is It a True Indication of Completion Total Pancreatectomy after Partial Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma?
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5295-5305; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080420 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Background: Total pancreatectomy (TP) can be performed in cases with positive resection margin after partial pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. However, despite complete removal of the residual pancreatic parenchyme, it is questionable whether an actual R0 resection and favorable survival can be achieved. This [...] Read more.
Background: Total pancreatectomy (TP) can be performed in cases with positive resection margin after partial pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. However, despite complete removal of the residual pancreatic parenchyme, it is questionable whether an actual R0 resection and favorable survival can be achieved. This study aimed to identify the R0 resection rate and postoperative outcomes, including survival, following completion TP (cTP) performed due to intraoperative positive margin. Methods: From 1995 to 2015, 1096 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma underwent elective pancreatectomy at the Samsung Medical Center. Among these, 25 patients underwent cTP, which was converted during partial pancreatectomy because of a positive resection margin. To compare survival after R0 resection between the cTP R0 and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) R0 cases, propensity score matching was conducted to balance the baseline characteristics. Results: The R0 rate of cTP performed due to intraoperative positive margin was 84% (21/25). The overall 5-year survival rate (5YSR) in the 25 cTP cases was 8%. There was no difference in the 5YSR between the cTP R0 and cTP R1 groups (9.5% versus 0.0%, p = 0.963). However, the 5YSR of the cTP R0 group was significantly lower than that of the PD R0 group (9.5% versus 20.0%, p = 0.022). There was no distinct difference in postoperative complications between the cTP R0 versus cTP R1 and cTP R0 versus PD R0 groups. Conclusions: In cases with intraoperative positive pancreatic parenchymal resection margin, survival after cTP was not favorable. Careful patient selection is needed to perform cTP in such cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Outcomes of Pancreatic Cancer Surgery)
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Article
High-Volume Hospitals’ Ovarian Cancer Care—Less Individual Approach or Better Treatment Results?
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5278-5294; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080419 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and is usually diagnosed in advanced stages. The relationship between treatment in high-volume hospitals (HVHs) and survival in OC has been documented by multiple studies, which showed that superior treatment and survival outcomes [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and is usually diagnosed in advanced stages. The relationship between treatment in high-volume hospitals (HVHs) and survival in OC has been documented by multiple studies, which showed that superior treatment and survival outcomes are associated with surgical expertise and multidisciplinary resources. To our study, 135 first-time patients treated in the years 2019–2020 in the Department of Oncology of Poznań University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. Th analysis showed a significant dependency between being treated in a HVH from the beginning of one’s diagnosis and the scope of the first intervention. Additionally, among patients treated in our centre, a significant portion of patients underwent laparoscopy, and from one year to another the number of laparoscopies performed increased. This may indicate that more patients began to qualify for neoadjuvant treatment. Patients benefit the most from surgery in a centre with more experience in treating ovarian cancer. In the future, we will be able to expand this study by using data from patients treated before 2019 and analysing larger cohorts of patients. This might enable us to update the rates of overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Full article
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Review
Re-Irradiation for Recurrent Cervical Cancer: A State-of-the-Art Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5262-5277; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080418 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The recurrence rate of cervical cancer after primary treatment can reach 60%, and a poor prognosis is reported in most cases. Treatment options for the recurrence of cervical cancer mainly depend on the prior treatment regimen and the location of recurrent lesions. Re-irradiation [...] Read more.
The recurrence rate of cervical cancer after primary treatment can reach 60%, and a poor prognosis is reported in most cases. Treatment options for the recurrence of cervical cancer mainly depend on the prior treatment regimen and the location of recurrent lesions. Re-irradiation is still considered as a clinical challenge, owing to a high incidence of toxicity, especially in in-field recurrence within a short period of time. Recent advances in radiotherapy have preliminarily revealed encouraging outcomes of re-irradiation. Several centers have concentrasted on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of well-selected cases. Meanwhile, as the image-guiding techniques become more precise, a better dose profile can also be achieved in brachytherapy, including high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) and permanent radioactive seed implantation (PRSI). These treatment modalities have shown promising efficacy with a tolerable toxicity, providing further treatment options for recurrent cervical cancer. However, it is highly unlikely to draw a definite conclusion from all of those studies due to the large heterogeneity among them and the lack of large-scale prospective studies. This study mainly reviews and summarizes the progress of re-irradiation for recurrent cervical cancer in recent years, in order to provide potential treatment regimens for the management of re-irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Radiation Therapy)
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Review
Polyphenol Mechanisms against Gastric Cancer and Their Interactions with Gut Microbiota: A Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5247-5261; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080417 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The lack of new drugs and resistance to existing drugs are serious problems in gastric cancer(GC) treatment. The research found polyphenols possess anti-Helicobacter pylori(Hp) and antitumor activities and may be used in the research and development of drugs for cancer prevention and [...] Read more.
The lack of new drugs and resistance to existing drugs are serious problems in gastric cancer(GC) treatment. The research found polyphenols possess anti-Helicobacter pylori(Hp) and antitumor activities and may be used in the research and development of drugs for cancer prevention and treatment. However, polyphenols are affected by their chemical structures and physical properties, which leads to relatively low bioavailability and bioactivity in vivo. The intestinal flora can improve the absorption, utilization, and biological activity of polyphenols, whereas polyphenol compounds can increase the richness of the intestinal flora, reduce the activity of carcinogenic bacteria, stabilize the proportion of core flora, and maintain homeostasis of the intestinal microenvironment. Our review summarizes the gastrointestinal flora-mediated mechanisms of polyphenol against GC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Anti-cancer Drugs)
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Article
Costs of Next-Generation Sequencing Assays in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Micro-Costing Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(8), 5238-5246; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29080416 - 23 Jul 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor genomes has changed and improved cancer treatment over the past few decades. It can inform clinicians on the optimal therapeutic approach in many of the solid and hematologic cancers, including non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study aimed [...] Read more.
Background: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor genomes has changed and improved cancer treatment over the past few decades. It can inform clinicians on the optimal therapeutic approach in many of the solid and hematologic cancers, including non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study aimed to determine the costs of NGS assays for NSCLC diagnostics. Methods: We performed a micro-costing study of four NGS assays (Trusight Tumor 170 Kit (Illumina), Oncomine Focus (Thermo Fisher), QIAseq Targeted DNA Custom Panel and QIASeq Targeted RNAscan Custom Panel (Qiagen), and KAPA HyperPlus/SeqCap EZ (Roche)) at the StemCore Laboratories, the Ottawa Hospital, Canada. We used a time-and-motion approach to measure personnel time and a pre-defined questionnaire to collect resource utilization. The unit costs were based on market prices. The cost data were reported in 2019 Canadian dollars. Results: Based on a case throughput of 500 cases per year, the per-sample cost for TruSight Tumor 170 Kit, QIASeq Targeted DNA Custom Panel and QIASeq Targeted RNAscan Custom Panel, Oncomine Focus, and HyperPlus/SeqCap EZ were CAD 1778, CAD 599, CAD 1100 and CAD 1270, respectively. The key cost drivers were library preparation (34–60%) and sequencing (31–51%), followed by data analysis (6–13%) and administrative support (2–7%). Conclusions: Trusight Tumor 170 Kit was the most expensive NGS assay for NSCLC diagnostics; however, an economic evaluation is required to identify the most cost-effective NGS assay. Our study results could help inform decisions to select a robust platform for NSCLC diagnostics from fine needle aspirates, and future economic evaluations of the NGS platforms to guide treatment selections for NSCLC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Economics)
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