Next Issue
Volume 11, April-2
Previous Issue
Volume 11, March-2
 
 

Foods, Volume 11, Issue 7 (April-1 2022) – 170 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Cow’s milk-based infant formulas are the most common substitute to mother’s milk in infancy when breastfeeding is impossible or insufficient, as cow’s milk is a globally available source of mammalian proteins with high nutritional value. However, cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is the most prevalent type of food allergy among infants, affecting up to 3.8% of small children. Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed cow’s milk proteins are commercially available for the management of CMA. Yet, there is a growing demand for more options for infant feeding, both in general but especially for the prevention and management of CMA. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Bioactivity and Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds in Gastrointestinal Digestion of Tomato Bagasse Extracts
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071064 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 651
Abstract
A nutrient-rich diet is a key to improving the chemical signals, such as antioxidants, which modulate pathogens’ resistance in the gut and prevent diseases. A current industrial problem is the generation of undervalued by-products, such as tomato bagasse, which are rich in bioactive [...] Read more.
A nutrient-rich diet is a key to improving the chemical signals, such as antioxidants, which modulate pathogens’ resistance in the gut and prevent diseases. A current industrial problem is the generation of undervalued by-products, such as tomato bagasse, which are rich in bioactive compounds and of commercial interest (carotenoids and phenolic compounds). This work analyzed the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the bioactivity and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from tomato bagasse extracts. Thus, the extraction by ohmic heating (OH) technology was compared with conventional (organic solvents). The results showed that the main phenolic compounds identified by UPLC-qTOF-MS were p-coumaric acid, naringenin, and luteolin. A higher recovery index for total phenolic compounds throughout the gastrointestinal digestion was observed for OH while for carotenoids, a strong reduction after stomach conditions was observed for both extracts. Furthermore, colon-available fraction exhibited a prebiotic effect upon different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but a strain-dependent and more accentuated effect on OH. Thus, the extraction technology highly influenced bioaccessibility, with OH demonstrating a positive impact on the recovery of bioactive compounds and related health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, prebiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Of these properties, the last is demonstrated here for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women’s Special Issue Series: Food Science)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Influence of Processing Parameters and Natural Antimicrobial on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Clostridium pasteurianum Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071063 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The food industry must ensure the stability of the products, and this is often achieved by exposing foods to heat treatments that are able to ensure the absence of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms. These treatments are different in terms of temperature and duration [...] Read more.
The food industry must ensure the stability of the products, and this is often achieved by exposing foods to heat treatments that are able to ensure the absence of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms. These treatments are different in terms of temperature and duration and could lead to a loss in nutritional and sensory value. Moreover, some types of microorganisms manage to survive these treatments thanks to the sporification process. The addition of antimicrobials can become necessary, but at present, consumers are more inclined toward natural products, avoiding synthetic and chemical additives. Antimicrobials from plants could be a valuable option and, in this context, a patent concerning an antimicrobial extract from fermented plant substrate was recently tested against foodborne pathogens revealing high antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was the creation of a model for the evaluation and subsequent prediction of the combined effect of different process and product variables, including antimicrobial addition, on the inhibition and reduction of spore germination of target microorganisms, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Clostridium pasteurianum, responsible for spoilage of tomato-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Different Processing Methods on Microorganisms in Food)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Drying Behavior of Bulgur and Its Effect on Phytochemical Content
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071062 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 510
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of two types of dryers (hot air oven and vacuum dryer) and the yellow berry percentage (1.75%, 36.25%, 43.25%) on the drying process and phytochemical content of bulgur. Results showed that the Midilli [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of two types of dryers (hot air oven and vacuum dryer) and the yellow berry percentage (1.75%, 36.25%, 43.25%) on the drying process and phytochemical content of bulgur. Results showed that the Midilli model successfully described the moisture diffusion during drying at 60 °C in all bulgur samples, where an increase in yellow berry percentage generated an increase in moisture content. Effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 7.05 × 10−11 to 7.82 × 10−11 (m2.s−1) and from 7.73 × 10−11 to 7.82 × 10−11 (m2.s−1) for the hot air oven and vacuum dryer, respectively. However, it decreased significantly with a decrease of yellow berry percentage. It was concluded that the vacuum dryer provided faster and more effective drying than the hot air oven. Total polyphenol (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), and yellow pigment contents (YPC) of bulgur were investigated. TPC ranged between 0.54 and 0.64 (mg GAE/g dm); TFC varied from 0.48 to 0.61 (mg QE/g dm). The YPC was found to be between 0.066 and 0.079 (mg ß-carotene/100g dm). Yellow berry percentage positively and significantly affected the TPC, TFC, and YPC contents due to the hard separation of the outer layers from the starchy grain during the debranning step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Security Risk Level Prediction of Carbofuran Pesticide Residues in Chinese Vegetables Based on Deep Learning
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071061 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
The supervision of security risk level of carbofuran pesticide residues can guarantee the food quality and security of residents effectively. In order to predict the potential key risk vegetables and regions, this paper constructs a security risk assessment model, combined with the k-means++ [...] Read more.
The supervision of security risk level of carbofuran pesticide residues can guarantee the food quality and security of residents effectively. In order to predict the potential key risk vegetables and regions, this paper constructs a security risk assessment model, combined with the k-means++ algorithm, to establish the risk security level. Then the evaluation index value of the security risk model is predicted to determine the security risk level based on the deep learning model. The model consists of a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a long short-term memory network (LSTM) optimized by an arithmetic optimization algorithm (AOA), namely, CNN-AOA-LSTM. In this paper, a comparative experiment is conducted on a small sample data set of independently constructed security risk assessment indicators. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the CNN-AOA-LSTM prediction model based on attention mechanism is 6.12% to 18.99% higher than several commonly used deep neural network models (gated recurrent unit, LSTM, and recurrent neural networks). The prediction model proposed in this paper provides scientific reference to establish the priority order of supervision, and provides forward-looking supervision for the government. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Development and Food Insecurity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Polyphenols and Their Metabolites in Renal Diseases: An Overview
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071060 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Kidney diseases constitute a worldwide public health problem, contributing to morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the published data regarding the potential beneficial effects of polyphenols on major kidney diseases, namely acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, [...] Read more.
Kidney diseases constitute a worldwide public health problem, contributing to morbidity and mortality. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the published data regarding the potential beneficial effects of polyphenols on major kidney diseases, namely acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal cancer, and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. This study consists of a bibliographical review including in vitro and in vivo studies dealing with the effects of individual compounds. An analysis of the polyphenol metabolome in human urine was also conducted to estimate those compounds that are most likely to be responsible for the kidney protective effects of polyphenols. The biological effects of polyphenols can be highly attributed to the modulation of specific signaling cascades including those involved in oxidative stress responses, anti-inflammation processes, and apoptosis. There is increasing evidence that polyphenols afford great potential in renal disease protection. However, this evidence (especially when in vitro studies are involved) should be considered with caution before its clinical translation, particularly due to the unfavorable pharmacokinetics and extensive metabolization that polyphenols undergo in the human body. Future research should consider polyphenols and their metabolites that indeed reach kidney tissues. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Food Safety Risk Management: The Case of Dioxins in Baltic Fish
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071059 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The Swedish risk management case of Baltic fatty fishes, in which dioxin levels may be too high, is a typical multidimensional food safety decision problem involving public health, economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects. To effectively address the dioxin food safety problem, the multiple [...] Read more.
The Swedish risk management case of Baltic fatty fishes, in which dioxin levels may be too high, is a typical multidimensional food safety decision problem involving public health, economic, environmental and socio-cultural aspects. To effectively address the dioxin food safety problem, the multiple dimensions and conflicting interests of stakeholders have to be considered systematically when evaluating competing risk management options. The objectives of this study were to illustrate the applicability of the Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method for multidimensional food safety risk management problems, and to evaluate the Swedish dioxin risk management using MCDA. The results show that the MCDA method is indeed a relevant tool for modelling the multifactorial Swedish dioxin problem and for initiating discussions amongst stakeholders to increase the acceptance of chosen strategies. Abolishing the derogation from the European Commission’s maximum limits for the presence of dioxins in Swedish fish is the dominant strategy for risk assessors, whereas the preferences provided by the other stakeholders would suggest a continuation of the derogation without providing consumer information. However, the preferences of female consumers match with the 2011 decision of the Swedish government to ask for a derogation in combination with consumer information. The conclusion drawn from our MCDA analysis is comparable to the government’s decision that—given the gradual reduction in dioxin concentrations in Baltic fish—the decision to continue providing consumer information or not mainly depends on how risk managers balance the preferences of the different stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Phenotypes: From Agroindustry to Health Effects
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071058 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 804
Abstract
Sweet potato (SP; Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is an edible tuber native to America and the sixth most important food crop worldwide. China leads its production in a global market of USD 45 trillion. SP domesticated varieties differ in specific phenotypic/genotypic traits, yet [...] Read more.
Sweet potato (SP; Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is an edible tuber native to America and the sixth most important food crop worldwide. China leads its production in a global market of USD 45 trillion. SP domesticated varieties differ in specific phenotypic/genotypic traits, yet all of them are rich in sugars, slow digestible/resistant starch, vitamins, minerals, bioactive proteins and lipids, carotenoids, polyphenols, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, coumarins, and saponins, in a genotype-dependent manner. Individually or synergistically, SP’s phytochemicals help to prevent many illnesses, including certain types of cancers and cardiovascular disorders. These and other topics, including the production and market diversification of raw SP and its products, and SP’s starch as a functional ingredient, are briefly discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Frontiers in Phytochemicals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Widely Targeted Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Differences of Nonvolatile Compounds in Oolong Tea in Different Production Areas
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071057 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
The flavor differences in Oolong tea from different producing areas are caused by its complex differential compounds. In this study, representative samples of Oolong tea from four countries were collected, and their differential nonvolatile compounds were analyzed by a combination of widely targeted [...] Read more.
The flavor differences in Oolong tea from different producing areas are caused by its complex differential compounds. In this study, representative samples of Oolong tea from four countries were collected, and their differential nonvolatile compounds were analyzed by a combination of widely targeted metabolomics, chemometrics, and quantitative taste evaluation. A total of 801 nonvolatile compounds were detected, which could be divided into 16 categories. We found that the difference in these compounds’ content among Oolong teas from three producing areas in China was the largest. There were 370 differential compounds related to the producing areas of Oolong tea, which were mainly distributed in 67 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways. In total, 81 differential nonvolatile compounds made important contributions to the taste differences in Oolong tea from different producing areas, among which the number of flavonoids was the largest. Finally, the characteristic compounds of Oolong tea in six producing areas were screened. This study comprehensively identifies the nonvolatile compounds of Oolong tea in different producing areas for the first time, which provides a basis for the analysis of flavor characteristics, quality directional control, and the identification and protection of geographical landmark agricultural products of Oolong tea from different producing areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Green Extraction-Assisted Pseudo-Targeted Profile of Alkaloids in Lotus Seed Epicarp Based on UPLC-QTOF MS with IDA
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071056 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Lotus seed epicarp, a byproduct of lotus, is commonly discarded directly or burned in the cropland, resulting in waste of resources and environmental pollution. In this work, a green ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with ethyl lactate as the extraction solvent was established to extract [...] Read more.
Lotus seed epicarp, a byproduct of lotus, is commonly discarded directly or burned in the cropland, resulting in waste of resources and environmental pollution. In this work, a green ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with ethyl lactate as the extraction solvent was established to extract alkaloids from lotus seed epicarp. The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of alkaloids from 1 g lotus seed epicarp was accomplished with only 10 mL of extraction solvent within 15 min. Combined with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry with information-dependent acquisition mode, a total of 42 alkaloids were annotated in the lotus seed epicarp extracts. Among them, 39 alkaloids were reported in lotus seed epicarp for the first time. According to quantitative analysis, the distributions and trends of alkaloids in the lotus seed epicarp were found to be similar to those of lotus leaves. The five growth stages of lotus seed epicarp could be successfully distinguished based on the ten representative alkaloids. This study demonstrates that ultrasonic-assisted extraction with ethyl lactate as extractant solvent was efficient in the extraction of alkaloids from lotus seed epicarp, which is a potential renewable resource of bioactive ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Future Food Analysis and Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Lentinan on Lipid Oxidation and Quality Change in Goose Meatballs during Cold Storage
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1055; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071055 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The effects of different concentrations of lentinan (LNT) (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) on the oxidation characteristics and physicochemical properties of goose meatballs were investigated during different cold storage (4 °C) stages (3, 7 and 12 days). After adding LNT, the thiobarbituric [...] Read more.
The effects of different concentrations of lentinan (LNT) (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) on the oxidation characteristics and physicochemical properties of goose meatballs were investigated during different cold storage (4 °C) stages (3, 7 and 12 days). After adding LNT, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) of goose meatballs significantly decreased compared to the LNT-free sample during cold storage, which indicated that LNT can inhibit the fat oxidation and the release of nitrogenous substances. Meanwhile, the presence of LNT makes microstructure of the goose meatball samples become denser during the whole storage time. The headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MC) results showed that the proportion of aldehydes in the 4% LNT group reached 0 during storage, suggesting that high LNT concentration inhibits the formation of oxidized products in meat products. The sensory evaluation showed that the addition of LNT improved the color, appearance, flavor, and overall acceptance of goose meatballs, and the 2% LNT group had the highest score in overall acceptance. In summary, the addition of LNT could delay lipid oxidation and improve the quality of goose meatballs during cold storage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Establishing a Multidisciplinary Framework for an Emergency Food Supply System Using a Modified Delphi Approach
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071054 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 441
Abstract
A scientific food emergency supply system is helpful for assuring food supplies continuity, improving response efficiency, and reducing disaster losses. However, the framework for a food emergency supply system is currently an understudied area in emergency management post-disaster. In this study, a comprehensive [...] Read more.
A scientific food emergency supply system is helpful for assuring food supplies continuity, improving response efficiency, and reducing disaster losses. However, the framework for a food emergency supply system is currently an understudied area in emergency management post-disaster. In this study, a comprehensive literature review of major databases was performed to identify potential indicators for the emergency food supply system, followed by a two-round modified Delphi with a multidisciplinary expert panel (n = 17) to verify the proposed framework. The effective response rate of questionnaires ranged from 94.4% (17/18) to 100% (17/17) and the authority coefficient of experts was 0.88, indicating high positivity and reliability of the experts. Furthermore, the p-values of Kendall’s W were < 0.01 and the Cronbach’s α were > 0.7 for all domains and indicators, indicating a high reliability and validity for the proposed framework. Finally, a consensus was reached on all eight domains and 81 indicators. In conclusion, this study introduced and verified a multidisciplinary framework for the food emergency supply system, which could provide a theoretical basis for emergency responders to make corresponding commands and decisions post-disaster. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Study on the Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction with Institutional Foodservice during COVID-19
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071053 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 707
Abstract
This study used a mixed-methods design combining qualitative and quantitative research to understand the factors affecting customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice during COVID-19. First, in-depth interviews and open coding were conducted with institutional foodservice users, and they indicated that harmonious menu composition, food [...] Read more.
This study used a mixed-methods design combining qualitative and quantitative research to understand the factors affecting customer satisfaction with institutional foodservice during COVID-19. First, in-depth interviews and open coding were conducted with institutional foodservice users, and they indicated that harmonious menu composition, food taste, food temperature, close proximity to the restaurant, clean tableware, staff hygiene, hand sanitizer use, and table dividers were important concepts (qualities). Second, factors affecting customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction with institutional foodservice were analyzed using the Kano model, customer satisfaction coefficient, and importance–satisfaction analysis. The highest priorities derived from those analyses for improving the quality of institutional foodservice were harmonious menu composition and food temperature. This mixed-methods study is meaningful because it comprehensively analyzes the satisfaction factors important to customers of institutional foodservice, which have changed because of COVID-19. Therefore, these results will help to improve institutional foodservice and industrial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: Advanced Strategies to Preserve Quality and Extend Shelf Life of Foods
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071052 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
We are pleased to present this Special Issue, which includes 13 papers that highlight the most important research activities in the field of food quality assurance and shelf-life extension [...] Full article
Article
Effect of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Purée and Wheat Flour Blends on β-Carotene, Selected Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Bread
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071051 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
Partial substitution of wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) purée in bread can increase vitamin A intake among consumers. The study investigated the influence of wheat flour substitution with 20–50% of OFSP purée on proximate composition, color, β-carotene, water activity, and microbial [...] Read more.
Partial substitution of wheat flour with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) purée in bread can increase vitamin A intake among consumers. The study investigated the influence of wheat flour substitution with 20–50% of OFSP purée on proximate composition, color, β-carotene, water activity, and microbial keeping quality. The moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate in bread ranged from 28.6–32.7%, 9.9–10.6%, 5.0–5.5%, 1.9–3.2%, 1.4–1.8%, and 79.1–80.9%, respectively. β-carotene, total ash, and crude fiber contents in bread, and Hunter color values a*, b*, chroma, and ∆E significantly increased with the addition of OFSP purée. Total viable counts (TVC), yeast, and molds in bread ranged from 2.82–3.64 log10 cfu/g and 1.48–2.16 log10 cfu/g, respectively, on the last day of storage. Water activity, TVC, and fungal counts were low in sweet potato composite bread as compared to white bread. Total β-carotene in OFSP bread ranged from 1.9–5.4 mg/100 g (on dry weight). One hundred grams of bread portion enriched with 40% and 50% OFSP purée provides more than 50% of vitamin A dietary requirements to children aged 4–8 years. Incorporation of up to 50% OFSP purée in wheat flour produces a relatively shelf-stable, nutritious, and health-promoting functional bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Postprandial Glucose Response after Consuming Low-Carbohydrate, Low-Calorie Rice Cooked in a Carbohydrate-Reducing Rice Cooker
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071050 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
This study evaluates whether blood glucose response differs upon consuming rice cooked in a carbohydrate (carb)-reducing rice cooker. Rice cooked this way exhibited 19% reduced total carbohydrate (34.0 ± 0.3 vs. 27.6 ± 0.9 g/100 g rice) and 20% reduced total calorie (149.0 [...] Read more.
This study evaluates whether blood glucose response differs upon consuming rice cooked in a carbohydrate (carb)-reducing rice cooker. Rice cooked this way exhibited 19% reduced total carbohydrate (34.0 ± 0.3 vs. 27.6 ± 0.9 g/100 g rice) and 20% reduced total calorie (149.0 ± 1.0 vs. 120.8 ± 3.7 kcal/100 g rice) contents. We measured the blood glucose response (at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min) in 13 healthy participants after consuming 6 different rice types: regular white rice (regular WR, 50 g of available carbohydrate (AC)), low-carb WR with equivalent weight as regular WR (low-carb WR (EW)), low-carb WR with equivalent carb as regular WR (low-carb WR (EC), regular mixed-grain rice (regular MR), low-carb MR (EW) as regular MR, and low-carb MR (EC) as regular MR. All rice samples were prepared in an electric carb-reducing rice cooker. Postprandial blood glucose, sensory, and appetite were assessed after each test meal. The incremental area under the curve of 15 and 30 min after rice consumption was significantly lower in low-carb WR (EW) than that in regular WR. These results suggest possible health benefits of low-carb WR in reducing early postprandial spikes in blood glucose level without significant differences in satiety and satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Whey Protein—Citrate Mung Bean Starch—Capsaicin Microcapsules by Spray Drying with Improved Stability and Solubility
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071049 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
Capsaicin was microencapsulated in six different wall systems by spray drying whey protein and citrate mung bean starch at various ratios (10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 1:9, 0:10) to improve its stability and water solubility and reduce its pungency. The morphological, rheological, storage [...] Read more.
Capsaicin was microencapsulated in six different wall systems by spray drying whey protein and citrate mung bean starch at various ratios (10:0, 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 1:9, 0:10) to improve its stability and water solubility and reduce its pungency. The morphological, rheological, storage stability, and physicochemical properties of capsaicin emulsion and capsaicin microcapsules were characterized. As a result, the yield of six capsaicin microcapsules was 19.63–74.99%, the encapsulation efficiency was 26.59–94.18%, the solubility was 65.97–96.32%, the moisture content was lower than 3.63% in all systems, and particle size was broadly distributed in the range of 1–60 μm. Furthermore, microcapsules with high whey protein content in the encapsulation system had an excellent emulsifier effect and wetness, smooth particle surface, and higher lightness (L*). Moreover, the system formed by composite wall materials at a ratio of whey protein to citrate mung bean starch of 7:3 had the highest retention rate and the best stability. The overall results demonstrate that whey protein combined with citrate mung starch through spray drying could be a promising strategy to produce microcapsules of poorly water-soluble compounds such as capsaicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Comparison of Microwave Thawing and Ultra-High-Pressure Thawing on the Quality Characteristics of Frozen Mango
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071048 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
As one of the popular tropical fruits, mango has a relatively short shelf life due to its perishability. Therefore, post-harvest losses are always a topic of concern. Currently, freezing is a common approach to extending mango shelf life. In relation, it is also [...] Read more.
As one of the popular tropical fruits, mango has a relatively short shelf life due to its perishability. Therefore, post-harvest losses are always a topic of concern. Currently, freezing is a common approach to extending mango shelf life. In relation, it is also critical to select a proper thawing process to maintain its original quality attributes. In this study, microwave thawing, and ultra-high-pressure thawing were investigated, and traditional thawing methods (air thawing and water thawing) were compared as references. The thawing time, quality attributes, and sensory scores of frozen mangoes were evaluated. Compared to traditional methods, innovative thawing methods can extensively shorten thawing time. These things considered, the thawing time was further decreased with the increase in microwave power. Additionally, microwave thawing enhanced the quality of mangoes in terms of less color change and drip loss and reduced loss of firmness and vitamin C content. Microwave thawing at 300 W is recommended as the best condition for thawing mangoes, with the highest sensory score. Current work provides more data and information for selecting suitable thawing methods and optimum conditions for frozen mango to minimize losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-High-Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Nutritional Quality of Four Novel Porridge Products Blended with Edible Cricket (Scapsipedus icipe) Meal for Food
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071047 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Currently, no data exist on the utilization of the newly described cricket species (Scapsipedus icipe) meal as additive in food products, though they have high protein (57%) with 88% total digestibility as well as a variety of essential amino acids. This [...] Read more.
Currently, no data exist on the utilization of the newly described cricket species (Scapsipedus icipe) meal as additive in food products, though they have high protein (57%) with 88% total digestibility as well as a variety of essential amino acids. This article presents the first report on the effects of processing techniques and the inclusion of cricket meal (CM) on the nutrient and antinutrient properties of four porridge products compared to a popularly consumed commercial porridge flour (CPF). Porridge enriched with CM had significantly higher protein (2-folds), crude fat (3.4–4-folds), and energy (1.1–1.2-folds) levels than the CPF. Fermented cereal porridge fortified with CM had all three types of omega-3 fatty acids compared to the others. The vitamin content across the different porridge products varied considerably. Germinated cereal porridge with CM had significantly higher iron content (19.5 mg/100 g). Zinc levels ranged from 3.1–3.7 mg/100 g across the various treatments. Total flavonoid content varied significantly in the different porridge products. The phytic acid degradation in germinated and fermented porridge products with CM was 67% and 33%, respectively. Thus, the fortification of porridge products with cricket and indigenous vegetable grain powder could be considered an appropriate preventive approach against malnutrition and to reduce incidences in many low-and middle-income countries. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Differentiating between Enterococcusfaecium and Enterococcuslactis by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071046 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Unlike Enterococcus faecium strains, some Enterococcus lactis strains are considered potential probiotic strains as they lack particular virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. However, these closely related species are difficult to distinguish via conventional taxonomic methods. Here, for the first time, we used matrix-assisted [...] Read more.
Unlike Enterococcus faecium strains, some Enterococcus lactis strains are considered potential probiotic strains as they lack particular virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. However, these closely related species are difficult to distinguish via conventional taxonomic methods. Here, for the first time, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with BioTyper and in-house databases to distinguish between E. faecium and E. lactis. A total of 58 reference and isolated strains (89.2%) were correctly identified at the species level using MALDI-TOF MS with in-house databases. However, seven strains (10.8%) were not accurately differentiated as a single colony was identified as a different species with a similar score value. Specific mass peaks were identified by analyzing reference strains, and mass peaks at 10,122 ± 2 m/z, 3650 ± 1 m/z, and 7306 ± 1 m/z were unique to E. faecium and E. lactis reference strains, respectively. Mass peaks verified reproducibility in 60 isolates and showed 100% specificity, whereas 16S rRNA sequencing identified two different candidates for some isolates (E. faecium and E. lactis). Our specific mass peak method helped to differentiate two species, with high accuracy and high throughput, and provided a viable alternative to 16S rRNA sequencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Application of Mass Spectrometry in Food Analysis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An International Survey on Olive Oils Quality and Traceability: Opinions from the Involved Actors
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071045 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 446
Abstract
A survey was launched to understand the current problems and sensitivities of the olive oil market through a series of questions clustered around topics related to quality, traceability, regulation, standard methods and other issues. The questions were selected after a series of interviews [...] Read more.
A survey was launched to understand the current problems and sensitivities of the olive oil market through a series of questions clustered around topics related to quality, traceability, regulation, standard methods and other issues. The questions were selected after a series of interviews with different actors to identify those aspects where some disagreement or different points of view may exist. These questions were grouped in topics such as geographical traceability, consumer perception and quality management. The survey was addressed to eight different olive oil actors independently: producers, retailers, importers, exporters, analysts, workers at regulatory bodies, and consumers. Approximately half of the respondents (67.0% for consumers and 56.0% for the rest of olive oil actors) claimed to understand the importance of the protected designation of origin. In fact, the traceability objectives that were selected as the most relevant were those related with geographical traceability (19.3%) followed by the detection of adulteration (15.6%). Most of the respondents (80%) would agree to share data for a common database; however, some concerns exist about the use of these data and the issue of paying to have access to this database. The respondents mostly expressed an affirmative answer concerning the efficiency of panel test (74%) and a negative answer (90%) concerning the proposal of removing from regulation, although 42% agree with their revision for improvement. The opinions on “best before” date and their relationship with quality and the willingness to apply non-targeted methods were also surveyed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Nutraceuticals and Diet Supplements in Crohn’s Disease: A General Overview of the Most Promising Approaches in the Clinic
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071044 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder requiring lifelong medications. The currently approved drugs for CD are associated with relevant side effects and several studies suggest an increased use of nutraceuticals among CD patients, seeking for what is perceived as a [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal disorder requiring lifelong medications. The currently approved drugs for CD are associated with relevant side effects and several studies suggest an increased use of nutraceuticals among CD patients, seeking for what is perceived as a more “natural” approach in controlling this highly morbid condition. Nutraceuticals are foods or foods’ components with beneficial health properties that could aid in CD treatment for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunoregulatory activities that come along with safety, high tolerability, easy availability and affordability. Depending on their biological effect, nutraceuticals’ support could be employed in different subsets of CD patients, both those with active disease, as adjunctive immunomodulatory therapies, and/or in quiescent disease to provide symptomatic relief in patients with residual functional symptoms. Despite the increasing interest of the general public, both limited research and lack of education from healthcare professionals regarding their real clinical effectiveness account for the increasing number of patients turning to unconventional sources. Professionals should recognize their widespread use and the evidence base for or against their efficacy to properly counsel IBD patients. Overall, nutraceuticals appear to be safe complements to conventional therapies; nonetheless, little quality evidence supports a positive impact on underlying inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
Article
Seaweed Inclusion in Finishing Lamb Diet Promotes Changes in Micronutrient Content and Flavour-Related Compounds of Raw Meat and Dry-Cured Leg (Fenalår)
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071043 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Innovative feeding strategies tend to improve the quality properties of raw material and dry-cured products. In the present study, Norwegian White female lambs (n = 24) were finished during 35 days on three different diets: control (CD), control supplemented with seaweed (5% [...] Read more.
Innovative feeding strategies tend to improve the quality properties of raw material and dry-cured products. In the present study, Norwegian White female lambs (n = 24) were finished during 35 days on three different diets: control (CD), control supplemented with seaweed (5% DM) (SD), and pasture (PD). The quality of raw meat (Semimembranosus + Adductor) and deboned dry-cured lamb leg (fenalår; n = 24) was studied. The heme, SFA, MUFA, and PUFA content in raw meat was not affected with finishing diet. The SD significantly increased the selenium, iodine, and arsenic content in raw meat and in the dry-cured leg the iodine and arsenic. The dry-cured leg from SD-lamb had the highest amount of iodine with 130 µg I/100 g which corresponds to 60% of Adequate Intake. Aldehydes, ketones, and esters in raw meat and dry-cured lamb leg were significantly affected by finishing diet; CD showed increased esters in raw meat and aldehydes in the dry-cured leg compared to SD and PD. The significantly higher content of simple sugars, mannose being the most dominant, was found in the dry-cured leg from SD-lamb compared to CD and PD. Finishing diets had no effect on the taste profile of dry-cured lamb leg. This study showed the potential of seaweed in iodine biofortification of lamb meat and dry-cured products. Iodine-rich meat products should reduce iodine-deficiency among humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effects of Ultrasound Combined with Preheating Treatment to Improve the Thermal Stability of Coconut Milk by Modifying the Physicochemical Properties of Coconut Protein
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071042 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 569
Abstract
In the food industry, coconut milk has a unique flavor and rich nutritional value. However, the poor emulsifying properties of coconut proteins restrict its development. In this study, the effect of ultrasound combined with preheating on coconut globulin and coconut milk was evaluated [...] Read more.
In the food industry, coconut milk has a unique flavor and rich nutritional value. However, the poor emulsifying properties of coconut proteins restrict its development. In this study, the effect of ultrasound combined with preheating on coconut globulin and coconut milk was evaluated by physicochemical properties and structural characteristics. The results showed that ultrasound and 90 °C preheating gave coconut protein better emulsifying and thermal properties, demonstrated by higher solubility (45.2% to 53.5%), fewer free sulfhydryl groups (33.24 to 28.05 μmol/g) and higher surface hydrophobicity (7658.6 to 10,815.1). Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed obvious changes in the secondary structure. Furthermore, the change in the physicochemical properties of the protein brought a higher zeta potential (−11 to −23 mV), decreased the thermal aggregation rate (148.5% to 13.4%) and increased the viscosity (126.9 to 1103.0 m·Pa·s) of the coconut milk, which indicates that ultrasound combined with preheating treatment provided coconut milk with better thermal stability. In conclusion, ultrasound combined with preheating will have a better influence on modifying coconut globulin and increasing the thermal stability of coconut milk. This study provides evidence that ultrasound and other modification technologies can be combined to solve the problems encountered in the processing of coconut protein products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Myofibrillar Protein Interacting with Trehalose Elevated the Quality of Frozen Meat
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1041; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071041 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 624
Abstract
This work studied the interactions between trehalose/chitooligosaccharide (COS) and myofibrillar protein (MP), and the effect of such interactions on the quality of meat after freezing was also evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that both trehalose and COS could enhance the content of [...] Read more.
This work studied the interactions between trehalose/chitooligosaccharide (COS) and myofibrillar protein (MP), and the effect of such interactions on the quality of meat after freezing was also evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that both trehalose and COS could enhance the content of hydrogen bonds of MP. Zeta potential measurement displayed trehalose/COS reduced the absolute value of the surface potential of MP. The results of Raman spectroscopy suggested that the hydrophobic residues of MP were more exposed after treatment with trehalose/COS. Thus, trehalose and COS could both interact with MP through non-covalent bonds. Subsequently, the evaluation of the effect of trehalose and COS on the physicochemical properties of frozen meat was conducted. Results showed that both trehalose and COS significantly reduced thawing loss of frozen meat, and sensory evaluation showed that trehalose had a better performance from the perspective of smell, texture, and overall consumer acceptance. In conclusion, trehalose/COS interacting with MP can reduce meat thawing loss, which might provide technical guidance in the quality control of frozen meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Relationship between Molecular Structure and Heat-Induced Gel Properties of Duck Myofibrillar Proteins Affected by the Addition of Pea Protein Isolate
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071040 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
This paper investigates the relationship between the molecular structure and thermally induced gel properties of duck myofibrillar protein isolate (DMPI) as influenced by the addition of pea protein isolate (PPI). The results showed that b* value of the gels increased; however, a [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the relationship between the molecular structure and thermally induced gel properties of duck myofibrillar protein isolate (DMPI) as influenced by the addition of pea protein isolate (PPI). The results showed that b* value of the gels increased; however, a* value decreased with the increase of PPI content (p < 0.05). The whiteness of the gels decreased significantly with the addition of pea protein compared with 0% vs. 0.5% addition. Nuclear magnetic resonance tests showed the area of immobilized water also increased with increasing PPI addition (0–2%), thus consistent with the increased water-holding capacity (p < 0.05). The penetration force of the gels increased with increasing PPI addition (p < 0.05), while the storage modulus and loss modulus of the gels were also found to increase, accompanied by the transformation of the α-helix structure into β-sheet, resulting in better dynamics of gel formation. These results indicated the gel-forming ability of DMPI, including water retention and textural properties, improves with increasing PPI addition. Principal component analysis verified these interrelationships. Thus, pea protein could improve the properties of duck myofibrillar protein gels to some extent and improve their microstructure, potentially facilitating the transition from a weak to a non-aggregated, rigid structure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Regulation Effects of Beeswax in the Intermediate Oil Phase on the Stability, Oral Sensation and Flavor Release Properties of Pickering Double Emulsions
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071039 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Double emulsions (W/O/W) with compartmentalized structures have attracted a lot of research interests due to their diverse applications in the food industry. Herein, oil phase of double emulsions was gelled with beeswax (BW), and the effects of BW mass ratios (0–8.0%) on the [...] Read more.
Double emulsions (W/O/W) with compartmentalized structures have attracted a lot of research interests due to their diverse applications in the food industry. Herein, oil phase of double emulsions was gelled with beeswax (BW), and the effects of BW mass ratios (0–8.0%) on the stability, oral sensation, and flavor release profile of the emulsions were investigated. Rheological tests revealed that the mechanical properties of double emulsions were dependent on the mass ratio of BW. With the increase in BW content, double emulsions showed a higher resistance against deformation, and lower friction coefficient with a smoother mouthfeel. Turbiscan analysis showed that the addition of BW improved the stability of double emulsions during a 14 days’ storage, under freeze–thawed, and osmotic pressure conditions, but it did not improve the heating stability of double emulsions. The addition of BW contributed to lower air-emulsion partition coefficients of flavor (2,3-diacetyl) compared to those without the addition of BW at 20 °C and 37 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of BW and its mass ratio significantly altered the flavor release behavior during the open-bottle storage of double emulsions. The response value of 0% BW dropped sharply on the first day of opening storage, showing a burst release behavior. While a slow and sustained release behavior was observed in double emulsions with 8.0% BW. In conclusion, gelation of the intermediate oil phase of double emulsions significantly enhanced the stability of double emulsions with tunable oral sensation and flavor release by varying the mass ratio of beeswax. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Influence of Varying Fermentation Parameters of the Yeast Strain Cyberlindnera saturnus on the Concentrations of Selected Flavor Components in Non-Alcoholic Beer Focusing on (E)-β-Damascenone
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071038 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The diversification of beer flavor is becoming increasingly popular, especially in the field of non-alcoholic beers, where sales are growing steadily. While flavor substances of traditional beers can largely be traced back to defined secondary metabolites, the production of non-alcoholic beers with non- [...] Read more.
The diversification of beer flavor is becoming increasingly popular, especially in the field of non-alcoholic beers, where sales are growing steadily. While flavor substances of traditional beers can largely be traced back to defined secondary metabolites, the production of non-alcoholic beers with non-Saccharomyces yeasts generates novel fruity flavors, some of which cannot yet be assigned to specific flavor substances. In a recently published study, besides pear, cool mint sweets, and banana-like flavor, distinctive red berry and apple flavors were perceived in a non-alcoholic beer fermented with the yeast strain Cyberlindnera saturnus TUM 247, whose secondary metabolites were to be elucidated in this study. The trials were carried out using response surface methodology to examine the fermentation properties of the yeast strain and to optimize the beer with maximum fruitiness but minimal off-flavors and ethanol content. It turned out that a low pitching rate, a moderate fermentation temperature, and an original gravity of 10.5 °P gave the optimal parameters. Qualitative analysis of the secondary metabolites, in addition to standard analysis for traditional beers, was first performed using headspace-gas chromatography with olfactometry. (E)-β-damascenone emerged as the decisive substance for the red berry and apple flavor and so this substance was then quantitated. Although (E)-β-damascenone is a well-known secondary metabolite in beer and this substance is associated with apple or cooked apple- and berry-like flavors, it has not yet been reported as a main flavor component in non-alcoholic beers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bacillus cereus Growth during the Warming of Thawed Pasteurized Human Banked Milk Using a Predictive Mathematical Model
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071037 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Bacillus cereus is relatively resistant to pasteurization. We assessed the risk of B. cereus growth during warming and subsequent storage of pasteurized banked milk (PBM) in the warmed state using a predictive mathematical model. Holder pasteurization followed by storage below −18 °C was [...] Read more.
Bacillus cereus is relatively resistant to pasteurization. We assessed the risk of B. cereus growth during warming and subsequent storage of pasteurized banked milk (PBM) in the warmed state using a predictive mathematical model. Holder pasteurization followed by storage below −18 °C was used. Temperature maps, water activity values, and B. cereus growth in artificially inoculated PBM were obtained during a simulation of manipulation of PBM after its release from a Human Milk Bank. As a real risk level, we chose a B. cereus concentration of 100 CFU/mL; the risk was assessed for three cases: 1. For an immediate post-pasteurization B. cereus concentration below 1 CFU/mL (level of detection); 2. For a B. cereus concentration of 10 CFU/mL, which is allowed in some countries; 3. For a B. cereus concentration of 50 CFU/mL, which is approved for milk formulas. In the first and second cases, no risk was detected after 1 h of storage in the warmed state, while after 2 h of storage, B. cereus concentrations of 102 CFU/mL were occasionally encountered. In the third case, exceeding the B. cereus concentration of 102 CFU/mL could be regularly expected after 2 h of storage. Based on these results, we recommend that post-pasteurization bacteriological analysis be performed as recommended by the European Milk Bank Association (EMBA) and using warmed PBM within 1 h after warming (no exceptions). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Optimization of High-Pressure-Assisted Extraction of Cadmium and Lead from Kelp (Laminaria japonica) Using Response Surface Methodology
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071036 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Kelp (Laminaria japonica) is a popular and nutritious sea vegetable, but it has a strong biosorption capacity for heavy metals. The high content of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is a threat to the quality of kelp. The objective of this [...] Read more.
Kelp (Laminaria japonica) is a popular and nutritious sea vegetable, but it has a strong biosorption capacity for heavy metals. The high content of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is a threat to the quality of kelp. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high-pressure-assisted extraction (HPAE) conditions on Cd and Pb removal efficiency from kelp. Pressure intensity (0.1–200 MPa), the number of HPAE cycles (one to five) and acetic acid concentration (0–10%) were optimized using response surface methodology. The pressure intensity had the most significant positive effects on Cd and Pb removal efficiency, while the correlation between acetic acid concentration and removal efficiency was positive for Cd and negative for Pb. The optimum conditions for the removal of Cd and Pb were attained at 188 MPa, with four cycles and with an acetic acid concentration of 0%. At optimum conditions, the experimental values of removal efficiency were 61.14% (Cd) and 70.97% (Pb), and this was consistent with the predicted value, confirming the validity of the predictive model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-High-Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Label-Free LC-MS/MS Analysis Reveals Different Proteomic Profiles between Egg Yolks of Silky Fowl and Ordinary Chickens
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071035 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The proteomic profiles of Silky fowl egg yolk (SFEY) and Leghorn egg yolk (LEY) were analyzed by bottom-up label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From a total of 186 identified proteins, 26 proteins were found significantly differentially abundant between two yolks, of which, [...] Read more.
The proteomic profiles of Silky fowl egg yolk (SFEY) and Leghorn egg yolk (LEY) were analyzed by bottom-up label-free liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From a total of 186 identified proteins, 26 proteins were found significantly differentially abundant between two yolks, of which, 19 were up-regulated and 7 were down-regulated in SFEY, particularly, vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1, transthyretin and ovoinhibitor were up-regulated by 26, 25, and 16 times, respectively. In addition, there were 57 and 6 unique proteins in SFEY and LEY, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) revealed SFEY contained relatively more abundant protease inhibitors and coagulation-related proteins. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed differentially abundant proteins in SFEY may be actively involved in the regulation of the neuroactive ligand–receptor interaction pathway. This study provides a theoretical basis for the understanding of proteomic and biological differences between these two yolks and can guide for further exploration of nutritional and biomedical use of Silky fowl egg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Protein: Structure and Function)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop