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Processes, Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2022) – 259 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Solid biofuels produced from torrefaction have improved coal-like properties in comparison to raw biofuels, yet ensuring uniform product quality is still a challenge. In this study, downstream torrefaction of wood pellets was performed between 200 and 270 °C to understand the effect of temperature on product quality. Torrefied solid biofuel properties were compared with dedicated fuel properties defined in ISO/TS 17225-8:2016-12. Results showed that the quality of the solid biofuel and the utilization of torr-gas for energy recovery purposes should be balanced based on the optimal process temperature to enable profitable business cases in the future. View this paper
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14 pages, 1316 KiB  
Article
Jack Bean Development in Multimetal Contaminated Soil Amended with Coffee Waste-Derived Biochars
by Ruan Carnier, Aline Renée Coscione, Douglas Delaqua, Aline Peregrina Puga and Cleide Aparecida de Abreu
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102157 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Coffee waste-derived biochar was found to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soil, although there are few studies involving these materials. Given the large amount of waste generated in the coffee industry, this presents a relevant opportunity to contribute to the circular economy and [...] Read more.
Coffee waste-derived biochar was found to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soil, although there are few studies involving these materials. Given the large amount of waste generated in the coffee industry, this presents a relevant opportunity to contribute to the circular economy and environmental sustainability. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of biochars derived from coffee grounds and coffee parchment in the remediation of a Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated soil and at the development of jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) in this area’s revegetation. The biochars were pyrolyzed at 700 °C, and the treatments were: contaminated soil (CT); contaminated soil + calcium carbonate (CaCO3); contaminated soil + 5% (weight (w)/weitght (w)) coffee ground biochar and contaminated soil + 5% (w/w) coffee parchment biochar. These treatments were incubated for 90 days, followed by the cultivation of jack beans for 60 days. Soil samples, soil solution and plants were analyzed for nutrients and heavy metals. The addition of coffee grounds and coffee parchment biochars significantly reduced the contents of heavy metals in the soil compared to the Control (32.13 and 42.95%, respectively, for Zn; 26.28 and 33.06%, respectively, for Cd and 28.63 and 29.67%, respectively, for Pb), all of which had a superior performance than the CaCO3 treatment. Thus, following the observed reduction in the soil soluble fraction of metals, its uptake by the plants was also reduced, especially limiting Cd and Pb accumulation in plant dry matter. In addition, coffee parchment biochar promoted a greater accumulation of nutrients in the shoots, i.e., for K and P (1450 and 21.5 mg pot−1, respectively, dry matter basis) compared to the control (54.4 and 9.3 mg pot−1, respectively). Therefore, coffee parchment biochar use in association with jack beans may represent a viable tool for the remediation of metal contamination concomitantly with revegetation of the contaminated area. Full article
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16 pages, 3124 KiB  
Article
Bioassay-Guided Characterization, Antioxidant, Anti-Melanogenic and Anti-Photoaging Activities of Pueraria thunbergiana L. Leaf Extracts in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (HaCaT) Cells
by Min Jeong Kim, Seo Yeon Shin, Nu Ri Song, Sunoh Kim, Sang Ouk Sun and Kyung Mok Park
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102156 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
Although the roots and flowers of P. thunbergiana are known to have various physiologically active effects, studies on the anti-melanin production and anti-photoaging effects of its leaf extracts and cellular mechanisms are still lacking. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using [...] Read more.
Although the roots and flowers of P. thunbergiana are known to have various physiologically active effects, studies on the anti-melanin production and anti-photoaging effects of its leaf extracts and cellular mechanisms are still lacking. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using Pueraria thunbergiana leaves as a natural material for skin whitening and anti-aging-related functional cosmetics. The 30% ethyl alcohol (EtOH) extract from P. thunbergiana leaves was fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol, and aqueous solution to measure their whitening, and anti-aging effects. The EtOAc fraction contained a high content of phenolic and flavonoids and showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activities than the other fractions. It was also confirmed that the EtOAc fraction markedly inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, the EtOAc fraction showed a protective effect against ultraviolet B (UVB) in HaCaT cells and increased the collagen synthesis that was decreased due to UVB exposure. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity and MMP-1 protein expression were reduced in human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. These results indicate that the EtOAc fraction has superior antioxidant activity, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-photoaging effects compared to the other fractions. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed the potential of P. thunbergiana leaf extract as a functional cosmetic ingredient, and it can be used as basic data for the physiological activity of P. thunbergiana leaf extracts. Full article
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18 pages, 6407 KiB  
Article
Use of Asset Administration Shell Coupled with ISO 15926 to Facilitate the Exchange of Equipment Condition and Health Status Data of a Process Plant
by Bongcheol Kim, Seyun Kim, Hans Teijgeler, Jaehyeon Lee, Ju Yeon Lee, Dongyun Lim, Hyo-Won Suh and Duhwan Mun
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102155 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
The digital twin has emerged as a crucial technology for smart production. The Asset Administration Shell (AAS) is a standard tool that can support the digital representation of a process plant. We present a method to use AAS coupled with ISO 15926 to [...] Read more.
The digital twin has emerged as a crucial technology for smart production. The Asset Administration Shell (AAS) is a standard tool that can support the digital representation of a process plant. We present a method to use AAS coupled with ISO 15926 to facilitate the exchange of maintenance data in process plants. To accomplish this, the operation and maintenance (O&M) system framework employed in process plants is defined. Information requirements are derived based on this framework, and a maintenance data structure is designed. Along with this, reference data are applied to identify the types of equipment and properties of each equipment type using ISO 15926. According to the pre-designed data structure, a neutral format based on AAS is developed to exchange maintenance data among software systems in O&M. The neutral format is verified through a test case of exchanging maintenance data (equipment condition and health status data) in terms of applicability to O&M systems in the field and compliance with the AAS meta-data model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Digitalization for Energy Systems)
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12 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Adsorption of Oil by 3-(Triethoxysilyl) Propyl Isocyanate-Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals
by Mehdi Jonoobi and Tizazu H. Mekonnen
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2154; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102154 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Oil leaks into water bodies and increased organic pollutants harm the environment and ecosystem in several ways, and cleaning up oil spills from water bodies is a global challenge. This research aimed to construct modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) based aerogels with 3-triethoxysilyl propyl [...] Read more.
Oil leaks into water bodies and increased organic pollutants harm the environment and ecosystem in several ways, and cleaning up oil spills from water bodies is a global challenge. This research aimed to construct modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) based aerogels with 3-triethoxysilyl propyl isocyanate (TEPIC) to evaluate their potential application in oil adsorption. Here, a freeze-drying method was employed to make CNC aerogels. The aerogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, porosity and density measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, compressive strength, and oil adsorption capacity. SEM results confirmed that the aerogels have a largely porous structure, including a community of uniformly interconnected cellulose fibers. Moreover, the studied aerogels had a low density due to the high porosity. Also, the small pore diameter and high specific surface area were confirmed by the BET evaluation. FTIR confirmed the existence of functional groups and strong hydrogen bonding between CNC/TEPCI/Urea molecules. All TEPIC-modified CNC aerogels had water contact angle values greater than 130° indicating their hydrophobicity. The highest oil and glycerol adsorption was obtained with the use of modified CNC aerogels. Thus, the sample modified with 3 wt% TEPIC showed the highest adsorption capacities of 130 ± 7.22, 120 ± 4.75, and 95.28 ± 4.82 gg−1 for motor oil, vegetable oil and glycerol, respectively. The results of this study showed that ultra-light, hydrophobic and oil adsorbent materials based on chemically modified CNC aerogels can successfully be fabricated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical Processes for Sustainability)
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11 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Optimization of L-Citrulline Operon in Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-Citrulline Production
by Zaiwei Man, Jin Li, Huihui Cui, Zhiqiang Cai and Jing Guo
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102153 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1680
Abstract
L-citrulline plays important roles in many physiological processes, and its application range is expanding rapidly. Corynebacterium glutamicum strains have the potential to be efficient L-citrulline producers. In this study, we performed optimization of L-citrulline biosynthesis operon in C. glutamicum ATCC13032 for L-citrulline production. [...] Read more.
L-citrulline plays important roles in many physiological processes, and its application range is expanding rapidly. Corynebacterium glutamicum strains have the potential to be efficient L-citrulline producers. In this study, we performed optimization of L-citrulline biosynthesis operon in C. glutamicum ATCC13032 for L-citrulline production. Chromosomal integration of the integral argBEc gene from Escherichia coli (encoding natively insensitive N-acetylglutamate kinase), the deletion of the argR gene (encoding repressor ArgR), and the deletion of the argG gene (encoding argininosuccinate synthase) were achieved simultaneously by one-step genome modification and by obtaining the L-citrulline-producing strain. Then, plasmid-based overexpression of the optimized L-citrulline operon was carried out and the L-citrulline production was further improved. In fed-batch fermentation, the L-citrulline production and yield from glucose of the final strain reached 26.7 g/L and 0.18 g/g, respectively. These results indicate that optimization of L-citrulline operon in C. glutamicum is effective to construct the L-citrulline over-producing strain. Full article
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15 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Efficient Extraction of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using Phosphine-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents with Carboxylic Acid
by Muhammad Faheem Hassan, Amir Sada Khan, Noor Akbar, Taleb Hassan Ibrahim, Mustafa I. Khamis, Fawwaz H. Jumean, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan and Nihal Yasir
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102152 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2063
Abstract
Methylene blue (MB), an organic thiazine dye, has numerous industrial and medical applications. However, MB is a wastewater contaminant that is harmful to humans and aquatic life. Hence, its removal from water bodies is essential. In this work, five novel deep eutectic solvents [...] Read more.
Methylene blue (MB), an organic thiazine dye, has numerous industrial and medical applications. However, MB is a wastewater contaminant that is harmful to humans and aquatic life. Hence, its removal from water bodies is essential. In this work, five novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were synthesized using different precursors, screened, and studied for the extraction of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using liquid–liquid extraction. The first, TOP-SA, was synthesized using trioctylphosphine (TOP) as a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and 2-hydroxy benzoic acid as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD). Among these, TOP-SA had the highest MB removal efficiency. The effects of pH, contact time, initial MB concentration, volumetric ratio, temperature, and ionic strength were studied and optimized. A 99.3% removal was achieved in 5 min for a 200 mg dm−3 MB solution mixed in a 1:10 ratio with TOP-SA at 25.0 °C. The structural properties of TOP-SA and its interactions with MB were investigated using FTIR. TOP-SA’s toxicity was investigated using human cells in vitro. TOP-SA was found to be comparatively less toxic and is a more efficient MB remover than other literature reported ionic liquids (ILs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental and Green Processes)
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20 pages, 1303 KiB  
Article
Environmental Performance of Road Asphalts Modified with End-of-Life Hard Plastics and Graphene: Strategies for Improving Sustainability
by Massimo Perucca, Lucia Capuano, Giacomo Magatti, Francesca Rosa and Paride Mantecca
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102151 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
Road construction takes a heavy toll on the environment. Therefore, innovative strategies to improve the environmental performances of this sector are needed, and the use of recycled materials (e.g., plastic) has been recently pursued to achieve this goal. The present work aims to [...] Read more.
Road construction takes a heavy toll on the environment. Therefore, innovative strategies to improve the environmental performances of this sector are needed, and the use of recycled materials (e.g., plastic) has been recently pursued to achieve this goal. The present work aims to (i) assess the environmental benefits deriving from the use of recycled hard plastics in combination with graphene to generate a new bitumen modifier and related asphalt mixture (AM) formulations (ii) to compare the performance of the bitumen modified using this new modifier with the bitumen modified using a traditional polymer (Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene, SBS) and the non-modified bitumen. A detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was performed according to a cradle-to-cradle approach. Different scenarios were compared, including the variability of the pavement’s layers thickness and the amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement during the road maintenance cycles. The results demonstrated that the addition of the innovative modifier enhanced the structural performance of AMs, which turns into pavement extended durability, reduced maintenance cycles as well as into reduction in raw material use. The innovative asphalt modifier also creates a synergistic effect by offering a valuable alternative to hard plastic incineration by using it as a secondary raw material. This analysis allowed us to indicate the new-modified AM as the solution with the least environmental burden in all impact categories, suggesting its significant role in implementing new strategies to improve the environmental sustainability of road pavements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Processes)
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15 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Modeling and Analysis of Industry 4.0 Adoption Challenges in the Manufacturing Industry
by Naif Alsaadi
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102150 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
The manufacturing sector is a fast-growing sector demanded by the increasing population. The adoption of information technology is a boon in the manufacturing industry. The industrial transformation from the third generation to the fourth generation has significantly impacted sustainable development. On account of [...] Read more.
The manufacturing sector is a fast-growing sector demanded by the increasing population. The adoption of information technology is a boon in the manufacturing industry. The industrial transformation from the third generation to the fourth generation has significantly impacted sustainable development. On account of this, different sectors are adopting industry 4.0 technologies to smooth their process flows. The industry 4.0 technologies implementation in the manufacturing sector will not only enhance its productivity, but also lead to sustainable growth. In this regard, this study intended to examine the challenges associated with adopting industry 4.0 technologies in the manufacturing sector. A thorough literature review was carried out from the Scopus database, and a list of ten important challenges was shortlisted for analysis. The article uses interpretive structural modeling to analyse the challenges of industry 4.0 and make a structural model between identified challenges. “Lack of employee skills” and “lack of technological infrastructure” were identified as the topmost challenges in adopting industry 4.0 technologies in the manufacturing sector. This study will enable decision makers, policymakers, and industrial practitioners to effectively analyse the challenges of I4.0 for its smooth adoption in the manufacturing sector. Practical implications of the study and future research directions were also highlighted in the article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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16 pages, 3054 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Streptomyces Species and Validation of Antimicrobial Activity of Their Metabolites through Molecular Docking
by Sobika Bhandari, Bibek Raj Bhattarai, Ashma Adhikari, Babita Aryal, Asmita Shrestha, Niraj Aryal, Uttam Lamichhane, Ranjita Thapa, Bijaya B. Thapa, Ram Pramodh Yadav, Karan Khadayat, Achyut Adhikari, Bishnu P. Regmi and Niranjan Parajuli
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102149 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5679
Abstract
Finding new antibacterial agents from natural products is urgently necessary to address the growing cases of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Actinomycetes are regarded as an excellent source of therapeutically important secondary metabolites including antibiotics. However, they have not yet been characterized and explored in great [...] Read more.
Finding new antibacterial agents from natural products is urgently necessary to address the growing cases of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Actinomycetes are regarded as an excellent source of therapeutically important secondary metabolites including antibiotics. However, they have not yet been characterized and explored in great detail for their utility in developing countries such as Nepal. In silico molecular docking in addition to antimicrobial assays have been used to examine the efficacy of chemical scaffolds biosynthesized by actinomycetes. This paper depicts the characterization of actinomycetes based on their morphology, biochemical tests, and partial molecular sequencing. Furthermore, antimicrobial assays and mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling of isolates were studied. Seventeen actinomycete-like colonies were isolated from ten soil samples, of which three isolates showed significant antimicrobial activities. Those isolates were subsequently identified to be Streptomyces species by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The most potent Streptomyces species_SB10 has exhibited an MIC and MBC of 1.22 μg/mL and 2.44 μg/mL, respectively, against each Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sonnei. The extract of S. species_SB10 showed the presence of important metabolites such as albumycin. Ten annotated bioactive metabolites (essramycin, maculosin, brevianamide F, cyclo (L-Phe-L-Ala), cyclo (L-Val-L-Phe), cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro), cyclo (D-Ala-L-Pro), N6, N6-dimethyladenosine, albumycin, and cyclo (L-Tyr-L-Leu)) were molecularly docked against seven antimicrobial target proteins. Studies on binding energy, docking viability, and protein-ligand molecular interactions showed that those metabolites are responsible for conferring antimicrobial properties. These findings indicate that continuous research on the isolation of the Streptomyces species from Nepal could lead to the discovery of novel and therapeutically relevant antimicrobial agents in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biological Processes and Systems)
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12 pages, 5803 KiB  
Article
Straw Biochar at Different Pyrolysis Temperatures Passivates Pyrite by Promoting Electron Transfer from Biochar to Pyrite
by Xiaohua Shu, Wei Tian, Shiqing Xiong, Wenlong Zhang and Qian Zhang
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102148 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5066
Abstract
To control acid mine drainage (AMD) at source, biochar, a new green and environmentally friendly passivator has been introduced to passivate pyrite. However, the raw material and pyrolysis temperature largely determine the physical and chemical properties of biochar, the causal relationship between biochar [...] Read more.
To control acid mine drainage (AMD) at source, biochar, a new green and environmentally friendly passivator has been introduced to passivate pyrite. However, the raw material and pyrolysis temperature largely determine the physical and chemical properties of biochar, the causal relationship between biochar and pyrite and the underlying mechanism are still unknown. Here, biochar materials (rice-straw biochar (RSB) and sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB)) at different pyrolysis temperatures (300–600 °C) were utilized for the passivation of pyrite. The results of our investigations revealed that the passivation ability of RSB was superior to that of SBB. The addition of RSB with higher pyrolysis temperatures could greatly enhance the passivation efficiency of pyrite. RSB-500 (produced at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C) achieved the best passivation effect on pyrite. RSB can form Fe-O bonds through C=O bonding with pyrite. Moreover, the addition of RSB created a reducing environment in the mixture system because of its strong electron-donation capacity (EDC) and altered the energy-band structure of pyrite, which promoted the transfer of electrons from biochar to pyrite. On the contrary, the addition of SBB did not result in the formation of Fe-O bonds with pyrite. In addition, the EDC of SBB was also lower than that of RSB and it had almost no effect on the band structure of pyrite. Hence it did not alter the direction of the electron migration. These findings shed light on the mechanism of biochar passivation of pyrite and provide a theoretical foundation for selecting suitable biochar materials for AMD prevention at source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remediation of Contaminated Sites: Volume I)
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15 pages, 6131 KiB  
Article
Object Detection: Custom Trained Models for Quality Monitoring of Fused Filament Fabrication Process
by Georgios Bakas, Kyriaki Bei, Ioannis Skaltsas, Eleni Gkartzou, Vaia Tsiokou, Alexandra Papatheodorou, Anna Karatza and Elias P. Koumoulos
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102147 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2397
Abstract
Process reliability and quality output are critical indicators for the upscaling potential of a fabrication process on an industrial level. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a versatile additive manufacturing (AM) technology that provides viable and cost-effective solutions for prototyping applications and low-volume manufacturing [...] Read more.
Process reliability and quality output are critical indicators for the upscaling potential of a fabrication process on an industrial level. Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a versatile additive manufacturing (AM) technology that provides viable and cost-effective solutions for prototyping applications and low-volume manufacturing of high-performance functional parts, yet is defect-prone due to the inherent aspect of parametrization. A systematic yet parametric workflow for quality inspection is therefore required. The work presented describes a versatile and reliable framework for automatic defect detection during the FFF process, enabled by artificial intelligence-based computer vision. Specifically, state-of-the-art deep learning models are developed for in-line inspection of individual thermoplastic strands’ surface morphology and weld quality, thus defining acceptable limits for FFF process parameter values. We examine the capabilities of an NVIDIA Jetson Nano, a low-power, high-performance computer with an integrated graphical processing unit (GPU). The developed deep learning models used in this analysis use a pre-trained model combined with manual configurations in order to efficiently identify the thermoplastic strands’ surface morphology. The proposed methodology aims to facilitate process parameter selection and the early identification of critical defects, toward an overall improvement in process reliability with reduced operator intervention. Full article
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14 pages, 3395 KiB  
Article
L-Glutathione-Functionalized Silica Adsorbent for the Removal of Pesticide Malathion from Aqueous Solutions
by Sonia M. Vegas-Mendoza, José A. Gutierrez-Ortega, Rene G. Moran-Salazar, Sara A. Cortes-Llamas, Gregorio G. Carbajal-Arizaga, Alejandro A. Peregrina-Lucano, Ilya G. Shenderovich, Gabriela Torres-Santiago and Sergio Gómez-Salazar
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102146 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
An L-glutathione-functionalized silica adsorbent was applied in this study to remove malathion from aqueous media. This adsorbent has demonstrated an improved adsorption efficiency of malathion. The maximum uptake achieved was 130 mg g−1 at pH 8. Equilibrium was reached after about 90 [...] Read more.
An L-glutathione-functionalized silica adsorbent was applied in this study to remove malathion from aqueous media. This adsorbent has demonstrated an improved adsorption efficiency of malathion. The maximum uptake achieved was 130 mg g−1 at pH 8. Equilibrium was reached after about 90 min. A pseudo-second-order model best described the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms were best simulated by the Freundlich model. The functional groups are thermally stable up to about 150 °C. The elemental analysis results indicated high glutathione ligand densities. The results of this study show that the environmentally friendly L-glutathione functionalized silica is a promising candidate for the removal of malathion from water at the industrial level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Separation Processes)
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11 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Properties and Young Adult Consumer Preference of Dry-Aged Beef after High-Intensity Ultrasonication
by Iván A. García-Galicia, Christopher Estepp, Mariana Huerta-Jiménez, Maria F. Melchor-Ramírez, Luis M. Carrillo-López, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez and Alma D. Alarcón-Rojo
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102145 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU. F = 37 kHz, I = 28W/cm2, bath for 30 min, 5 °C) on physicochemical characteristics and sensorial preference of seven aged (23 d ageing) bovine muscles (L. dorsi [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU. F = 37 kHz, I = 28W/cm2, bath for 30 min, 5 °C) on physicochemical characteristics and sensorial preference of seven aged (23 d ageing) bovine muscles (L. dorsi lumborum, L. dorsi thoracis, Psoas major, Semimembranosus, Biceps femoris, Rectus femoris, and Gluteus medius). Muscles were randomly distributed in two treatments: with and without ultrasonication. Colour (L*, a*, b* and C*), water-holding capacity (WHC), and shear force (N) were determined before and after simulated retail display (SRD) in modified atmosphere packing (MAP; 75% O2: 25% CO2, 3 °C, 13 h led light exposition) for 5 d. Sensorial toughness was also evaluated at the end of the SRD. Ultrasonication slightly reduces 6–9% WHC of beef. HIU did not affect (p ˃ 0.05) water loss, meat colour, shear force and sensorial toughness of the meat. The Semimembranosus was the toughest muscle. Ultrasonication of 23-day-aged beef did not show improvements on quality characteristics, and despite minor changes in water loss and slight increase in shear force, consumers did not detect differences. Full article
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16 pages, 3799 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modelling and Simulation of Heat Transfer during Magnetic Moulding of Al/SiCp Metal Matrix Composites
by Arun Prakash Chandran, Suraj Ravimanalan and Anand Ronald Bennet
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102144 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1559
Abstract
In traditional casting, sand is used as a mould material to carry heat away from the melt. However, sand has certain disadvantages, such as poor thermal conductivity, burning of binders, undesirable transition resulting in mould failure, and defects in the components. To overcome [...] Read more.
In traditional casting, sand is used as a mould material to carry heat away from the melt. However, sand has certain disadvantages, such as poor thermal conductivity, burning of binders, undesirable transition resulting in mould failure, and defects in the components. To overcome these limitations, magnetic moulding technology was introduced more than a few decades ago, but the process never achieved the required industrial developments to commercialise this technology. It is essential to reconsider and develop this technology further to use it as a regular production process. In this paper, processing of Al/SiCp composite using magnetic moulding technology is discussed. The heat transfer results of magnetic moulding process are simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software and compared with the sand casting process. The temperature distribution, thermal conductivity, and phase change have been studied, finding that steel shots as mould materials show better heat transfer results when compared with sand. This better heat transfer led to a decrease in solidification time by 25%, which in turn improved the hardness (by 70%), impact toughness (by 4 times), and wear resistance (by 42%) of the Al/SiCp cast produced. These results very clearly illustrate the unique signature of the magnetic moulding process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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17 pages, 3543 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Simulation Analysis and Optimization of Green Ammonia Production Process under Transition State
by Wu Deng, Chao Huang, Xiayang Li, Huan Zhang and Yiyang Dai
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2143; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102143 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6057
Abstract
Ammonia is an important chemical raw material and the main hydrogen energy carrier. In the context of “carbon neutrality”, green ammonia produced using renewable energy is cleaner and produces less carbon than traditional ammonia production. Raw hydrogen dynamically fluctuates during green ammonia production [...] Read more.
Ammonia is an important chemical raw material and the main hydrogen energy carrier. In the context of “carbon neutrality”, green ammonia produced using renewable energy is cleaner and produces less carbon than traditional ammonia production. Raw hydrogen dynamically fluctuates during green ammonia production because it is affected by the instability and intermittency of renewable energy; the green ammonia production process has frequent variable working conditions to take into account. Therefore, studying the transition state process of green ammonia is critical to the processing device’s stable operation. In this study, a natural gas ammonia production process was modified using green ammonia, and steady-state and dynamic models were established using UniSim. The model was calibrated using actual factory data to ensure the model’s reliability. Based on the steady-state model, hydrogen feed flow disturbance was added to the dynamic model to simulate the transition state process under variable working conditions. The change in system energy consumption in the transition state process was analyzed based on the data analysis method. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameter optimization method was developed to optimize energy consumption under variable conditions of green ammonia’s production process. Based on this method, process control parameters were adjusted to shorten fluctuation time and reduce energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Process System Engineering)
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19 pages, 8584 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Knocking Combustion Characteristics of the N-Butanol/N-Octanol RCCI Engine
by Jing Li, Dajian Wang, Cong Zhuang, Shiqi Gong and Songhong Li
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102142 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
The n-butanol/n-octanol fueled reactivity-controlled compression ignition engine was numerically studied based on the KIVA-CHEMKIN code. First, the knocking combustion characteristics were analyzed while functioning with a premixed n-butanol percentage of 20% (B20), since it exhibited the most severe knocking. Ten local regions were [...] Read more.
The n-butanol/n-octanol fueled reactivity-controlled compression ignition engine was numerically studied based on the KIVA-CHEMKIN code. First, the knocking combustion characteristics were analyzed while functioning with a premixed n-butanol percentage of 20% (B20), since it exhibited the most severe knocking. Ten local regions were monitored to obtain local data, such as pressure and heat release rate. The local pressure oscillation was quantified by a band-pass filter. Second, the premixed n-butanol percentage and the intake valve close (IVC) timing were varied to investigate their effects on the combustion characteristics and emissions formations, as well as their potential for mitigating knocking. The results showed that a strong pressure oscillation was observed for B20 near the cylinder wall, which indicates severe knocking. This consequence is mainly caused by the low-temperature combustion of the n-octanol/n-butanol/air mixture near the cylinder-wall region. Increasing premixed n-butanol percentage and retarding IVC timing could result in an extended ignition delay, lowered peak pressure, and reduced maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Condition B80 with an IVC timing of −126 °ATDC could improve the indicated mean effective pressure by 11.7% and reduce the maximum PRR by 63.4% when compared to condition B20. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combustion and Emission Performance of Internal Combustion Engines)
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18 pages, 1434 KiB  
Article
Elements and Chemical Bonds Contribution Estimation of Activity Coefficients in Nonideal Liquid Mixtures
by Haodong Liu, Xinyu Li, Yuxin Wang, Xiaoyan Sun, Wenying Zhao, Li Xia and Shuguang Xiang
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102141 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Based on the contribution of elements and chemical bonds, the UNICAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical elements and chemical bonds Activity Coefficient) method was proposed to estimate the activity coefficients of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. The UNICAC method defined 10 elements and 33 chemical bonds as contribution [...] Read more.
Based on the contribution of elements and chemical bonds, the UNICAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical elements and chemical bonds Activity Coefficient) method was proposed to estimate the activity coefficients of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. The UNICAC method defined 10 elements and 33 chemical bonds as contribution groups. The calculation of activity coefficients was divided into the combination term and the residual term. The combination term represents molecular size differences, and the residual term describes the interaction between molecules. The interaction energy parameters of 43 groups were regressed simultaneously with the experimental data of the vapor–liquid equilibrium of 1085 binary systems. According to the molecular structural information of compounds, the UNICAC method can accurately predict the activity coefficients of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures. The vapor–liquid equilibrium of 16 groups of the binary system, which were not included in the parameters regress, was predicted using UNICAC. The average relative error of vapor composition was 1.53%. Compared with UNIFAC (2003), UNIFAC (Lyngby), UNIFAC (Dortmund), and ASOG (2011), the UNICAC model employs fewer parameters, provides a broader scope of application, and receives more precise predicted results of the vapor–liquid equilibrium. The UNICAC method would play an important reference role in the design of the chemical separation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Process System Engineering)
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37 pages, 3956 KiB  
Article
Use of Multiscale Data-Driven Surrogate Models for Flowsheet Simulation of an Industrial Zeolite Production Process
by Vasyl Skorych, Moritz Buchholz, Maksym Dosta, Helene Katharina Baust, Marco Gleiß, Johannes Haus, Dominik Weis, Simon Hammerich, Gregor Kiedorf, Norbert Asprion, Hermann Nirschl, Frank Kleine Jäger and Stefan Heinrich
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102140 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
The production of catalysts such as zeolites is a complex multiscale and multi-step process. Various material properties, such as particle size or moisture content, as well as operating parameters—e.g., temperature or amount and composition of input material flows—significantly affect the outcome of each [...] Read more.
The production of catalysts such as zeolites is a complex multiscale and multi-step process. Various material properties, such as particle size or moisture content, as well as operating parameters—e.g., temperature or amount and composition of input material flows—significantly affect the outcome of each process step, and hence determine the properties of the final product. Therefore, the design and optimization of such processes is a complex task, which can be greatly facilitated with the help of numerical simulations. This contribution presents a modeling framework for the dynamic flowsheet simulation of a zeolite production sequence consisting of four stages: precipitation in a batch reactor; concentration and washing in a block of centrifuges; formation of droplets and drying in a spray dryer; and burning organic residues in a chain of rotary kilns. Various techniques and methods were used to develop the applied models. For the synthesis in the reactor, a multistage strategy was used, comprising discrete element method simulations, data-driven surrogate modeling, and population balance modeling. The concentration and washing stage consisted of several multicompartment decanter centrifuges alternating with water mixers. The drying is described by a co–current spray dryer model developed by applying a two-dimensional population balance approach. For the rotary kilns, a multi-compartment model was used, which describes the gas–solid reaction in the counter–current solids and gas flows. Full article
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10 pages, 5148 KiB  
Article
Study on the Erosion of Choke Valves in High-Pressure, High-Temperature Gas Wells
by Ling Guo, Yayong Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Han Gao, Hong Yang and Guoqing Han
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102139 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
During the process of gas production in high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) gas wells, the choke valve, as the most vital component of the surface control equipment, plays a significant role in regulating the output and reducing the fluid pressure to ensure the safety of [...] Read more.
During the process of gas production in high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) gas wells, the choke valve, as the most vital component of the surface control equipment, plays a significant role in regulating the output and reducing the fluid pressure to ensure the safety of surface gathering and transportation equipment. High-pressure, high-velocity fluid flow and solid-phase particles cause deterioration of the choke valve. With the enhancement of intelligent and digital oilfields, conventional choke valves have been progressively replaced by electric choke valves. Due to the complex structure of the throttle valve, the flow path and the velocity state of the fluid in the throttle valve, and the distribution law of the erosion fraction are quite distinctive from those in the ordinary throttle valve, meriting further research. In this paper, a simulation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted to determine the effects of the pressure distribution, fluid state, divergent particle sizes, and sand volume on the erosion rate of the choke valve. Under various valve openings, the fluid state and the location of high-risk points can be ascertained. The large particle size (diameter greater than 6 mm) of sand and gravel is convenient for causing concentrated erosion in the position of the valve hole, which induces the channel diameter to expand. Fine silt sand (diameter from 0.1 mm to 1 mm) gives rise to relatively uniform abrasion to the choke’s current-facing surface. This study can optimize the layout of the choke valve and reduce the cost and number of switching wells, thereby decreasing the frequency of maintenance and the pressure fluctuation’s effect on the formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oil and Gas Well Engineering Measurement and Control)
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18 pages, 7137 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Influence of Structure and Parameters of Axial Piston Pump on Flow Pulsation
by Ruichuan Li, Qi Liu, Yi Cheng, Jilu Liu, Qiyou Sun, Yisheng Zhang and Yurong Chi
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2138; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102138 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
In view of the working principle of a swashplate axial piston pump, a simulation model of the piston pump was built in AMESim and its output flow pulsation characteristics were simulated and analyzed. We mainly analyzed the influence of the speed of the [...] Read more.
In view of the working principle of a swashplate axial piston pump, a simulation model of the piston pump was built in AMESim and its output flow pulsation characteristics were simulated and analyzed. We mainly analyzed the influence of the speed of the prime mover, the swashplate angle, the diameter of the piston, and port plate structure on the flow pulsation of the piston pump. The result of this research shows that the port plate structure, the swashplate angle, and the speed of the prime mover have an important influence on the flow pulsation of the piston pump. In order to effectively reduce the flow pulsation generated by the piston pump and reduce the noise generated in the process of flow distribution, the opening of the pre-compression angle and misalignment angle of the port plate of the piston pump must be reduced appropriately and the swashplate angle and the rotation speed of the prime mover should be controlled within a certain range. The flow pulsation of the axial piston pump decreases with the increase of the piston number and the decrease in the misalignment angle. The research results provide a reference for reducing the flow pulsation of the axial piston pump. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization Method of Pumps)
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7 pages, 1449 KiB  
Communication
Concept of an Enzymatic Reactive Extraction Centrifuge
by Francesca Meyer, Nijat Gasimov, Paul Bubenheim and Thomas Waluga
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102137 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Biocatalytic processes often provide an ecological alternative to many chemical processes. However, further improvements in terms of the economic efficiency are required. In order to achieve that, the concept of process integration is a promising option. Applying this within a biocatalytic process, a [...] Read more.
Biocatalytic processes often provide an ecological alternative to many chemical processes. However, further improvements in terms of the economic efficiency are required. In order to achieve that, the concept of process integration is a promising option. Applying this within a biocatalytic process, a highly integrated apparatus working as a reactive extraction centrifuge was developed and operated. For this purpose, a commercially available extraction centrifuge was modified to implement a biocatalytic reaction. The novel apparatus was used within a multi-enzyme cascade for the production of a natural flavor and fragrance, namely cinnamic ester. The characterization of the reactive extraction centrifuge and the suitable operation conditions for the inlet streams and the rotational speed for a stable operation were determined. Furthermore, different initial substrate concentrations were applied to prove the reaction. The results provide a successful proof of concept for the novel reactive extraction centrifuge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering and Technology)
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12 pages, 2370 KiB  
Article
Effect of Surface Modification by Oxygen-Enriched Chemicals on the Surface Properties of Pine Bark Biochars
by Nitesh Kasera, Victoria Augoustides, Praveen Kolar, Steven G. Hall and Billie Vicente
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102136 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Sustainable waste utilization techniques are needed to combat the environmental and economic challenges faced worldwide due to the rising population. Biochars, due to their unique surface properties, offer opportunities to modify their surface to prepare application-specific materials. The aim of this research is [...] Read more.
Sustainable waste utilization techniques are needed to combat the environmental and economic challenges faced worldwide due to the rising population. Biochars, due to their unique surface properties, offer opportunities to modify their surface to prepare application-specific materials. The aim of this research is to study the effects of biochar surface modification by oxidizing chemicals on biochar properties. Pine bark biochar was modified with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and ammonium persulfate. The resulting biochars’ pH, pH at the point of zero charges, and concentration of acidic and basic sites were determined using laboratory experimentation. Instrumental techniques, such as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were also obtained for all biochar samples. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that oxygen content increased to 44.5%, 42.2%, 33.8%, 30.5%, and 14.6% from 13.4% for sulfuric acid, ozone, nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium persulfate, respectively. The pH at the point of zero charges was negatively correlated with the difference in concentration of acidic and basic sites in biochar samples, as well as the summation of peak components representing C=O double bonds and carboxylic groups. The results suggest that designer biochars can be prepared by understanding the interaction of oxygenated chemicals with biochar surfaces. Full article
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14 pages, 3611 KiB  
Article
Development and Performance Evaluation of Scale-Inhibiting Fracturing Fluid System
by Miao Zheng, Lianqi Sheng, Hongda Ren, Abulimiti Yiming, Erdong Yao, Kun Zhang and Longhao Zhao
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102135 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
The injection water and formation water in the Mahu oil field have high salinity and poor compatibility, which leads to scaling and blockage in the formation or fracture propping zone during production. In this paper, a scale-inhibiting fracturing fluid system is developed which [...] Read more.
The injection water and formation water in the Mahu oil field have high salinity and poor compatibility, which leads to scaling and blockage in the formation or fracture propping zone during production. In this paper, a scale-inhibiting fracturing fluid system is developed which can prevent the formation of scale in the reservoir and solves the problem of scaling in the fracture propping zone at the Mahu oil field. Firstly, based on scale-inhibition rate, the performances of six commercial scale inhibitors were evaluated, including their acid and alkali resistance and temperature resistance. Then, the optimal scale inhibitors were combined with the fracturing fluid to obtain a scale-inhibiting fracturing fluid system. Its compatibility with other additives and scale-inhibition performance were evaluated. Finally, the system’s drag-reduction ability was tested through the loop friction tester. The results showed that, among the six scale inhibitors, the organic phosphonic acid scale inhibitor SC-1 has the best performance regardless of high-temperature, alkaline, and mixed scale conditions. In addition, SC-1 has good compatibility with the fracturing fluid. The scale-inhibiting fracturing fluid system can effectively prevent scaling inside the large pores in the propping zone, and a scale-inhibiting efficiency of 96.29% was obtained. The new fracture system maintained a drag-reduction efficiency of about 75%, indicating that the addition of the scale inhibitor did not cause a significant influence on the drag-reduction efficiency of the fracturing fluid. Full article
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19 pages, 8614 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CuAg Coatings on Stainless Steel from Cyanide-Free Electrolyte
by Manal A. El Sayed, Magdy A. M. Ibrahim, Nahla T. Elazab and Malek Gassoumi
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102134 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Herein we demonstrate a novel plating bath, free from cyanide, to plate a highly adherent nanocrystalline copper-silver (ncCuAg) coating on a stainless-steel substrate and its application as an antimicrobial coating. The microstructures, such as the grain size, texture, microstrain, and the crystalline preferential [...] Read more.
Herein we demonstrate a novel plating bath, free from cyanide, to plate a highly adherent nanocrystalline copper-silver (ncCuAg) coating on a stainless-steel substrate and its application as an antimicrobial coating. The microstructures, such as the grain size, texture, microstrain, and the crystalline preferential orientation of CuAg deposits, are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The range of 13.4–16.6 nm was discovered to be the crystallite size determined from the X-ray peak broadening (Scherrer’s formula). Both HRTEM, FESEM-EDS, XPS, and mapping analysis revealed that the ncCuAg coatings are composed of both Ag and Cu atoms. Electrochemical processes occurring during CuAg co-deposition were investigated by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and anodic linear stripping voltammetry (ALSV). Additionally, the coatings made of ncCuAg produced by these baths work well as antibacterial agents against gram-positive (Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Full article
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28 pages, 23335 KiB  
Article
Evolution of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in an M-Shaped Jumper and the Resultant Flow-Induced Vibration Response
by Hongjun Zhu, Youning Hu, Tang Tang, Chunning Ji and Tongming Zhou
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102133 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The vibration excited by gas-liquid multiphase flow endangers the structural instability and fatigue life of subsea jumpers due to the cyclic behavior. In this paper, the multiphase flow-induced vibration (MFIV) of an M-shaped jumper is numerically investigated using a two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) [...] Read more.
The vibration excited by gas-liquid multiphase flow endangers the structural instability and fatigue life of subsea jumpers due to the cyclic behavior. In this paper, the multiphase flow-induced vibration (MFIV) of an M-shaped jumper is numerically investigated using a two-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach. The effect of gas-liquid ratios (β) ranging from 1:1 to 1:5 is examined with a fixed flow velocity of 3 m/s, and the influence of mixture velocity (vm) in the range 2–6 m/s is evaluated with a gas-liquid ratio of 1:1. The numerical results reveal the detailed flow evolution of the gas-liquid mixture along the jumper. With inflow of slugs, the pattern successively experiences the slug flow, wavy flow, imperfect annular flow, stratified flow, churn flow, wavy flow and imperfect annular flow in the pipe segments when β = 1:1 and vm = 3 m/s. This development of mixture flow is significantly altered by changing either the gas-liquid ratio or the mixture velocity. In comparison with the flow evolution in a stationary jumper, the pattern in each pipe segment is not been substantially changed due to the limited response amplitude of order of 10−3D (D is the outer diameter of the jumper). Due to the complex flow evolution, the pressure acting on the six bends of the jumper fluctuate in multiple frequencies. Nevertheless, the dominant fluctuation frequency is approximately equal to the inflow slug frequency. Moreover, the inflow slug frequency also dominates the in-plane response of the jumper. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the jumper exhibit spatial-temporal variation characteristics. The most vigorous oscillation occurs at the midspan of the jumper. As β is reduced, the out-of-plane response of the jumper midspan is suppressed while the in-plane response is enhanced. In contrast, both the in-plane and out-of-plane oscillations of the jumper midspan are amplified with the increase of vm. Full article
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21 pages, 9803 KiB  
Article
A Shift Schedule to Optimize Pure Electric Vehicles Based on RL Using Q-Learning and Opt LHD
by Xin Yu, Ling Zhao, Kun Zhang and Hongqiang Guo
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102132 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Range anxiety is a problem that restricts the development of pure electric vehicles. For this reason, much research starts from a shift schedule and strives to improve mileage. However, the proposed shift schedules have poor adaptive ability and are not suitable for dynamic [...] Read more.
Range anxiety is a problem that restricts the development of pure electric vehicles. For this reason, much research starts from a shift schedule and strives to improve mileage. However, the proposed shift schedules have poor adaptive ability and are not suitable for dynamic conditions. In this paper, a shift schedule based on reinforcement learning (RL) is proposed, which uses Q-learning for optimization. However, the massive state variables and huge Q table in the state space put forward higher requirements on the computing power and storage space of the controller. Traditionally, the application of RL algorithms needs to rely on expensive GPU devices. To reduce high costs, we use an innovative treatment method, the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD), which is used for sampling, and state reduction is performed on the state space. Based on the above, the mileage is effectively improved by applying the shift schedule based on RL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Energy Efficiency, Environment and Health)
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26 pages, 5543 KiB  
Article
Finite Rate Reaction Mechanism Adapted for Modelling Pseudo-Equilibrium Pyrolysis of Cellulose
by Tomás Mora Chandía
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2131; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102131 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
This manuscript is related to a formulation for modelling cellulose pyrolysis with a pseudo-equilibrium approach. The objective is to model the kinetics of the cellulose pyrolysis with a semi-global mechanism obtained from the literature in order to obtain the yield and the rate [...] Read more.
This manuscript is related to a formulation for modelling cellulose pyrolysis with a pseudo-equilibrium approach. The objective is to model the kinetics of the cellulose pyrolysis with a semi-global mechanism obtained from the literature in order to obtain the yield and the rate of formation, mainly that of char. The pseudo-equilibrium approach consists of the assumption that the solid phase devolatilisation can be described kinetically—at a finite rate—thus preserving the competitive characteristic between the production of char and tar, while the gas phase can be described directly by means of chemical equilibrium. The aforementioned approach gives a set of ordinary, linear, and nonlinear differential equations that are solved numerically with a consistent numerical scheme (i.e., the Totally Implicit Euler method). Chemical equilibrium was solved using CANTERA coupled with a code written in MATLAB. The results showed that the scheme preserved the tar-gas competitive characteristic for cellulose pyrolysis. The gas phase was defined as a mixture of CO2, CO, H2O, CH4, H2, and N2, showing a similar composition compared to models from the literature. Finally, the extension of the model to biomass in general is straightforward for including hemicellulose and lignin. The formulation is described in detail throughout the document in order to be replicated and evaluated for other biological components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Conversion Process and Biorefinery)
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16 pages, 6540 KiB  
Article
Kinetic Study of 4-Chlorophenol Biodegradation by Acclimated Sludge in a Packed Bed Reactor
by Yen-Hui Lin
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102130 - 19 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the degradation of 4-CP using acclimated sludge. The Monod and Haldane models were employed to fit the specific growth rate with various initial 4-CP concentrations of 67–412 mg/L in the batch experiments. Haldane kinetics [...] Read more.
In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the degradation of 4-CP using acclimated sludge. The Monod and Haldane models were employed to fit the specific growth rate with various initial 4-CP concentrations of 67–412 mg/L in the batch experiments. Haldane kinetics showed a better fit to experimental results than Monod kinetics. The kinetic parameters were obtained from a comparison of Monod and Haldane kinetics with batch experimental data. The values of μm and KS were found to be 0.691 d−1 and 5.62 mg/L, respectively, for Monod kinetics. In contrast, the values of μm, KS, and KI were 1.30 d−1, 8.38 mg/L, and 279.4 mg/L, respectively, for Haldane kinetics. The kinetic parameters in Haldane kinetics were used as input parameters for the kinetic model system of the packed bed reactor (PBR). The continuous flow PBR was conducted to validate the kinetic model system. The model-simulated results agreed well with experimental data in the PBR performance operation. At the steady-state stage, the removal efficiency of 4-CP was 70.8–96.1%, while the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 2.5 to 12.4 h. The corresponding removal of 4-CP was assessed to be 94.6 and 96.1% when the inlet 4-CP loading rate was increased from 0.11 to 0.51 kg/m3-d. The approaches of kinetic models and experiments presented in this study can be applied to design a PBR for 4-CP treatment in wastewater from the effluents of various industries. Full article
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15 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
Experiment on Gas–Liquid Sulfur Relative Permeability under High-Temperature High-Pressure Sour Gas Reservoir Condition
by Xiao Guo, Pengkun Wang, Jingjing Ma and Tao Li
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2129; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102129 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
In the development of high temperature sour gas reservoirs, gas–liquid sulfur two phase percolations exist, which have a significant impact on the gas permeability and gas well productivity. There are currently few reports on experimental studies on gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability. This study [...] Read more.
In the development of high temperature sour gas reservoirs, gas–liquid sulfur two phase percolations exist, which have a significant impact on the gas permeability and gas well productivity. There are currently few reports on experimental studies on gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability. This study improves the experimental equipment and process, and it proposes an experimental method for measuring the gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability curve. Several typical core samples from a sour gas reservoir in Sichuan Basin, China were selected for experimental study, and the gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability under high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) was measured. The results show that, first, the critical flowing saturation of liquid sulfur was 40%, and the gas–liquid sulfur co-flow zone was narrow. With the increase in the liquid sulfur saturation, the gas relative permeability decreased rapidly. Second, the better the physical properties of the core, the greater the damage of liquid sulfur to the core properties. The residual liquid sulfur saturation of the fractured core was higher than matrix core, and as liquid sulfur saturation increased, so did the damage to gas permeability. Third, temperature had an effect on the gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability. Gas relative permeability decreased as the temperature rose, while the liquid sulfur relative permeability remained essentially constant. Fourth, the rock effective stress had a significant impact on the gas–liquid sulfur relative permeability. The relative permeability of gas and liquid sulfur decreased as the effective stress increased, and the fractured core was more sensitive to stress. Full article
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18 pages, 1856 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polyethylene Microplastics and Phenanthrene on Soil Properties, Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Communities
by Shasha Liu, Kaibo Huang, Guodong Yuan and Chengfang Yang
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102128 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5777
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution has received increasing concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and potential risks in soils. However, nothing is known about the influences of PAHs-MPs combined pollution on soil ecosystems. To address the knowledge gap, a 1-year [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution has received increasing concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and potential risks in soils. However, nothing is known about the influences of PAHs-MPs combined pollution on soil ecosystems. To address the knowledge gap, a 1-year soil microcosm experiment was conducted to systematically investigate the single and combined effect of polyethylene (PE) /phenanthrene (PHE) on soil chemical properties, enzymatic activities and bacterial communities (i.e., diversity, composition and function). Results showed that PE and PHE-PE significantly decreased soil pH. The available phosphorus (AP) and neutral phosphatase activity were not considerably changed by PHE, PE and PHE-PE. Significant enhancement of dehydrogenase activity in a PHE-PE amended system might be due to the degradation of PHE by indigenous bacteria (i.e., Sphingomonas, Sphingobium), and PE could enhance this stimulative effect. PHE and PHE-PE led to a slight increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDAse) activity but a decrease in available nitrogen (AN) and urease activity. PE significantly enhanced the functions of nitrogen cycle and metabolism, reducing SOM/AN contents but increasing urease/FDAse activities. There were insignificant impacts on overall community diversity and composition in treated samples, although some bacterial genera were significantly stimulated or attenuated with treatments. In conclusion, the addition of PHE and PE influenced the soil chemical properties, enzymatic activities and bacterial community diversity/composition to some extent. The significantly positive effect of PE on the nitrogen cycle and on metabolic function might lead to the conspicuous alterations in SOM/AN contents and urease/FDAse activities. This study may provide new basic information for understanding the ecological risk of PAHs-MPs combined pollution in soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remediation of Contaminated Sites: Volume I)
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