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Antioxidants, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of polysaccharides isolated [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Phenolic Compounds Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. at Different Growth Stages
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070237
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
The study investigated the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of various parts of R. crispus and R. obtusifolius, collected at the flowering stage and the fruiting stage. Half of the collected plants were divided into root, stem, [...] Read more.
The study investigated the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of extracts of various parts of R. crispus and R. obtusifolius, collected at the flowering stage and the fruiting stage. Half of the collected plants were divided into root, stem, leaves, and reproductive organs (inflorescence). The other half was used to study the vertical distribution of biologically active components and antioxidants throughout the plant. The samples were analyzed for total catechins content, total proanthocyanidins content, total phenolic content, and total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’azinobis(3)ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). All analyses were performed in four replicates. In general, a similar trend was observed in the distribution of phenolic compounds in the studied species. The maximum content of these secondary metabolites was noted in the reproductive organs, both in the flowering and fruiting period. Stems were characterized by a minimum content of the studied classes of substances. The antioxidant activity of the sorrels studied parts can be arranged in the following order: the generative part (flowers, seeds) > leaves > root > stem (for flowering and fruiting stages). It was found that parts of the root closer to the stem differed in higher activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Retinoyl-Flavonolignan Hybrids and Their Antioxidant Properties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070236
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Antioxidants protect the structural and functional components in organisms against oxidative stress. Most antioxidants are of plant origin as the plants are permanently exposed to oxidative stress (UV radiation, photosynthetic reactions). Both carotenoids and flavonoids are prominent antioxidant and anti-radical agents often occurring [...] Read more.
Antioxidants protect the structural and functional components in organisms against oxidative stress. Most antioxidants are of plant origin as the plants are permanently exposed to oxidative stress (UV radiation, photosynthetic reactions). Both carotenoids and flavonoids are prominent antioxidant and anti-radical agents often occurring together in the plant tissues and acting in lipophilic and hydrophilic milieu, respectively. They are complementary in their anti-radical activity. This study describes the synthesis of a series of hybrid ester conjugates of retinoic acid with various flavonolignans, such as silybin, 2,3-dehydrosilybin and isosilybin. Antioxidant/anti-radical activities and bio-physical properties of novel covalent carotenoid-flavonoid hybrids, as well as various mixtures of the respective parent components, were investigated. Retinoyl conjugates with silybin—which is the most important flavonolignan in silymarin complex—(and its pure diastereomers) displayed better 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than both the parent compounds and their equimolar mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Defence Systems and Oxidative Stress in Poultry Biology: An Update
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070235
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Poultry in commercial settings are exposed to a range of stressors. A growing body of information clearly indicates that excess ROS/RNS production and oxidative stress are major detrimental consequences of the most common commercial stressors in poultry production. During evolution, antioxidant defence systems [...] Read more.
Poultry in commercial settings are exposed to a range of stressors. A growing body of information clearly indicates that excess ROS/RNS production and oxidative stress are major detrimental consequences of the most common commercial stressors in poultry production. During evolution, antioxidant defence systems were developed in poultry to survive in an oxygenated atmosphere. They include a complex network of internally synthesised (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, (glutathione) GSH, (coenzyme Q) CoQ) and externally supplied (vitamin E, carotenoids, etc.) antioxidants. In fact, all antioxidants in the body work cooperatively as a team to maintain optimal redox balance in the cell/body. This balance is a key element in providing the necessary conditions for cell signalling, a vital process for regulation of the expression of various genes, stress adaptation and homeostasis maintenance in the body. Since ROS/RNS are considered to be important signalling molecules, their concentration is strictly regulated by the antioxidant defence network in conjunction with various transcription factors and vitagenes. In fact, activation of vitagenes via such transcription factors as Nrf2 leads to an additional synthesis of an array of protective molecules which can deal with increased ROS/RNS production. Therefore, it is a challenging task to develop a system of optimal antioxidant supplementation to help growing/productive birds maintain effective antioxidant defences and redox balance in the body. On the one hand, antioxidants, such as vitamin E, or minerals (e.g., Se, Mn, Cu and Zn) are a compulsory part of the commercial pre-mixes for poultry, and, in most cases, are adequate to meet the physiological requirements in these elements. On the other hand, due to the aforementioned commercially relevant stressors, there is a need for additional support for the antioxidant system in poultry. This new direction in improving antioxidant defences for poultry in stress conditions is related to an opportunity to activate a range of vitagenes (via Nrf2-related mechanisms: superoxide dismutase, SOD; heme oxygenase-1, HO-1; GSH and thioredoxin, or other mechanisms: Heat shock protein (HSP)/heat shock factor (HSP), sirtuins, etc.) to maximise internal AO protection and redox balance maintenance. Therefore, the development of vitagene-regulating nutritional supplements is on the agenda of many commercial companies worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Poultry Nutrition and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Chlorogenic Acid and Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant) under Different Heat and Storage Treatments
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070234
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Solanum melongena L., also known as eggplant, is a widely consumed vegetable and it is well-known for its beneficial antioxidant properties, due to phenolic compounds. In this work, the influence of different cooking procedures on the content of chlorogenic acid was evaluated on [...] Read more.
Solanum melongena L., also known as eggplant, is a widely consumed vegetable and it is well-known for its beneficial antioxidant properties, due to phenolic compounds. In this work, the influence of different cooking procedures on the content of chlorogenic acid was evaluated on eggplant samples of different geographic origin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An easy and quick extraction procedure with 50% methanol as the extraction solvent was optimized for the first time by means of a design-of-experiment and applied to heat treated samples of eggplant. The antioxidant capacity of eggplant extracts was also evaluated by using the ABTS assay and it was correlated with the data obtained by the HPLC method. The content of chlorogenic acid was different in each heat-treated eggplant sample and it depended on the temperature applied during the cooking procedure. In particular, an increase of chlorogenic acid content with rising temperature was observed. Conversely, a very high temperature (250 °C) caused a decrease of chlorogenic acid amount. The influence of storage on the content of chlorogenic acid was also monitored. While the level of chlorogenic acid in fresh samples decreased during four weeks of storage, an increase in its content in heat treated eggplant was observed within the same period. Multivariate data analysis was used to classify eggplant samples into different groups, according to the country of origin and heat treatment procedure. This study provides new insights to preserve the antioxidant properties of eggplant phenolics during different thermal and storage treatments in order to highlight their health promoting effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydroxytyrosyl Oleate: Improved Extraction Procedure from Olive Oil and By-Products, and In Vitro Antioxidant and Skin Regenerative Properties
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070233
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Recently, we identified hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle) in the by-products of olive oil, pomace and olive mill waste water (OMWW). Herein, we report that HtyOle is more accurately quantified by extracting the phenolic fraction from both matrices by using aqueous methanol (80%). By applying [...] Read more.
Recently, we identified hydroxytyrosyl oleate (HtyOle) in the by-products of olive oil, pomace and olive mill waste water (OMWW). Herein, we report that HtyOle is more accurately quantified by extracting the phenolic fraction from both matrices by using aqueous methanol (80%). By applying this method, HtyOle was also detected in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Since olive oil is used in the preparation of many cosmetic formulations, we explored the antioxidant capacity of HtyOle in human keratinocytes. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as activity of Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were decreased by HtyOle. In addition to that, microRNAs (miRs) involved in both redox status balance and skin regeneration potential were also tested. The following miRs, hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-29a, were increased while has-miR-34a was not affected by HtyOle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Extract from Cool Climate, White Grape Marc
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070232
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Valorization of agricultural waste has become increasingly important. Wastes generated by wineries are high in phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, which contribute to phytotoxicity, making their immediate use for agricultural means limited. Utilizing a water-based extraction method, the phenolic compounds from [...] Read more.
Valorization of agricultural waste has become increasingly important. Wastes generated by wineries are high in phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, which contribute to phytotoxicity, making their immediate use for agricultural means limited. Utilizing a water-based extraction method, the phenolic compounds from winery waste were extracted and purified. The resulting extract was characterized for phenolic composition using high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible and electrochemical detectors (HPLC-UV/Vis, ECD) for monomers, and spectral assessment of the tannins present using attenuated total reflectance- Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), FT-Raman, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopies. The extract’s antioxidant activity was assessed by the scavenging of the 2,2-diphenyl-1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic assay, and was found to be as effective as a commercially obtained grape extract. The extract’s antimicrobial efficacy was tested for minimum bactericidal concentration using Candida albicans, Escherichia coli 25922, and Staphylococcus aureus 6538, which resulted in greater efficacy against gram-positive bacteria as shown over gram-negative bacteria, which can be linked to both monomeric and tannin polyphenols, which have multiple modes of bactericidal action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioassay Directed Isolation, Biological Evaluation and in Silico Studies of New Isolates from Pteris cretica L.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070231
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Members of genus Pteris have their established role in the traditional herbal medicine system. In the pursuit to identify its biologically active constituents, the specie Pteris cretica L. (P. cretica) was selected for the bioassay-guided isolation. Two new maleates (F9 and [...] Read more.
Members of genus Pteris have their established role in the traditional herbal medicine system. In the pursuit to identify its biologically active constituents, the specie Pteris cretica L. (P. cretica) was selected for the bioassay-guided isolation. Two new maleates (F9 and CB18) were identified from the chloroform extract and the structures of the isolates were elucidated through their spectroscopic data. The putative targets, that potentially interact with both of these isolates, were identified through reverse docking by using in silico tools PharmMapper and ReverseScreen3D. On the basis of reverse docking results, both isolates were screened for their antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, α-glucosidase (GluE) inhibition and antibacterial activities. Both isolates depicted moderate potential for the selected activities. Furthermore, docking studies of both isolates were also studied to investigate the binding mode with respective targets followed by molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energies. Thereby, the current study embodies the poly-pharmacological potential of P. cretica. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Screening of In Vitro Health Benefits of Tangerine Tomatoes
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070230
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Tomatoes have been associated with various health benefits, including the prevention of chronic diseases. The cis-isomers of lycopene occurring in tangerine tomatoes were, through clinical trials, proven to be more bioavailable than the all-trans lycopene found in red tomatoes. Nonetheless, scientific [...] Read more.
Tomatoes have been associated with various health benefits, including the prevention of chronic diseases. The cis-isomers of lycopene occurring in tangerine tomatoes were, through clinical trials, proven to be more bioavailable than the all-trans lycopene found in red tomatoes. Nonetheless, scientific evidence regarding the bioactivities of the tangerine tomatoes is lacking. In this article, the antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties of extracts prepared from four different tomato varieties, namely Alfred, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg, Golden Green, and Golden Eye, were investigated. While the antioxidant capacities of the extracts were measured through the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, their anti-proliferative properties in prostate cancer cell lines were examined through the Sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were assessed through the toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2 (NOD2)-mediated inflammatory pathways. Our results show that the tangerine tomatoes had lower IC50 values in both the anticancer and anti-inflammatory assays compared to the red tomatoes. Specifically, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the tangerine tomatoes in LNCaP cells were approximately two to three fold lower than the red tomato (IC50: 14.46, 5.62, and 8.08 mg dry tomato equivalent/mL from Alfred hexane-acetone, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg hexane, and Golden Green hexane, respectively). These findings indicate that the tangerine varieties, Olga’s Round Golden Chicken Egg and Golden Green, possess greater potential to be used in conjunction with treatment and for the prevention of cancer and inflammatory-related diseases than the Alfred (red) and Golden Eye (high beta-carotene) varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Importance of Carotenoids and Their Effect on Liver Health: A Review
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070229
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The consumption of carotenoids has beneficial effects on health, reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and macular degeneration, among others. The mechanism of action of carotenoids has not been clearly identified; however, it has been associated with the antioxidant [...] Read more.
The consumption of carotenoids has beneficial effects on health, reducing the risk of certain forms of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and macular degeneration, among others. The mechanism of action of carotenoids has not been clearly identified; however, it has been associated with the antioxidant capacity of carotenoids, which acts against reactive oxygen species and inactivating free radicals, although it has also been shown that carotenoids modulate gene expression. Dietary carotenoids are absorbed and accumulated in the liver and other organs, where they exert their beneficial effects. In recent years, it has been described that the intake of carotenoids can significantly reduce the risk of suffering from liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This disease is characterized by an imbalance in lipid metabolism producing the accumulation of fat in the hepatocyte, leading to lipoperoxidation, followed by oxidative stress and inflammation. In the first phases, the main treatment of NAFLD is to change the lifestyle, including dietary habits. In this sense, carotenoids have been shown to have a hepatoprotective effect due to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and regulate the lipid metabolism of hepatocytes by modulating certain genes. The objective of this review was to provide a description of the effects of dietary carotenoids from fruits and vegetables on liver health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessArticle
Cytoprotective Compounds Interfere with the Nutraceutical Potential of Bread Supplemented with Green Coffee Beans
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070228
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The proliferation and motile activity of prostate epithelial (Pnt2) and cancer cells (DU-145; PC-3) in the presence of bioavailable compounds from green coffee beans (GCB), wholemeal wheat bread (WMWB), and its GCB-fortified variant were analyzed. The considerable cytostatic and anti-invasive activity of GCB [...] Read more.
The proliferation and motile activity of prostate epithelial (Pnt2) and cancer cells (DU-145; PC-3) in the presence of bioavailable compounds from green coffee beans (GCB), wholemeal wheat bread (WMWB), and its GCB-fortified variant were analyzed. The considerable cytostatic and anti-invasive activity of GCB extracts was correlated with its phenolic contents. WMWB extract contained significantly lower levels of phenolics but still displayed relatively high cytostatic activity. However, the cytostatic properties of WMWB compounds were hardly augmented by 3% GCB flour supplementation. The cytoprotective activity of the WMWB compounds exerts a negative impact on the cytostatic activity of GCB compounds. These data confirm the relatively high chemopreventive potential of GCB. However, they also indicate that subtle interactions between bioavailable compounds in GCB and WMWB can negatively affect the nutraceutic potential of the fortified bread. Apparently, gastrointestinal processing differentially regulates the availability of individual compounds and affects the balance between the cytostatic and cytoprotective activity of the whole product. Our data show that comprehensive research is necessary before the fortification of a specific carrier with a specific supplement can be recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Intensification of Polyphenol Extraction from Olive Leaves Using Ired-Irrad®, an Environmentally-Friendly Innovative Technology
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070227
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Optimization of infrared-assisted extraction was conducted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to intensify polyphenol recovery from olive leaves. The extraction efficiency using Ired-Irrad®, a newly-patented infrared apparatus (IR), was compared to water bath (WB) conventional extraction. Under optimal conditions, [...] Read more.
Optimization of infrared-assisted extraction was conducted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to intensify polyphenol recovery from olive leaves. The extraction efficiency using Ired-Irrad®, a newly-patented infrared apparatus (IR), was compared to water bath (WB) conventional extraction. Under optimal conditions, as suggested by the model and confirmed experimentally, the total phenolic content yield was enhanced by more than 30% using IR as contrasted to WB, which even required 27% more ethanol consumption. High Performance Liquid Chromatography analyses quantified the two major phenolic compounds of the leaves: Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, which were both intensified by 18% and 21%, respectively. IR extracts increased the antiradical activity by 25% and the antioxidant capacity by 51% compared to WB extracts. On the other hand, extracts of olive leaves obtained by both techniques exhibited equal effects regarding the inhibition of 20 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varying between 3.125 and 12.5 mg/mL. Similarly, both extracts inhibited Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) secretion by Aspergillus flavus, with no growth inhibition of the fungus. Finally, optimization using RSM allowed us to suggest other IR operating conditions aiming at significantly reducing the consumption of energy and solvent, while maintaining similar quantity and quality of phenolic compounds as what is optimally obtained using WB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidative and Quality Properties of Full-Fat Date Seeds Brew as Influenced by the Roasting Conditions
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070226
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, [...] Read more.
Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH, browning index and sensory properties of the brew prepared from the full-fat roasted date seeds and to construct descriptive models that could describe this effect. Date seeds were roasted at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) for different period of times (10, 20 and 30 min) using a natural conventional oven; then grinded and next brewed. Hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH and browning index and sensory properties of the brew were significantly affected by the roasting conditions. The statistical results indicated that the proposed model could adequately describe the measured properties. Strong correlations have been found among the properties of the brew as well. The producers of the date seeds brew can utilize these results for controlling the roasting process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Creatine Treatment on Jejunal Phenotypes in a Rat Model of Acidosis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070225
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
We investigated the effects of creatine treatment on jejunal phenotypes in a rat model of oxidative stress induced by acidosis. In particular, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase), the level of lipid peroxidation, the expression [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of creatine treatment on jejunal phenotypes in a rat model of oxidative stress induced by acidosis. In particular, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase), the level of lipid peroxidation, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP70), and the expression of the major carriers of the cells (Na+/K+-ATPase, sodium-glucose Transporter 1—SGLT1, and glucose transporter 2—GLUT2) were measured under control and chronic acidosis conditions. Creatine did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes in either the control or acidosis groups, except for catalase, for which the activity was reduced in both conditions. Creatine did not change the lipid peroxidation level or HSP70 expression. Finally, creatine stimulated (Na+/K+)-ATPase expression under both control and chronic acidosis conditions. Chronic acidosis caused reductions in the expression levels of GLUT2 and SGLT1. GLUT2 reduction was abolished by creatine, while the presence of creatine did not induce any strengthening effect on the expression of SGLT1 in either the control or chronic acidosis groups. These results indicate that creatine has antioxidant properties that are realized through direct interaction of the molecule with reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the administration of creatine seems to determine a functional strengthening of the tissue, making it more resistant to acidosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Saffron: A Multitask Neuroprotective Agent for Retinal Degenerative Diseases
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070224
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
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Abstract
Both age related macular degeneration (AMD) and light induced retinal damage share the common major role played by oxidative stress in the induction/progression of degenerative events. Light damaged (LD) rats have been widely used as a convenient model to gain insight into the [...] Read more.
Both age related macular degeneration (AMD) and light induced retinal damage share the common major role played by oxidative stress in the induction/progression of degenerative events. Light damaged (LD) rats have been widely used as a convenient model to gain insight into the mechanisms of degenerative disease, to enucleate relevant steps and to test neuroprotectants. Among them, saffron has been shown to ameliorate degenerative processes and to regulate many genes and protective pathways. Saffron has been also tested in AMD patients. We extended our analysis to a possible additional effect regulated by saffron and compared in AMD patients a pure antioxidant treatment (Lutein/zeaxanthin) with saffron treatment. Methods: Animal model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) adult rats, raised at 5 lux, were exposed to 1000 lux for 24 h and then either immediately sacrificed or placed back at 5 lux for 7 days recovery period. A group of animals was treated with saffron. We performed in the animal model: (1) SDS-PAGE analysis; (2) Western Blotting (3) Enzyme activity assay (4) Immunolabelling; in AMD patients: a longitudinal open-label study 29 (±5) months in two groups of patients: lutein/zeaxanthin (19) and saffron (23) treated. Visual function was tested every 8 months by ERG recordings in addition to clinical examination. Results: Enzymatic activity of MMP-3 is reduced in LD saffron treated retinas and is comparable to control as it is MMP-3 expression. LD treated retinas do not present “rosettes” and microglia activation and migration is highly reduced. Visual function remains stable in saffron treated AMD patients while deteriorates in the lutein/zeaxanthin group. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence of an additional way of action of saffron treatment confirming the complex nature of neuroprotective activities of its chemical components. Accordingly, long term follow-up in AMD patients reveals an added value of saffron supplementation treatment compared to classical antioxidant protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Retinal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutraceutical Properties of Mulberries Grown in Southern Italy (Apulia)
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070223
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
In this work, for the first time, were analyzed mulberry genotypes grown in Apulia (Southern Italy, Salento region) were analyzed. Two local varieties of Morus alba (cv. Legittimo nero and cv. Nello) and one of Morus nigra were characterized for content [...] Read more.
In this work, for the first time, were analyzed mulberry genotypes grown in Apulia (Southern Italy, Salento region) were analyzed. Two local varieties of Morus alba (cv. Legittimo nero and cv. Nello) and one of Morus nigra were characterized for content in simple sugars, organic acids, phenols, anthocyanins; fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was also evaluated by three different methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH; 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS; and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential, FRAP test). The results showed that the sugars amount ranged between 6.29 and 7.66 g/100 g fresh weight (FW) while the malic and citric acids content was low, at about 0.1–1 g/100 g FW. Mulberries are a good source of phenols which are present in higher values in M. nigra and M. alba cv. Legittimo nero (485 and 424 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/ 100 g FW, respectively). The high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/MS) analysis identified 5 main anthocyanin compounds present in different concentrations in each variety of mulberry: cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was determined in Morus alba Legittimo (about 300 mg/100 g FW) while the lowest content (about 25 mg/100 g FW) was measured in M. alba cv. Nello. Morus nigra showed a good AA in comparison with the different M. alba genotypes with all the used methods; its AA was equal to 33, 26 and 21 μmols Trolox/g FW when using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests, respectively. All genotypes showed an anti-inflammatory activity (measured by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory assay) which was also compared with two commercial anti-inflammatory drugs. The data obtained support the high biological qualities of mulberry fruits and their diffusion in human nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Open AccessArticle
Rationale on the High Radical Scavenging Capacity of Betalains
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070222
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Betalains are water-soluble natural pigments of increasing importance as antioxidants for pharmaceutical use. Although non-phenolic betalains have lower capacity to scavenge radicals compared to their phenolic analogues, both classes perform well as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in vivo. Here we show that [...] Read more.
Betalains are water-soluble natural pigments of increasing importance as antioxidants for pharmaceutical use. Although non-phenolic betalains have lower capacity to scavenge radicals compared to their phenolic analogues, both classes perform well as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in vivo. Here we show that meta-hydroxyphenyl betalain (m-OH-pBeet) and phenylbetalain (pBeet) show higher radical scavenging capacity compared to their N-methyl iminium analogues, in which proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the imine nitrogen atom is precluded. The 1,7-diazaheptamethinium system was found to be essential for the high radical scavenging capacity of betalains and concerted PCET is the most thermodynamically favorable pathway for their one-electron oxidation. The results provide useful insights for the design of nature-derived redox mediators based on the betalain scaffold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Open AccessArticle
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso): The Effects of Cultivar and Harvest Date on Functional Properties of Juice and Cloudy Juice
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070221
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract
Reggio Calabria province (South Italy) is known for being almost the only area of cultivation of the bergamot fruit, grown principally for its essential oil, but today much studied for the health benefits of its juice. The biometrics and physico-chemical properties of the [...] Read more.
Reggio Calabria province (South Italy) is known for being almost the only area of cultivation of the bergamot fruit, grown principally for its essential oil, but today much studied for the health benefits of its juice. The biometrics and physico-chemical properties of the three (Citrus bergamia Risso) existing genotypes namely Castagnaro, Fantastico and Femminello were studied during fruit ripening from October to March. Castagnaro cultivar had the biggest and heaviest fruit during this harvest period. °Brix (7.9–10.0), pH (2.2–2.8) and formol number (1.47–2.37 mL NaOH 0.1 N/100 mL) were shown to be influenced by both the genotype and harvest date. Titratable acidity (34.98–59.50 g/L) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (341–867 g/L) decreased during fruit ripening. The evolution of flavonoids such as neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, brutieridin and melitidin was studied both in bergamot juice and in the bergamot cloudy juice which is the aqueous extract of bergamot during fruit processing. Bergamot cloudy juice contained a higher quantity of flavonoids compared to the juice. This study gives important information regarding the cultivar and the harvest date for producers who want to obtain the highest juice quantity or the highest juice quality from the bergamot fruit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phenol-Rich Feijoa sellowiana (Pineapple Guava) Extracts Protect Human Red Blood Cells from Mercury-Induced Cellular Toxicity
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070220
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Plant polyphenols, with broadly known antioxidant properties, represent very effective agents against environmental oxidative stressors, including mercury. This heavy metal irreversibly binds thiol groups, sequestering endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione. Increased incidence of food-derived mercury is cause for concern, given the many severe [...] Read more.
Plant polyphenols, with broadly known antioxidant properties, represent very effective agents against environmental oxidative stressors, including mercury. This heavy metal irreversibly binds thiol groups, sequestering endogenous antioxidants, such as glutathione. Increased incidence of food-derived mercury is cause for concern, given the many severe downstream effects, ranging from kidney to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the possible beneficial properties of Feijoa sellowiana against mercury toxicity were tested using intact human red blood cells (RBC) incubated in the presence of HgCl2. Here, we show that phenol-rich (10–200 µg/mL) extracts from the Feijoa sellowiana fruit potently protect against mercury-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Peel and pulp extracts are both able to counteract the oxidative stress and thiol decrease induced in RBC by mercury treatment. Nonetheless, the peel extract had a greater protective effect compared to the pulp, although to a different extent for the different markers analyzed, which is at least partially due to the greater proportion and diversity of polyphenols in the peel. Furthermore, Fejioa sellowiana extracts also prevent mercury-induced morphological changes, which are known to enhance the pro-coagulant activity of these cells. These novel findings provide biochemical bases for the pharmacological use of Fejioa sellowiana-based functional foods in preventing and combating mercury-related illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Protection from UV- and Light-Stress Related to Carotenoid Structures
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070219
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
This review summarizes studies of protection against singlet oxygen and radical damage by carotenoids. The main focus is on how substitutions of the carotenoid molecules determine high antioxidant activities such as singlet oxygen quenching and radical scavenging. Applied assays were carried out either [...] Read more.
This review summarizes studies of protection against singlet oxygen and radical damage by carotenoids. The main focus is on how substitutions of the carotenoid molecules determine high antioxidant activities such as singlet oxygen quenching and radical scavenging. Applied assays were carried out either in vitro in solvents or with liposomes, and in a few cases with living organisms. In the latter, protection by carotenoids especially of photosynthesis against light- and UV-stress is of major importance, but also heterotrophic organisms suffer from high light and UV exposure which can be alleviated by carotenoids. Carotenoids to be compared include C30, C40 and C50 molecules either acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic with different substitutions including sugar and fatty acid moieties. Although some studies are difficult to compare, there is a tendency towards mono and bicyclic carotenoids with keto groups at C-4/C-4’ and the longest possible polyene structure functions to act best in singlet oxygen quenching and radical scavenging. Size of the carotenoid and lipophilic substituents such as fatty acids seem to be of minor importance for their activity but hydroxyl groups at an acyclic end and especially glycosylation of these hydroxyl groups enhance carotenoid activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessReview
LOX-1: Regulation, Signaling and Its Role in Atherosclerosis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070218
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Atherosclerosis has long been known to be a chronic inflammatory disease. In addition, there is intense oxidative stress in atherosclerosis resulting from an imbalance between the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inadequate anti-oxidant defense forces. The excess of the oxidative forces [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis has long been known to be a chronic inflammatory disease. In addition, there is intense oxidative stress in atherosclerosis resulting from an imbalance between the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inadequate anti-oxidant defense forces. The excess of the oxidative forces results in the conversion of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), which is highly atherogenic. The sub-endothelial deposition of ox-LDL, formation of foamy macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and deposition of collagen are central pathophysiologic steps in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Ox-LDL exerts its action through several different scavenger receptors, the most important of which is LOX-1 in atherogenesis. LOX-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that binds to and internalizes ox-LDL. This interaction results in variable downstream effects based on the cell type. In endothelial cells, there is an increased expression of cellular adhesion molecules, resulting in the increased attachment and migration of inflammatory cells to intima, followed by their differentiation into macrophages. There is also a worsening endothelial dysfunction due to the increased production of vasoconstrictors, increased ROS, and depletion of endothelial nitric oxide (NO). In the macrophages and VSMCs, ox-LDL causes further upregulation of the LOX-1 gene, modulation of calpains, macrophage migration, VSMC proliferation and foam cell formation. Soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1), a fragment of the main LOX-1 molecule, is being investigated as a diagnostic marker because it has been shown to be present in increased quantities in patients with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. LOX-1 gene deletion in mice and anti-LOX-1 therapy has been shown to decrease inflammation, oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. LOX-1 deletion also results in damage from ischemia, making LOX-1 a promising target of therapy for atherosclerosis and related disorders. In this article we focus on the different mechanisms for regulation, signaling and the various effects of LOX-1 in contributing to atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidized LDL Lipids)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Spanish Extra Virgin Olive Oil Regarding Cultivar, Harvest Year and Crop Stage
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070217
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
The health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are related to its chemical composition and the presence of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant compounds (pigments, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and phenolic [...] Read more.
The health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are related to its chemical composition and the presence of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant compounds (pigments, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant properties of EVOO from the same region comparing different cultivars (Hojiblanca and Arbequina), harvest year and crop stage. Antioxidant properties of oils were studied before and after a gastrointestinal digestion process, by in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) and antioxidant markers in Caco-2 cells (reactive oxygen species production). The content of bioactive compounds measured was significantly affected by cultivar and harvest year (except for carotenoids) and by the crop stage (except for coenzyme Q10). Higher amounts of coenzyme Q10 were observed in Hojiblanca than in Arbequina EVOO. Total phenol content and antioxidant properties were also different depending on cultivar and harvest year and the in vitro digestion process strongly improved antioxidant marker values. Antioxidant potential in bioaccessible fractions was mainly related to the content of coenzyme Q10 and phenolic compounds in EVOO. Chemometric analysis showed that the oils were clearly classified by cultivars, harvest and crop stage, according to the chemical composition and antioxidant activity analyzed in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Olive Oils)
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Open AccessReview
Avian Stress-Related Transcriptome and Selenotranscriptome: Role during Exposure to Heavy Metals and Heat Stress
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070216
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Selenium, through incorporation into selenoproteins, is one of the key elements of the antioxidant system. Over the past few years there has been increased interest in exploring those molecular mechanisms in chicken, responsible for the development of this protection system. In more detail, [...] Read more.
Selenium, through incorporation into selenoproteins, is one of the key elements of the antioxidant system. Over the past few years there has been increased interest in exploring those molecular mechanisms in chicken, responsible for the development of this protection system. In more detail, Cd/Pb poisoning and heat stress increase oxidation, mRNA levels of inflammatory proteins, and apoptotic proteins. Selenium seems to enhance the antioxidant status and alleviates these effects via upregulation of antioxidant proteins and other molecular effects. In this review, we analyze avian transcriptome key elements with particular emphasis on interactions with heavy metals and on relation to heat stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium and Animal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of 30 Tea Infusions from Green, Black, Oolong, White, Yellow and Dark Teas
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070215
Received: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Tea is among the most consumed drink worldwide, and its strong antioxidant activity is considered as the main contributor to several health benefits, such as cardiovascular protection and anticancer effect. In this study, the antioxidant activities of 30 tea infusions, which were obtained [...] Read more.
Tea is among the most consumed drink worldwide, and its strong antioxidant activity is considered as the main contributor to several health benefits, such as cardiovascular protection and anticancer effect. In this study, the antioxidant activities of 30 tea infusions, which were obtained by the mimic of drinking tea of the public, from green, black, oolong, white, yellow and dark teas, were evaluated using ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, ranging from 504.80 ± 17.44 to 4647.47 ± 57.87 µmol Fe2+/g dry weight (DW) and 166.29 ± 24.48 to 2532.41 ± 50.18 µmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. Moreover, their total phenolic contents (TPC) were detected by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and were in the range of 24.77 ± 2.02 to 252.65 ± 4.74 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g DW. Generally, Dianqing Tea, Lushan Yunwu Tea, and Xihu Longjing Tea showed the strongest antioxidant activities among 30 teas. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds in tea infusions were identified and quantified, with catechins most commonly detected, especially in green tea infusions, which were main contributors to their antioxidant activities. Besides tea polyphenols, considerable content of caffeine also presented in 30 tea infusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Capacity and Cytotoxic Effects of Catechins and Resveratrol Oligomers Produced by Enzymatic Oxidation against T24 Human Urinary Bladder Cancer Cells
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070214
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
In this work the polymerization of catechin, epicatechin, and resveratrol was carried out through a peroxidase oxidation process in order to improve the biological activity of these phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the oligomers was evaluated by their ability to scavenge reactive [...] Read more.
In this work the polymerization of catechin, epicatechin, and resveratrol was carried out through a peroxidase oxidation process in order to improve the biological activity of these phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of the oligomers was evaluated by their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their capacity to chelate metal ions Fe2+ and Cu2+. The antitumor effect of the oligomers was determined by their ability to induce toxicity in the T24 human bladder cancer cell line. By enzymatic peroxidase oxidation, it was possible to produce oligomers of catechin, epicatechin, and resveratrol with antioxidant capacity significantly higher than their preceding monomers. The ROS scavenging capacity of the oligomers was 20 times higher than that of the monomers, while the ability of the oligomers to chelate metal ions increased up to about 1000 times. Our data show the antitumor effect of the oligomers of catechin, epicatechin, and resveratrol in the T24 cell line, which was similar to that observed with cisplatin. Oligomers of catechin, epicatechin, and resveratrol have great potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases and bladder cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serum Paraoxonase-1-Related Variables and Lipoprotein Profile in Patients with Lung or Head and Neck Cancer: Effect of Radiotherapy
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070213
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
We investigated alterations in the levels of the antioxidant paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the lipoprotein profile (analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance) in patients with lung cancer (LC) or head and neck cancer (HNC), and the effects produced thereon by radiotherapy (RT). We included 33 [...] Read more.
We investigated alterations in the levels of the antioxidant paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the lipoprotein profile (analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance) in patients with lung cancer (LC) or head and neck cancer (HNC), and the effects produced thereon by radiotherapy (RT). We included 33 patients with LC and 28 patients with HNC. Before irradiation, and one month after completion of RT, blood samples were obtained. The control group was composed of 50 healthy subjects. Patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activity and concentration before RT than the control group. PON1-related variables were good predictors of the presence of LC or HNC, with analytical sensitivities and specificities greater than 80%. Patients showed a significant increase in the number of particles of all subclasses of very-low-density lipoproteins (large, medium and small). However, these changes were not maintained when adjusted for age, sex, and other clinical and demographic variables. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in PON1 concentration and, only in patients with HNC, with an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration. Our results suggest that determinations of the levels of PON1-related variables may constitute good biomarkers for the evaluation of these diseases. Studies with a larger number of patients are needed to fully confirm this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paraoxonase in Oxidation and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Brassica oleracea Florets on the Antioxidant Activity and Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Phenolic Content
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070212
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
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Abstract
Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica is known to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and due to the protection against various diseases its consumption has been increasing over the years. Thus, knowledge of the changes that occur during the digestion process is [...] Read more.
Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica is known to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and due to the protection against various diseases its consumption has been increasing over the years. Thus, knowledge of the changes that occur during the digestion process is of great interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of broccoli on antioxidant activity and on the chlorophyll, carotenoid and phenolic content. First, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds was optimized and the kinetic model was evaluated. Then, the broccoli was subjected to a static simulated digestion. The antioxidant activity was monitored by ABTS [2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] assay and the contents of target compounds were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography. The optimum conditions were: solvent—ethanol; time—20 min and temperature—30 °C, and a second order kinetic model was found to describe the mechanism of extraction. The antioxidant activity and carotenoid, chlorophyll and total phenolic content was significantly decreased after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. The gastric digestion considerably decreased carotenoid and chlorophyll content, meanwhile the intestinal digestion significantly decreased the total phenolic content (TPC). The antioxidant activity was equally affected by both gastric and intestinal digestion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of In Vitro Bioactivities of Polysaccharides Isolated from Hericium Novae-Zealandiae
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070211
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of the polysaccharides isolated from Hericium novae-zealandiae, a native New Zealand fungus, on the in vitro proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, gene expression, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and oxidation. One water-soluble [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of the polysaccharides isolated from Hericium novae-zealandiae, a native New Zealand fungus, on the in vitro proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, gene expression, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and oxidation. One water-soluble and two alkali-soluble polysaccharide fractions were isolated from H. novae-zealandiae. The proliferation of the prostate cancer cell lines DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 was evaluated following treatment with these polysaccharide fractions. It was found that the polysaccharides possess anti-proliferative activity on LNCaP and PC3 cells, with a 50% growth inhibition (IC50) value as low as 0.61 mg/mL in LNCaP. Subsequently, it was determined through via RT-qPCR assay that apoptosis was one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-proliferative activity in LNCaP. This was supported by the up-regulation of CASP3, CASP8, and CASP9. An alternative, discovered in PC3, was revealed to be anti-inflammation, which was hinted at by the down-regulation of IL6 and up-regulation of IL24. The polysaccharides also exhibited antioxidant and weak AChE inhibitory activities. This is the first report on the potential health benefits of polysaccharides prepared from the New Zealand fungus, H. novae-zealandiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants in Cancer Chemoprevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure–Antioxidant–Antiproliferative Activity Relationships of Natural C7 and C7–C8 Hydroxylated Flavones and Flavanones
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070210
Received: 21 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
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Abstract
Common food flavonoids: chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, pinocembrin, naringenin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, and their analogues with an additional hydroxyl group at the C-8 position obtained via biotransformation were tested for antioxidant activity using the ABTS, DPPH, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. [...] Read more.
Common food flavonoids: chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, pinocembrin, naringenin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, and their analogues with an additional hydroxyl group at the C-8 position obtained via biotransformation were tested for antioxidant activity using the ABTS, DPPH, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. They were also tested for antiproliferative activity against selected human cancer cell lines—MV-4-11 (biphenotypic B myelomonocytic leukemia), MCF7 (breast carcinoma), LoVo (colon cancer), LoVo/DX (colon cancer doxorubicin resistant), and DU 145 (prostate cancer)—and two normal human cell lines—MCF 10A (breast cells) and HLMEC (lung microvascular endothelial cells). Flavonoids with a C7–C8 catechol moiety indicated much higher antioxidant activity compared with the C7 hydroxy analogues. However, because they were unstable under the assay conditions, they did not show antiproliferative activity or it was very low. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
First Apocarotenoids Profiling of Four Microalgae Strains
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070209
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Both enzymatic or oxidative carotenoids cleavages can often occur in nature and produce a wide range of bioactive apocarotenoids. Considering that no detailed information is available in the literature regarding the occurrence of apocarotenoids in microalgae species, the aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Both enzymatic or oxidative carotenoids cleavages can often occur in nature and produce a wide range of bioactive apocarotenoids. Considering that no detailed information is available in the literature regarding the occurrence of apocarotenoids in microalgae species, the aim of this study was to study the extraction and characterization of apocarotenoids in four different microalgae strains: Chlamydomonas sp. CCMP 2294, Tetraselmis chuii SAG 8-6, Nannochloropsis gaditana CCMP 526, and Chlorella sorokiniana NIVA-CHL 176. This was done for the first time using an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 29 different apocarotenoids, including various apocarotenoid fatty acid esters, were detected: apo-12’-zeaxanthinal, β-apo-12’-carotenal, apo-12-luteinal, and apo-12’-violaxanthal. These were detected in all the investigated strains together with the two apocarotenoid esters, apo-10’-zeaxanthinal-C4:0 and apo-8’-zeaxanthinal-C8:0. The overall extraction and detection time for the apocarotenoids was less than 10 min, including apocarotenoids esters, with an overall analysis time of less than 20 min. Moreover, preliminary quantitative data showed that the β-apo-8’-carotenal content was around 0.8% and 2.4% of the parent carotenoid, in the C. sorokiniana and T. chuii strains, respectively. This methodology could be applied as a selective and efficient method for the apocarotenoids detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Mastiha: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070208
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays both scientists and consumers have an increasing interest for natural products as preventing and healing factors without side effects. Mastiha, is a natural product of the Mediterranean basin with several health benefits as investigated the last decades. The present review summarises the [...] Read more.
Nowadays both scientists and consumers have an increasing interest for natural products as preventing and healing factors without side effects. Mastiha, is a natural product of the Mediterranean basin with several health benefits as investigated the last decades. The present review summarises the research evidence from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Mastiha. MEDLINE, COHRANE and search terms “Mastiha”, “Mastic gum”, “Chios mastic” and “Pistacia lentiscus” were used. We limited our search by selecting only articles written in English literature, published between 2003 and 2019 that were experimental studies on Mastiha resinous exudate (review articles and individual case reports were excluded). Additional searches were performed using “oxidative stress” and “inflammation”. A total of 19 studies met our criteria and were included in this review. Currently, there are more preclinical than clinical data available. Taken all together, the antioxidant potential of Mastiha is most probably owed to the inhibition of protein kinase, while its anti-inflammatory capacity may be the result of the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Further clinical studies in large populations are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Plants Extract)
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