Nowadays both scientists and consumers have an increasing interest for natural products as preventing and healing factors without side effects. Mastiha, is a natural product of the Mediterranean basin with several health benefits as investigated the last decades. The present review summarises the research evidence from preclinical and clinical studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Mastiha. MEDLINE, COHRANE and search terms “Mastiha”, “Mastic gum”, “Chios mastic” and “Pistacia lentiscus” were used. We limited our search by selecting only articles written in English literature, published between 2003 and 2019 that were experimental studies on Mastiha resinous exudate (review articles and individual case reports were excluded). Additional searches were performed using “oxidative stress” and “inflammation”. A total of 19 studies met our criteria and were included in this review. Currently, there are more preclinical than clinical data available. Taken all together, the antioxidant potential of Mastiha is most probably owed to the inhibition of protein kinase, while its anti-inflammatory capacity may be the result of the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Further clinical studies in large populations are necessary.
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