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Cytoprotective Compounds Interfere with the Nutraceutical Potential of Bread Supplemented with Green Coffee Beans

1
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna Str. 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biophysics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-378 Kraków, Poland
3
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences, Doświadczalna Str. 44, 20-280 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070228
Received: 21 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

The proliferation and motile activity of prostate epithelial (Pnt2) and cancer cells (DU-145; PC-3) in the presence of bioavailable compounds from green coffee beans (GCB), wholemeal wheat bread (WMWB), and its GCB-fortified variant were analyzed. The considerable cytostatic and anti-invasive activity of GCB extracts was correlated with its phenolic contents. WMWB extract contained significantly lower levels of phenolics but still displayed relatively high cytostatic activity. However, the cytostatic properties of WMWB compounds were hardly augmented by 3% GCB flour supplementation. The cytoprotective activity of the WMWB compounds exerts a negative impact on the cytostatic activity of GCB compounds. These data confirm the relatively high chemopreventive potential of GCB. However, they also indicate that subtle interactions between bioavailable compounds in GCB and WMWB can negatively affect the nutraceutic potential of the fortified bread. Apparently, gastrointestinal processing differentially regulates the availability of individual compounds and affects the balance between the cytostatic and cytoprotective activity of the whole product. Our data show that comprehensive research is necessary before the fortification of a specific carrier with a specific supplement can be recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee beans; wholemeal bread; prostate cancer; gastrointestinal digestion; cytoprotection coffee beans; wholemeal bread; prostate cancer; gastrointestinal digestion; cytoprotection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gawlik-Dziki, U.; Luty, M.; Dziki, D.; Świeca, M.; Piwowarczyk, K.; Złotek, U.; Czyż, J. Cytoprotective Compounds Interfere with the Nutraceutical Potential of Bread Supplemented with Green Coffee Beans. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 228.

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