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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Extract from Cool Climate, White Grape Marc

1
School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
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Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Bioscience, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 85084, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
3
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL), University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47521 Cesena (FC), Italy
4
Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
5
NMR Centre, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
6
Dodd Walls Centre, Chemistry Department, The University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070232
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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PDF [1011 KB, uploaded 20 July 2019]
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Abstract

Valorization of agricultural waste has become increasingly important. Wastes generated by wineries are high in phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, which contribute to phytotoxicity, making their immediate use for agricultural means limited. Utilizing a water-based extraction method, the phenolic compounds from winery waste were extracted and purified. The resulting extract was characterized for phenolic composition using high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet/visible and electrochemical detectors (HPLC-UV/Vis, ECD) for monomers, and spectral assessment of the tannins present using attenuated total reflectance- Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), FT-Raman, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopies. The extract’s antioxidant activity was assessed by the scavenging of the 2,2-diphenyl-1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic assay, and was found to be as effective as a commercially obtained grape extract. The extract’s antimicrobial efficacy was tested for minimum bactericidal concentration using Candida albicans, Escherichia coli 25922, and Staphylococcus aureus 6538, which resulted in greater efficacy against gram-positive bacteria as shown over gram-negative bacteria, which can be linked to both monomeric and tannin polyphenols, which have multiple modes of bactericidal action. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; grape tannin extract; phenolic compounds; waste valorization antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; grape tannin extract; phenolic compounds; waste valorization
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Olejar, K.J.; Ricci, A.; Swift, S.; Zujovic, Z.; Gordon, K.C.; Fedrizzi, B.; Versari, A.; Kilmartin, P.A. Characterization of an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Extract from Cool Climate, White Grape Marc. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 232.

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