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Nutraceutical Properties of Mulberries Grown in Southern Italy (Apulia)

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTeBA), Salento University, Via Prov. le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
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Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070223
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenolic Plant Extracts)
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Abstract

In this work, for the first time, were analyzed mulberry genotypes grown in Apulia (Southern Italy, Salento region) were analyzed. Two local varieties of Morus alba (cv. Legittimo nero and cv. Nello) and one of Morus nigra were characterized for content in simple sugars, organic acids, phenols, anthocyanins; fruit antioxidant activity (AA) was also evaluated by three different methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH; 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS; and Ferric reducing antioxidant potential, FRAP test). The results showed that the sugars amount ranged between 6.29 and 7.66 g/100 g fresh weight (FW) while the malic and citric acids content was low, at about 0.1–1 g/100 g FW. Mulberries are a good source of phenols which are present in higher values in M. nigra and M. alba cv. Legittimo nero (485 and 424 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/ 100 g FW, respectively). The high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometry (HPLC/DAD/MS) analysis identified 5 main anthocyanin compounds present in different concentrations in each variety of mulberry: cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was determined in Morus alba Legittimo (about 300 mg/100 g FW) while the lowest content (about 25 mg/100 g FW) was measured in M. alba cv. Nello. Morus nigra showed a good AA in comparison with the different M. alba genotypes with all the used methods; its AA was equal to 33, 26 and 21 μmols Trolox/g FW when using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP tests, respectively. All genotypes showed an anti-inflammatory activity (measured by cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory assay) which was also compared with two commercial anti-inflammatory drugs. The data obtained support the high biological qualities of mulberry fruits and their diffusion in human nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: mulberry (Morus nigra; Morus alba); simple sugars; organic acids; phenol compounds; high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometry anthocyanins; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity mulberry (Morus nigra; Morus alba); simple sugars; organic acids; phenol compounds; high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector/mass spectrometry anthocyanins; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Negro, C.; Aprile, A.; De Bellis, L.; Miceli, A. Nutraceutical Properties of Mulberries Grown in Southern Italy (Apulia). Antioxidants 2019, 8, 223.

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