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First Apocarotenoids Profiling of Four Microalgae Strains

1
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
3
PROPLANTA-Research Centre for Applied Biotechnology, str. Trifoiului 12G, 400478 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4
Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), PO115, N-1431 Ås, Norway
5
Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
6
BeSep s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
7
Unit of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070209
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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Abstract

Both enzymatic or oxidative carotenoids cleavages can often occur in nature and produce a wide range of bioactive apocarotenoids. Considering that no detailed information is available in the literature regarding the occurrence of apocarotenoids in microalgae species, the aim of this study was to study the extraction and characterization of apocarotenoids in four different microalgae strains: Chlamydomonas sp. CCMP 2294, Tetraselmis chuii SAG 8-6, Nannochloropsis gaditana CCMP 526, and Chlorella sorokiniana NIVA-CHL 176. This was done for the first time using an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 29 different apocarotenoids, including various apocarotenoid fatty acid esters, were detected: apo-12’-zeaxanthinal, β-apo-12’-carotenal, apo-12-luteinal, and apo-12’-violaxanthal. These were detected in all the investigated strains together with the two apocarotenoid esters, apo-10’-zeaxanthinal-C4:0 and apo-8’-zeaxanthinal-C8:0. The overall extraction and detection time for the apocarotenoids was less than 10 min, including apocarotenoids esters, with an overall analysis time of less than 20 min. Moreover, preliminary quantitative data showed that the β-apo-8’-carotenal content was around 0.8% and 2.4% of the parent carotenoid, in the C. sorokiniana and T. chuii strains, respectively. This methodology could be applied as a selective and efficient method for the apocarotenoids detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid derivatives; microphytes; supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; hyphenated techniques carotenoid derivatives; microphytes; supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; hyphenated techniques
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zoccali, M.; Giuffrida, D.; Salafia, F.; Socaciu, C.; Skjånes, K.; Dugo, P.; Mondello, L. First Apocarotenoids Profiling of Four Microalgae Strains. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 209.

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