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Ectopic or Over-Expression of Class 1 Phytoglobin Genes Confers Flooding Tolerance to the Root Nodules of Lotus japonicus by Scavenging Nitric Oxide

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070206
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract

Flooding limits biomass production in agriculture. Leguminous plants, important agricultural crops, use atmospheric dinitrogen gas as nitrogen nutrition by symbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobia, but this root-nodule symbiosis is sometimes broken down by flooding of the root system. In this study, we analyzed the effect of flooding on the symbiotic system of transgenic Lotus japonicus lines which overexpressed class 1 phytoglobin (Glb1) of L. japonicus (LjGlb1-1) or ectopically expressed that of Alnus firma (AfGlb1). In the roots of wild-type plants, flooding increased nitric oxide (NO) level and expression of senescence-related genes and decreased nitrogenase activity; in the roots of transgenic lines, these effects were absent or less pronounced. The decrease of chlorophyll content in leaves and the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots and leaves caused by flooding were also suppressed in these lines. These results suggest that increased levels of Glb1 help maintain nodule symbiosis under flooding by scavenging NO and controlling ROS. View Full-Text
Keywords: flooding; hemoglobin; hypoxia; Lotus japonicus; Mesorhizobium loti; nitric oxide; nitrogen fixation; ROS; symbiosis flooding; hemoglobin; hypoxia; Lotus japonicus; Mesorhizobium loti; nitric oxide; nitrogen fixation; ROS; symbiosis
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Fukudome, M.; Watanabe, E.; Osuki, K.-I.; Uchi, N.; Uchiumi, T. Ectopic or Over-Expression of Class 1 Phytoglobin Genes Confers Flooding Tolerance to the Root Nodules of Lotus japonicus by Scavenging Nitric Oxide. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 206.

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