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Effect of Sterigmatocystin or Aflatoxin Contaminated Feed on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Redox System and Expression of Glutathione Redox System Regulatory Genes in Broiler Chicken

1
Department of Nutrition, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
2
Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences–Kaposvár University–Szent István University, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
3
Department of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre (NARIC), H-1022 Budapest, Hungary
4
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070201
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract

Authors studied the effect of sterigmatocystin from infected corn (STC), purified sterigmatocystin (PSTC), and aflatoxin B1 from infected corn (AFB1) on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox parameters, including the expression of their encoding genes in a sub-chronic (14 days) trial. A total of 144 three-week-old cockerels was divided into four experimental groups (n = 36 in each). Control feed was contaminated with STC or PSTC (1590 µg STC/kg or 1570.5 µg STC/kg feed), or with AFB1 (149.1 µg AFB1/kg feed). Six birds from each group were sampled at day 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 of mycotoxin exposure. As parameters of lipid peroxidation, conjugated dienes (CD) and trienes (CT) were measured in the liver, while malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was determined in blood plasma, red blood cell hemolysate and liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in the same samples, and expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), glutathione synthetase (GSS) and glutathione reductase (GSR) genes was measured by RT-PCR in the liver. STC, PSTC or AFB1 caused a slight, but not significant, increase in CD and CT levels; however, in the case of MDA, no increase was found in the liver. Glutathione redox system was activated in the liver by AFB1, but less markedly by STC/PSTC. PSTC and AFB1 resulted in a higher expression of GPX4, while GSS expression was down-regulated by AFB1 on day 1, but up-regulated by STC on day 2 and by both mycotoxins on day 7. However, on day 14, GSS expression was down-regulated by PSTC. Expression of GSR was low on day 1 in AFB1 and PSTC groups, but later it was up-regulated by AFB1. The observed changes regarding gene expression strengthen the hypothesis that the mild oxidative stress, caused by the applied STC doses, activates the glutathione redox system of broiler chickens. View Full-Text
Keywords: sterigmatocystin; broiler chicken; antioxidant defense system; glutathione peroxidase; gene expression sterigmatocystin; broiler chicken; antioxidant defense system; glutathione peroxidase; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Balogh, K.; Kövesi, B.; Zándoki, E.; Kulcsár, S.; Ancsin, Z.; Erdélyi, M.; Dobolyi, C.; Bata-Vidács, I.; Inotai, K.; Szekeres, A.; Mézes, M.; Kukolya, J. Effect of Sterigmatocystin or Aflatoxin Contaminated Feed on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Redox System and Expression of Glutathione Redox System Regulatory Genes in Broiler Chicken. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 201.

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