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Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso): The Effects of Cultivar and Harvest Date on Functional Properties of Juice and Cloudy Juice

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, AGRARIA—Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Risorse forestali, Ambiente Risorse zootecniche, Ingegneria agraria, Alimenti—Contrada Melissari, 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070221
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
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Abstract

Reggio Calabria province (South Italy) is known for being almost the only area of cultivation of the bergamot fruit, grown principally for its essential oil, but today much studied for the health benefits of its juice. The biometrics and physico-chemical properties of the three (Citrus bergamia Risso) existing genotypes namely Castagnaro, Fantastico and Femminello were studied during fruit ripening from October to March. Castagnaro cultivar had the biggest and heaviest fruit during this harvest period. °Brix (7.9–10.0), pH (2.2–2.8) and formol number (1.47–2.37 mL NaOH 0.1 N/100 mL) were shown to be influenced by both the genotype and harvest date. Titratable acidity (34.98–59.50 g/L) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (341–867 g/L) decreased during fruit ripening. The evolution of flavonoids such as neoeriocitrin, naringin, neohesperidin, brutieridin and melitidin was studied both in bergamot juice and in the bergamot cloudy juice which is the aqueous extract of bergamot during fruit processing. Bergamot cloudy juice contained a higher quantity of flavonoids compared to the juice. This study gives important information regarding the cultivar and the harvest date for producers who want to obtain the highest juice quantity or the highest juice quality from the bergamot fruit. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; bergamot; bioactive compound; biometrics; biomolecules; Citrus bergamia Risso; cloudy juice; non-climacteric antioxidants; bergamot; bioactive compound; biometrics; biomolecules; Citrus bergamia Risso; cloudy juice; non-climacteric
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giuffrè, A.M. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso): The Effects of Cultivar and Harvest Date on Functional Properties of Juice and Cloudy Juice. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 221.

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