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Open AccessArticle

Preparation of Retinoyl-Flavonolignan Hybrids and Their Antioxidant Properties

Laboratory of Biotransformation, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 16628 Prague, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 236;
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
PDF [652 KB, uploaded 23 July 2019]


Antioxidants protect the structural and functional components in organisms against oxidative stress. Most antioxidants are of plant origin as the plants are permanently exposed to oxidative stress (UV radiation, photosynthetic reactions). Both carotenoids and flavonoids are prominent antioxidant and anti-radical agents often occurring together in the plant tissues and acting in lipophilic and hydrophilic milieu, respectively. They are complementary in their anti-radical activity. This study describes the synthesis of a series of hybrid ester conjugates of retinoic acid with various flavonolignans, such as silybin, 2,3-dehydrosilybin and isosilybin. Antioxidant/anti-radical activities and bio-physical properties of novel covalent carotenoid-flavonoid hybrids, as well as various mixtures of the respective parent components, were investigated. Retinoyl conjugates with silybin—which is the most important flavonolignan in silymarin complex—(and its pure diastereomers) displayed better 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than both the parent compounds and their equimolar mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; retinol; retinoic acid; vitamin A; flavonolignans; silymarin; antioxidant; anti-radical; esterification; conjugate carotenoids; retinol; retinoic acid; vitamin A; flavonolignans; silymarin; antioxidant; anti-radical; esterification; conjugate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chambers, C.S.; Biedermann, D.; Valentová, K.; Petrásková, L.; Viktorová, J.; Kuzma, M.; Křen, V. Preparation of Retinoyl-Flavonolignan Hybrids and Their Antioxidant Properties. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 236.

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