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Antioxidant Protection from UV- and Light-Stress Related to Carotenoid Structures

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Goethe-University Frankfurt/M, Max von Laue Str. 9, D-60438 Frankfurt, Germany
Antioxidants 2019, 8(7), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8070219
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids)
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PDF [2818 KB, uploaded 11 July 2019]
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Abstract

This review summarizes studies of protection against singlet oxygen and radical damage by carotenoids. The main focus is on how substitutions of the carotenoid molecules determine high antioxidant activities such as singlet oxygen quenching and radical scavenging. Applied assays were carried out either in vitro in solvents or with liposomes, and in a few cases with living organisms. In the latter, protection by carotenoids especially of photosynthesis against light- and UV-stress is of major importance, but also heterotrophic organisms suffer from high light and UV exposure which can be alleviated by carotenoids. Carotenoids to be compared include C30, C40 and C50 molecules either acyclic, monocyclic or bicyclic with different substitutions including sugar and fatty acid moieties. Although some studies are difficult to compare, there is a tendency towards mono and bicyclic carotenoids with keto groups at C-4/C-4’ and the longest possible polyene structure functions to act best in singlet oxygen quenching and radical scavenging. Size of the carotenoid and lipophilic substituents such as fatty acids seem to be of minor importance for their activity but hydroxyl groups at an acyclic end and especially glycosylation of these hydroxyl groups enhance carotenoid activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-oxidants; carotenoids; lipid peroxidation; light-stress; radicals; singlet oxygen; structure activity relationship; UV-stress anti-oxidants; carotenoids; lipid peroxidation; light-stress; radicals; singlet oxygen; structure activity relationship; UV-stress
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sandmann, G. Antioxidant Protection from UV- and Light-Stress Related to Carotenoid Structures. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 219.

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