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Water, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has the capability to image subsurface features down to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Applications of Coupled Explicit–Implicit Solution of SWEs for Unsteady Flow in Yangtze River
1 State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
2 Changjiang Chongqing Harbour and Waterway Engineering Investigation and Design Institute, Chongqing 401147, China
3 Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
Water 2017, 9(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030091
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1964 | PDF Full-text (8272 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In engineering practice, the unsteady flows generated from the operation of hydropower station in the upstream region could significantly change the navigation system of waterways located in the middle-lower reaches of the river. In order to study the complex propagation, convergence and superposition characteristics of unsteady flows in a long channel with flow confluence, a numerical model based on the coupling of implicit and explicit solution algorithms of Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) has been applied to two large rivers in the reach of Yangtze River, China, which covers the distance from Yibin to Chongqing located upstream side of the Three Gorges Dam. The accuracy of numerical model has been validated by both the steady and unsteady flows using the prototype hydrological data. It is found that the unsteady flows show much more complex water level and discharge behaviors than the steady ones. The studied unsteady flows arising from the water regulation of two upstream hydropower stations could influence the region as far as Zhutuo hydrologic station, which is close to the city of Chongqing. Meanwhile, the computed stage–discharge rating curves at all observation stations demonstrate multi-value loop patterns because of the presence of additional water surface gradient. The present numerical model proves to be robust for simulating complex flows in very long engineering rivers up to 400 km.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Why European Entrepreneurs in the Water and Waste Management Sector Are Willing to Go beyond Environmental Legislation
1 Higher Technical School of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
2 Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
Water 2017, 9(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030151
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1511 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Sustainability in the water sector in Europe is a major concern, and compliance with the current legislation alone does not seem to be enough to face major challenges like climate change or population growth and concentration. The greatest potential for improvement appears when companies decide to take a step forward and go beyond environmental legislation. This study focuses on the environmental responsibility (ER) of European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the water and waste management sector and analyzes the drivers that lead these firms to the adoption of more sustainable practices. Our results show that up to 40% of European SMEs within this industry display environmental responsibility. Market pull has a low incidence in encouraging ER, while values and the strategic decisions of entrepreneurs seem decisive. Policy makers should prioritize subsidies over fiscal incentives because they show greater potential to promote the adoption of environmental responsibility among these firms.
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Open AccessReview A Comparison of Flood Control Standards for Reservoir Engineering for Different Countries
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030152
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1330 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Across the globe, flood control standards for reservoir engineering appear different due to various deciding factors such as flood features, society, economy, culture, morality, politics, and technology resources, etc. This study introduces an in-depth comparison of flood control standards for reservoir engineering for different countries. After the comparison and analysis, it is concluded that the determination of flood control standards is related to engineering grade, dam type, dam height, and the hazard to downstream after dam-breaking, etc. Each country should adopt practical flood control standards according to the characteristics of local reservoir engineering. The constitutive flood control standards should retain certain flexibility in the basis of constraint force. This review could offer a reference for developing countries in the enactment of flood control standards for reservoir engineering.
Open AccessArticle An EMD-Based Chaotic Least Squares Support Vector Machine Hybrid Model for Annual Runoff Forecasting
1 College of Water Resources Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
2 School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Water 2017, 9(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030153
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1325 | PDF Full-text (3643 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Accurate forecasting of annual runoff is necessary for water resources management. However, a runoff series consists of complex nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics, which makes forecasting difficult. To contribute towards improved prediction accuracy, a novel hybrid model based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for annual runoff forecasting is proposed and applied in this paper. Firstly, the original annual runoff series is decomposed into a limited number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one trend term based on the EMD, which makes the series stationary. Secondly, it will be forecasted by a least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) when the IMF component possesses chaotic characteristics, and simulated by a polynomial method when it does not. In addition, the reserved trend term is predicted by a Gray Model. Finally, the ensemble forecast for the original runoff series is formulated by combining the prediction results of the modeled IMFs and the trend term. Qualified rate (QR), root mean square errors (RMSE), mean absolute relative errors (MARE), and mean absolute errors (MAE) are used as the comparison criteria. The results reveal that the EMD-based chaotic LSSVM (EMD-CLSSVM) hybrid model is a superior alternative to the CLSSVM hybrid model for forecasting annual runoff at Shangjingyou station, reducing the RMSE, MARE, and MAE by 39%, 28.6%, and 25.6%, respectively. To further illustrate the stability and representativeness of the EMD-CLSSVM hybrid model, runoff data at three additional sites, Zhaishang, Fenhe reservoir, and Lancun stations, were applied to verify the model. The results show that the EMD-CLSSVM hybrid model proved its applicability with high prediction precision. This approach may be used in similar hydrological conditions.
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Open AccessArticle Relating Watershed Characteristics to Elevated Stream Escherichia coli Levels in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes: An Iowa Case Study
Department of Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University; Ames, IA 50010, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030154
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1298 | PDF Full-text (1898 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a leading cause of surface water impairments in the United States. However, the relative impacts of different watershed characteristics on microbial water quality in agriculturally dominated watersheds are unclear. Spatial and statistical analyses were utilized to examine relationships between watershed characteristics and FIB and a multiple regression model was created. Geometric mean E. coli concentration data were obtained for 395 ambient water quality monitoring locations in Iowa. Watersheds were delineated for thirty randomly selected monitoring locations and drainage areas ranged from 93 to 1.1 million hectares. Watershed characteristics examined include area, presence of animal units (open feed lots and confinements), percent of watershed area receiving manure application, presence of point-source discharges, and land cover. The results from the analyses reveal that the presence of animal feeding operations and agriculture, wetland, and woody vegetation land covers are the most influential watershed characteristics regarding E. coli concentration. A significant positive correlation was identified between E. coli concentration and agriculture while significant negative correlations were identified with animal feeding operations and wetland and woody vegetation. Establishing relationships between watershed characteristics and presence of E. coli is needed to identify dominant watershed characteristics contributing to pathogen water impairments and to prioritize remediation efforts.
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Open AccessArticle Temporal Downscaling of Crop Coefficients for Winter Wheat in the North China Plain: A Case Study at the Gucheng Agro-Meteorological Experimental Station
1 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
3 Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
4 Departments of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
5 Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang 110166, China
6 Institute of Meteorological Sciences of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110166, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030155
Received: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract Viewed by 1282 | PDF Full-text (3536 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The crop coefficient (Kc) is widely used for operational estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and crop water requirements. The standard method for obtaining Kc is via a lookup table from FAO-56 (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56), which broadly treats Kc as a function of four crop-growing stages. However, the distinctive physiological characteristics of overwintering crops, such as winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is extensively planted in the North China Plain (NCP), are not addressed in this method. In this study, we propose a stage-wise method that accounts for Kc variations for winter wheat at each critical phenological stage, thereby estimating Kc at finer temporal scales. Compared with the conventional FAO method, the proposed stage-wise method successfully captures the bimodal pattern in Kc time series for winter wheat, which is shown at both ten-day and phenological time scales. In addition, the accuracies of the proposed stage-wise Kc method and the FAO method were evaluated using micro-meteorological measurements of ETa collected at the Gucheng agrometeorological experimental station in the NCP. Using a leave-one-out strategy, the evaluation revealed that the stage-wise method significantly outperformed the FAO method at both daily and critical phenological time scales, with root-mean-square errors in ETa for the stage-wise method and the FAO method being 0.07 mm·day-1 and 0.16 mm·day-1, respectively, at the daily time scale, and 0.01 mm·day-1 and 0.27 mm·day-1 at the critical phenological time scale. Generally, the FAO method underestimates ETa during the initial stage and overestimates ETa during both the development and mid-season stages. It is shown that the proposed stage-wise method is important for the water-stressed NCP where precision irrigation is highly desirable, especially during the critical phenological stages. Results from this study provide insight into accurate estimation of water requirements for winter wheat at phenological time scales.
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Climate Change on Hydrology, Sediment and Nutrient Losses in Two Lowland Catchments in Poland
1 Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw 02-774, Poland
2 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam 14473, Germany
3 Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo 0313, Norway
4 Departments of Ecosystem Science and Management and Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030156
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2081 | PDF Full-text (8057 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Future climate change is projected to have significant impact on water resources availability and quality in many parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of projected climate change on water quantity and quality in two lowland catchments (the Upper Narew and the Barycz) in Poland in two future periods (near future: 2021–2050, and far future: 2071– 2100). The hydrological model SWAT was driven by climate forcing data from an ensemble of nine bias-corrected General Circulation Models—Regional Climate Models (GCM-RCM) runs based on the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment—European Domain (EURO-CORDEX). Hydrological response to climate warming and wetter conditions (particularly in winter and spring) in both catchments includes: lower snowmelt, increased percolation and baseflow and higher runoff. Seasonal differences in the response between catchments can be explained by their properties (e.g., different thermal conditions and soil permeability). Projections suggest only moderate increases in sediment loss, occurring mainly in summer and winter. A sharper increase is projected in both catchments for TN losses, especially in the Barycz catchment characterized by a more intensive agriculture. The signal of change in annual TP losses is blurred by climate model uncertainty in the Barycz catchment, whereas a weak and uncertain increase is projected in the Upper Narew catchment.
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Crop Water Productivity Using a Coupled SWAT–MODSIM Model
1 Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
2 Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada
3 Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
4 Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Temple, TX 76502, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030157
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2616 | PDF Full-text (5592 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requirements instead of constant time series of demand were considered. As the cereal production of KRB plays a major role in supplying the food market of Iran, it is necessary to understand the crop yield-water relations for irrigated wheat and maize in the lower part of KRB (LKRB) where most of the irrigated agricultural plains are located. Irrigated wheat and maize yields (Y) and consumptive water use (AET) were modeled with uncertainty analysis at a subbasin level for 1990–2010. Simulated Y and AET were used to calculate crop water productivity (CWP). The coupled SWAT–MODSIM approach improved the accuracy of SWAT outputs by considering the water allocation derived from MODSIM. The results indicated that the highest CWP across this region was 1.31 kg·m−3 and 1.13 kg·m−3 for wheat and maize, respectively; and the lowest was less than 0.62 kg·m−3 and 0.58 kg·m−3. A close linear relationship was found for CWP and yield. The results showed a continuing increase for AET over the years while CWP peaks and then declines. This is evidence of the existence of a plateau in CWP as AET continues to increase and evidence of the fact that higher AET does not necessarily result in a higher yield.
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables
1 Department of Civil Engineering: Hydraulics, Energy and Environment, Technical University of Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain
2 Canal de Isabel II Gestión S. A., Research, Development and Inovation Department, C/Santa Engracia No. 125, Madrid 28003, Spain
Water 2017, 9(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030158
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265 | PDF Full-text (6103 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.
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Open AccessArticle The Spatial and Temporal Contribution of Glacier Runoff to Watershed Discharge in the Yarkant River Basin, Northwest China
1 Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3 Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
4 International Centre for Applied Climate Sciences (ICACS), Institute of Agriculture and Environment (IAg & E), School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield 4300, Australia
Water 2017, 9(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030159
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2165 | PDF Full-text (11960 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In this paper, a glacial module based on an enhanced temperature-index approach was successfully introduced into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to simulate the glacier runoff and water balance of a glacierized watershed, the mountainous region of the Yarkant River Basin (YRB) in Karakoram. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model were based on comparisons between the simulated and observed discharge with a monthly temporal resolution from 1961 to 2011 for the Kaqun hydrological station. The results reaffirmed the viability of the approach for simulating glacier runoff, as evidenced by a Nash–Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) of 0.82–0.86 as well as a percentage bias (PBIAS) of −4.5% to 2.4%, for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. Over the last 50 years, the total discharge and glacier runoff both exhibited increasing trends with 0.031 × 109 m3·a−1 and 0.011 × 109 m3·a−1. The annual glacier runoff contribution to the streamflow was between 42.3% and 64.5%, with an average of 51.6%, although the glaciers accounted for only 12.6% of the watershed drainage area in the mountainous YRB. The monthly contribution of the glacier runoff ranged from 11.0% in April to 62.1% in August, and the glacier runoff from June to September accounted for about 86.3% of the annual glacier runoff. Runoff from the mountainous regions above 5000 m a.s.l. accounted for 70.5% of the total discharge, with glacier runoff contributions being approximately 46.4%.
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Sludge Dewatering and Mineralization in Sludge Treatment Reed Beds
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, 8000 Århus C, Denmark
Water 2017, 9(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030160
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 18 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2494 | PDF Full-text (3168 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Sludge Treatment Reed Beds (STRBs) are widely used in Northern Europe to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from activated sludge systems used to treat urban domestic sewage. STRBs are low-technology, energy-efficient, and do not require addition of chemicals. They dewater and stabilize the sludge and produce a final product that can be safely used as a fertilizer for agricultural crops. Long-term sludge reduction takes place in the reed beds due to dewatering and mineralization of the organic matter in the sludge. Although, in theory, a simple technique relying largely on natural processes, experience has shown that it is very important to understand and respect the basic design and operation requirements of STRBs. This paper describes the basic design and operation requirements of STRBs, with special focus on pivotal requirements to respect in order to secure proper functioning. Also, the paper summarizes performance experience concerning final dry matter content, degree of mineralization, emission of greenhouse gases, and degradation of micro-pollutants in STRBs. There are still a number of outstanding issues that are not fully understood, particularly in relation to the importance of the sludge quality for the dewatering in an STRB. Therefore, extreme care should be taken when attempting to extrapolate the use of STRBs to applications and regions outside of their ‘normal’ and documented area of application.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Modeling and Sustainability of a Transboundary Hardrock–Alluvium Aquifer in North Oman Mountains
1 Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat 123, Oman
2 Department of Hydroinformatics, East Water and Environmental Research Institute, Mashhad 9176873384, Iran
Water 2017, 9(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030161
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1739 | PDF Full-text (6621 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: This study aims at modeling groundwater flow using MODFLOW in a transboundary hardrock–alluvium aquifer, located in northwestern Oman. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model of the study area representing the vertical and spatial extent of four principal hydro-geologic units (specifically, the Hawasina, ophiolite, Tertiary and alluvium) was generated using data collected from hundreds drilled borehole logs. Layer elevations and materials for four layers grid cells were taken from the generated stratigraphic model in which the materials and elevations were inherited from the stratigraphic model that encompasses the cell. This process led to accurate grid so that the developed groundwater conceptual model was mapped to simulate the groundwater flow and to estimate groundwater balance components and sustainable groundwater extraction for the October 1996 to September 2013 period. Results show that the long-term lateral groundwater flux ranging from 4.23 to 11.69 Mm3/year, with an average of 5.67 Mm3/year, drains from the fractured eastern ophiolite mountains into the alluvial zone. Moreover, the long-term regional groundwater sustainable groundwater extraction is 18.09 Mm3/year for 17 years, while it is, respectively, estimated as 14.51, 16.31, and 36.00 Mm3/year for dry, normal, and wet climate periods based on standardized precipitation index (SPI) climate condition. Considering a total difference in groundwater levels between eastern and western points of the study area on the order of 228 m and a 12-year monthly calibration period (October 1996 to September 2008), a root mean squared error (RMSE) in predicted groundwater elevation of 2.71 m is considered reasonable for the study area characterized by remarkable geological and hydrogeological diversity. A quantitative assessment of the groundwater balance components and particularly sustainable groundwater extraction for the different hydrological period would help decision makers to better understand the water resources in the Al-Buraimi region. In addition, it would assist decision makers to improve existing strategies to enhance the decision making for future developments.
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization for Analysis of Changing Trade-Offs in the Nepalese Water–Energy–Food Nexus with Hydropower Development
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Water 2017, 9(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030162
Received: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1830 | PDF Full-text (7112 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: While the water–energy–food nexus approach is becoming increasingly important for more efficient resource utilization and economic development, limited quantitative tools are available to incorporate the approach in decision-making. We propose a spatially explicit framework that couples two well-established water and power system models to develop a decision support tool combining multiple nexus objectives in a linear objective function. To demonstrate our framework, we compare eight Nepalese power development scenarios based on five nexus objectives: minimization of power deficit, maintenance of water availability for irrigation to support food self-sufficiency, reduction in flood risk, maintenance of environmental flows, and maximization of power export. The deterministic multi-objective optimization model is spatially resolved to enable realistic representation of the nexus linkages and accounts for power transmission constraints using an optimal power flow approach. Basin inflows, hydropower plant specifications, reservoir characteristics, reservoir rules, irrigation water demand, environmental flow requirements, power demand, and transmission line properties are provided as model inputs. The trade-offs and synergies among these objectives were visualized for each scenario under multiple environmental flow and power demand requirements. Spatially disaggregated model outputs allowed for the comparison of scenarios not only based on fulfillment of nexus objectives but also scenario compatibility with existing infrastructure, supporting the identification of projects that enhance overall system efficiency. Though the model is applied to the Nepalese nexus from a power development perspective here, it can be extended and adapted for other problems.
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Open AccessArticle Physically, Fully-Distributed Hydrologic Simulations Driven by GPM Satellite Rainfall over an Urbanizing Arid Catchment in Saudi Arabia
1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Water Research Group, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Water 2017, 9(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030163
Received: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1761 | PDF Full-text (9019 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: A physically-based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model was used to simulate a recent flood event in the city of Hafr Al Batin, Saudi Arabia to gain a better understanding of the runoff generation and spatial distribution of flooding. The city is located in a very arid catchment. Flooding of the city is influenced by the presence of three major tributaries that join the main channel in and around the heavily urbanized area. The Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (IMERG) rainfall product was used due to lack of detailed ground observations. To overcome the heavy computational demand, the catchment was divided into three sub-catchments with a variable model grid resolution. The model was run on three subcatchments separately, without losing hydrologic connectivity among the sub-catchments. Uncalibrated and calibrated satellite products were used producing different estimates of the predicted runoff. The runoff simulations demonstrated that 85% of the flooding was generated in the urbanized portion of the catchments for the simulated flood. Additional model simulations were performed to understand the roles of the unique channel network in the city flooding. The simulations provided insights into the best options for flood mitigation efforts. The variable model grid size approach allowed using physically-based, distributed models—such as the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model used in this study—on large basins that include urban centers that need to be modeled at very high resolutions.
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Open AccessArticle Groundwater Simulations and Uncertainty Analysis Using MODFLOW and Geostatistical Approach with Conditioning Multi-Aquifer Spatial Covariance
1 Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
2 Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
3 Manysplendid Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd, Taipei 10670, Taiwan
Water 2017, 9(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030164
Received: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1800 | PDF Full-text (8696 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: This study presents an approach for obtaining limited sets of realizations of hydraulic conductivity (K) of multiple aquifers using simulated annealing (SA) simulation and spatial correlations among aquifers to simulate realizations of hydraulic heads and quantify their uncertainty in the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan. The proposed approach used the SA algorithm to generate large sets of natural logarithm hydraulic conductivity (ln(K)) realizations in each aquifer based on spatial correlations among aquifers. Moreover, small sets of ln(K) realizations were obtained from large sets of realizations by ranking the differences among cross-variograms derived from the measured ln(K) and the simulated ln(K) realizations between the aquifer pair Aquifer 1 and Aquifer 2 (hereafter referred to as Aquifers 1–2) and the aquifer pair Aquifer 2 and Aquifer 3 (hereafter referred to as Aquifers 2–3), respectively. Additionally, the small sets of realizations of the hydraulic conductivities honored the horizontal spatial variability and distributions of the hydraulic conductivities among aquifers to model groundwater precisely. The uncertainty analysis of the 100 combinations of simulated realizations of hydraulic conductivity was successfully conducted with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). The GLUE results indicated that the proposed approach could minimize simulation iterations and uncertainty, successfully achieve behavioral simulations when reduced between calibration and evaluation runs, and could be effectively applied to evaluate uncertainty in hydrogeological properties and groundwater modeling, particularly in those cases which lack three-dimensional data sets yet have high heterogeneity in vertical hydraulic conductivities.
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Meltwater Contribution to the Total Runoff in the Upper Changjiang River Basin
1 Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2 National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3 National Cooperative Innovation Center for Water Safety & Hydro-Science, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
4 Department of Hydrology & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
5 Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA
6 State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
7 State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
8 Bureau of Hydrology, Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing 100032, China
9 Bureau of Hydrology, Changjiang Water Resources Commission, Wuhan 430010, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030165
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2103 | PDF Full-text (3527 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Melt runoff (MR) contributes significantly to the total runoff in many river basins. Knowledge of the meltwater contribution (MCR, defined as the ratio of MR to the total runoff) to the total runoff benefits water resource management and flood control. A process-based land surface model, Noah-MP, was used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of MR and MCR in the Upper Changjiang River (as known as Yangtze River) Basin (UCRB) located in southwestern China. The model was first calibrated and validated using snow cover fraction (SCF), runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) data. The calibrated model was then used to perform two numerical experiments from 1981 to 2010: control experiment that considers MR and an alternative experiment that MR is removed. The difference between two experiments was used to quantify MR and MCR. The results show that in the entire UCRB, MCR was approximately 2.0% during the study period; however, MCR exhibited notable spatiotemporal variability. Four sub-regions over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) showed significant annual MCR ranging from 3.9% to 6.0%, while two sub-regions in the low plain regions showed negligible annual MCR. The spatial distribution of MCR was generally consistent with the distribution of glaciers and elevation distribution. Mann-Kendall (M-K) tests of the long-term annual MCR indicated that the four sub-regions in QTP exhibited increasing trends ranging from 0.01%/year to 0.21%/year during the study period but only one displayed statistically significant trend. No trends were found for the peak time (PT) of MR and MCR, in contrast, advancing trend were observed for the center time (CT) of MR, ranging from 0.01 months/year to 0.02 months/year. These trends are related to the changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study area.
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Viable Bacteria during Sludge Ozonation by the Combination of ATP Assay with PMA-Miseq Sequencing
by 1,2, 3, 1, 3,4 and 2,4,*
1 Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Quality Science and Water Environment Recovery, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2 Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
3 State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030166
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1329 | PDF Full-text (1706 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Using sludge obtained from municipal sewage treatment plants, the response of viable bacterial populations during the sludge ozonation process was investigated by a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay and propidium monoazide (PMA)-Miseq sequencing. The ATP assay was first optimized for application on sludge samples by adjusting the sludge solid contents and reaction time. PMA-modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also optimized by choosing the suitable final PMA concentration. The quantity and composition of viable bacterial populations during sludge ozonation were further elucidated using the optimized ATP and PMA-modified PCR methods. The results indicated that after the sludge was exposed to ozone (O3) at 135 mg·O3/g total suspended solids (TSS), the viable biomass displayed a substantial decrease, with a reduction rate reaching 70.89%. The composition of viable bacterial communities showed a faster succession, showing that an ozone dosage of 114 mg·O3/g TSS is enough to significantly change the viable bacterial population structure. Floc-forming genera, such as Zoogloea, Ferruginibacter, Thauera and Turneriella, are sensitive to ozonation, while the relative abundances of some functional bacterial genera, including SM1A02, Nitrospira and Candidatus Accumulibacter, remained constant or increased in the viable bacterial population during sludge ozonation, indicating that they are more resistant to ozonation.
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Open AccessArticle Influence Mechanisms of Rainfall and Terrain Characteristics on Total Nitrogen Losses from Regosol
1 Key Laboratory of Regional Energy and Environmental Systems Optimization, Ministry of Education, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China
2 Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 7H9, Canada
Water 2017, 9(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030167
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1283 | PDF Full-text (3777 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The upper reach of the Yangtze River is an ecologically sensitive region where water loss, soil erosion, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are serious issues. In this drainage area, regosol is the most widely distributed soil type. Cultivation on regosol is extensive and total nitrogen (TN) has become a common NPS pollutant. Artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to reveal the influence mechanisms of rainfall and terrain on TN losses from regosol. The results showed that there were positive correlations between precipitations and TN loads but negative ones between precipitations and TN concentrations. Furthermore, negative correlations were more obvious on fields with slopes of 5° and 25° than on other slopes. With increasing rainfall intensity, TN loads rose simultaneously. However, TN concentration in runoff-yielding time presented a decline over time. As far as terrain was concerned, TN loads grew generally but not limitlessly when slopes increased. Similarly, TN concentrations also rose with rising slopes; upward trends were more obvious for steeper slopes. Furthermore, the initial runoff-yielding time became longer for steeper slopes and the differences under various rainfall intensity conditions diminished gradually.
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Impact of Sediment Deposition and Erosion on Water Surface Profiles in the Ner River
Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
Water 2017, 9(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030168
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1506 | PDF Full-text (4477 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to test forecasting of the sediment transport process, taking into account two main uncertainties involved in sediment transport modeling. These are: the lack of knowledge regarding future flows, and the uncertainty with respect to which sediment transport formula should be chosen for simulations. The river reach chosen for study is the outlet part of the Ner River, located in the central part of Poland. The main characteristic of the river is the presence of an intensive morphodynamic process, increasing flooding frequency. The approach proposed here is based on simulations with a sediment-routing model and assessment of the hydraulic condition changes on the basis of hydrodynamic calculations for the chosen characteristic flows. The data used include Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), cross-section measurements, and hydrological observations from the Dabie gauge station. The sediment and hydrodynamic calculations are performed using program HEC-RAS 5.0. Twenty inflow scenarios are of a 10-year duration and are composed on the basis of historical data. Meyer-Peter and Müller and Engelund-Hansen formulae are applied for the calculation of sediment transport intensity. The methodology presented here seems to be a good tool for the prediction of long-term impacts on water surface profiles caused by sediment deposition and erosion.
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Hydrology and Nutrient Transport in the Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia, China
1 Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
2 The Department of Civil Engineering at Hetao College, Bayenaoer 015000, China
3 United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Water Management and Systems Research Unit, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030169
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1874 | PDF Full-text (3682 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Intensive agricultural activities in the Hetao irrigation district have severely degraded local aquatic ecosystems and water quality, and Ulansuhai Lake is now the most rapidly degrading eutrophic lake in China. A better understanding of the hydro-agronomic and pollutant transport processes in the area is thus urgently needed. This study simulated monthly streamflow, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the Hetao irrigation district using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate the nutrient load, source areas, and hydrological pathways. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values obtained for the streamflow simulations were 0.75 and 0.78 for the calibration and evaluation periods, respectively. The SWAT model captured the temporal variation in streamflow (R2 > 0.8) for two periods; the NSE values for the TN and TP loads were 0.63 and 0.64 for the calibration period and 0.48 and 0.42 for the evaluation period, respectively. The predicted monthly TN load was correlated with irrigation (r = 0.61) and the monthly TP load with precipitation (r = 0.89), indicating that nitrogen transport is primarily associated with soil leaching and groundwater flow, and phosphorus is primarily transported by sediments caused by rainfall erosion. A case study of split nitrogen fertilizer applications demonstrated reduced annual TN load by as much as 13% in one year. Fertilization timing also affects the load in different pathways especially in lateral subsurface flow and shallow groundwater. Better agricultural management could thus reduce nitrogen losses, and buffer strips could minimize phosphorus transport.
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Open AccessArticle Variability of Darcian Flux in the Hyporheic Zone at a Natural Channel Bend
1 College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chines Academy of Science and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, China
3 College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030170
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 12 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1660 | PDF Full-text (7180 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Channel bends are one of the most important characteristic features of natural streams. These bends often create the conditions for a hyporheic zone, which has been recognized as a critical component of stream ecosystems. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv), vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) and Darcian flux (DF) in the hyporheic zone were estimated at 61 locations along a channel bend of the Beiluo River during July 2015 and January 2016. All the streambed attributes showed great spatial variability along the channel bend. Both upward fluxes and downward fluxes occurred during the two test periods, most of studied stream sections were controlled by downwelling, indicating stream water discharge into the subsurface. The average downward flux was higher at the downstream side than at the upstream side of the channel bend, especially in July 2015. The distribution of streambed sediment grain size has a significant influence on the variability of Kv; high percentages of silt and clay sediments generally lead to low Kv values. Higher Kv at the depositional left bank at the upstream site shifted toward the erosional right bank at the downstream site, with Kv values positively correlated with the water depth. This study suggested that the variabilities of Kv and VHG were influenced by the stream geomorphology and that the distribution of Kv was inversely related, to a certain extent, to the distribution of VHG across the channel bend. Kv and VHG were found to have opposite effects on the DF, and the close relationship between Kv and DF indicated that the water fluxes were mainly controlled by Kv.
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Groundwater Level on Nitrate Nitrogen Accumulation in the Vadose Zone Beneath a Cotton Field
1 State Key Laboratory of Hydrology–Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2 College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3 Station of General of Water Resources Panning in Agricultural and Pastoral Area of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Urumqi 830001, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030171
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1871 | PDF Full-text (7067 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In this study, the impacts of groundwater level on nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone of a cotton field were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a cotton field at the CAS Ecological Agricultural Experiment Station in Nanpi from 2008 to 2010. A vertical observation well was drilled, and time-domain reflectometry probes and soil solution extractors were installed every 50 cm in the walls of the well to a depth of 5 m. The soil water content was monitored, and soil solution samples were obtained and analyzed every six days throughout the growing seasons during the three studied years. Additionally, a water consumption experiment was conducted, and the topsoil water content and leaf area index were measured in the cotton field. The resulting data were used to estimate parameters for use in a soil hydraulic and nitrate nitrogen movement model, and cotton evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman–Monteith method. Groundwater level increases and decreases of ±4 m were simulated during a ten-year period using HYDRUS-1D. The results showed significant nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone when the groundwater level remained unchanged or decreased, with increased accumulation as the groundwater depth increased. Additionally, increased precipitation and a deeper groundwater level resulted in greater nitrate nitrogen leaching in the cotton root zone. Therefore, irrigation and fertilization strategies should be adjusted based on precipitation conditions and groundwater depth.
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Open AccessArticle A Short-Term Water Demand Forecasting Model Using a Moving Window on Previously Observed Data
Engineering Department, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Water 2017, 9(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030172
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1683 | PDF Full-text (3646 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In this article, a model for forecasting water demands over a 24-h time window using solely a pair of coefficients whose value is updated at every forecasting step is presented. The first coefficient expresses the ratio between the average water demand over the 24 h that follow the time the forecast is made and the average water demand over the 24 h that precede it. The second coefficient expresses the relationship between the average water demand in a generic hour falling within the 24-h forecasting period and the average water demand over that period. These coefficients are estimated using the information available in the weeks prior to the time of forecasting and, therefore, the model does not require any actual calibration process. The length of the time series necessary to implement the model is thus just a few weeks (3–4 weeks) and the model can be parameterized and used without there being any need to collect hourly water demand data for long periods. The application of the model to a real-life case and a comparison with results provided by another model already proposed in the scientific literature show it to be effective, robust, and easy to use.
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Open AccessArticle Effective Design and Planning Specification of Low Impact Development Practices Using Water Management Analysis Module (WMAM): Case of Malaysia
1 Faculty of Water Resource Management, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Uthal, Balochistan, Pakistan
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
3 Department of Civil Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743, Korea
Water 2017, 9(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030173
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1635 | PDF Full-text (1865 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Developers are increasingly looking for the best management practices to reduce the risk of floods in rapidly growing urban areas. Low impact development (LID) is regarded as one of the most suitable solutions for urban stormwater management and thus the U.S. EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency) SWMM5.1 (Storm Water Management Model) added the hydrological simulation function for LID structures in 2009. However, SWMM5.1 cannot consider the optimal or best physical specifications of LID design and planning fitted to a study area, nor can it instantly derive the best combination for multiple LID designs and plans. Therefore, in this study, a web-based decision support system (DSS) for the EPA’s SWMM 5.1, referred to as the Water Management Analysis Module (WMAM) is used to decide the most effective specifications of design and planning parameters for LID structure. This study was carried out over an urban catchment of University Technology Malaysia campus located in Johor, Malaysia. The hydrologic cycles with and without LID were simulated using EPA SWMM5.1. The sensitivity analysis and multiple scenario analysis were performed using WMAM. As a result, the effective specification of LID design parameters indicates that peak flow is reduced to 20.95% and 17.5% for two sub-catchments, S1 (highest by area) and S6 (lowest by area) by installing an LID structure. Thus, this study provides a tool for the best solution for what values for physical parameters will be the best for a specified LID type and what capacities can achieve the particular objectives using WMAM.
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Open AccessReview Evaluating Stream Restoration Projects: What Do We Learn from Monitoring?
1 Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2 Facultad de Ingenierías y Ciencias Agropecuarias, Ingeniería Ambiental, Unidad de Investigación en Biotecnología y Medio Ambiente -BIOMA-, Campus Queri, Calle José Queri, Edificio #8, PB, Universidad de las Américas, 170504 Quito, Ecuador
Water 2017, 9(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030174
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1954 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Two decades since calls for stream restoration projects to be scientifically assessed, most projects are still unevaluated, and conducted evaluations yield ambiguous results. Even after these decades of investigation, do we know how to define and measure success? We systematically reviewed 26 studies of stream restoration projects that used macroinvertebrate indicators to assess the success of habitat heterogeneity restoration projects. All 26 studies were previously included in two meta-analyses that sought to assess whether restoration programs were succeeding. By contrast, our review focuses on the evaluations themselves, and asks what exactly we are measuring and learning from these evaluations. All 26 studies used taxonomic diversity, richness, or abundance of invertebrates as biological measures of success, but none presented explicit arguments why those metrics were relevant measures of success for the restoration projects. Although changes in biodiversity may reflect overall ecological condition at the regional or global scale, in the context of reach-scale habitat restoration, more abundance and diversity may not necessarily be better. While all 26 studies sought to evaluate the biotic response to habitat heterogeneity enhancement projects, about half of the studies (46%) explicitly measured habitat alteration, and 31% used visual estimates of grain size or subjectively judged ‘habitat quality’ from protocols ill-suited for the purpose. Although the goal of all 26 projects was to increase habitat heterogeneity, 31% of the studies either sampled only riffles or did not specify the habitats sampled. One-third of the studies (35%) used reference ecosystems to define target conditions. After 20 years of stream restoration evaluation, more work remains for the restoration community to identify appropriate measures of success and to coordinate monitoring so that evaluations are at a scale capable of detecting ecosystem change.
Open AccessArticle Cost–Benefit Analysis of Wastewater Reuse in Puglia, Southern Italy
1 Politecnico di Bari, Department DICATECh Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
2 Department DiSAAT, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
Water 2017, 9(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030175
Received: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1842 | PDF Full-text (1925 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: A comprehensive economic analysis of the associated costs and benefits derived from wastewater treatment is a prerequisite for ensuring long-term economic, environmental, and social sustainability. This study aims to improve the economic evaluation of wastewater reuse. A methodological framework is presented for the application of cost-benefit analysis to wastewater project plants. The method considers two alternative scenarios for the irrigation use of treated water: (i) for newly irrigated land; and (ii) as an alternative to current groundwater sources. A case study is carried out in Puglia, Southern Italy, where two thirds of irrigation water comes from groundwater. The results show that improved urban wastewater treatment would increase the regional availability of irrigation water by 60 million m3 per year, about 10% of the overall irrigation water demand. While treatment costs are highly dependent on the incoming effluent quality and plant size, the benefits are quite stable. These results point to a case-specific analysis, whereby the economic convenience of wastewater reuse could be assessed against the local context.
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Open AccessArticle Linking Forest Cover to Water Quality: A Multivariate Analysis of Large Monitoring Datasets
1 University of Namur, Department of Geography, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
2 University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Biosytem Engineering research unit, 2 Passage des Déportés, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
3 Research institute of nature and forest INBO, Research group Nature & Society, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels, Belgium
4 Belgian Biodiversity Platform BBPF, Avenue Louise 231 Louizalaan, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
5 University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Biodiversity and Landscape group, UR TERRA, 2 Passage des Déportés, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
6 Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Environmental Sciences, Croix du sud 2 L7.05.09, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Water 2017, 9(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030176
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1883 | PDF Full-text (2270 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Forested catchments are generally assumed to provide higher quality water. However, this hypothesis must be validated in various contexts as interactions between multiple land use and land cover (LULC) types, ecological variables and water quality variables render this relationship highly complex. This paper applies a straightforward multivariate approach on a typical large monitoring dataset of a highly managed and densely populated area (Wallonia, Belgium; 10-year dataset), quantifying forest cover effects on nine physico-chemical water quality variables. Results show that forest cover explains about one third of the variability of water quality and is positively correlated with higher quality water. When controlling for spatial autocorrelation, forest cover still explains 9% of water quality. Unlike needle-leaved forest cover, broad-leaved forest cover presents an independent effect from ecological variables and explains independently 4.8% of water quality variability while it shares 5.8% with cropland cover. This study demonstrates clear independent effects of forest cover on water quality, and presents a method to tease out independent LULC effects from typical large multivariate monitoring datasets. Further research on explanatory variables, spatial distribution effects and water quality datasets could lead to effective strategies to mitigate pollution and reach legal targets.
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Open AccessArticle Observations and Prediction of Recovered Quality of Desalinated Seawater in the Strategic ASR Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi
1 KWR Watercycle Research Institute, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
3 Waterfocus, 3981 EB Bunnik, The Netherlands
4 SG Consultancy and Mediation Ltd, 5221 GB Engelen, The Netherlands
5 Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands
6 Environment Agency Abu Dhabi, PO Box 45553, Al Mamoura Building (A), Muroor Road, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Water 2017, 9(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030177
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2083 | PDF Full-text (8744 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: To be able to overcome water shortages, Abu Dhabi Emirate started an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project with desalinated seawater (DSW) as source water near Liwa. It is the largest DSW-ASR project in the world (stored volume ~10 Mm3/year), and should recover potable water for direct use. DSW is infiltrated into a desert dune sand aquifer using “sand-covered gravel-bed” recharge basins. In this study, we evaluate the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical stratification of the (sub)oxic target aquifer, and water quality changes of DSW during trial infiltration runs. We predict water quality changes of DSW after 824 d of infiltration, during 90 d of intensive recovery (67% recovered) without storage (scenario A), as well as after 10 years of storage (scenario B, with significant bubble drift). Monitoring of preceding trials revealed a lack of redox reactions; little carbonate dissolution and Ca/Na exchange; much SiO2 dissolution; a strong mobilization of natural AsO43−, B, Ba, F, CrO42−, Mo, Sr and V from the (sub)oxic aquifer; and immobilization of PO4, Al, Cu, Fe and Ni from DSW. The Easy-Leacher model was applied in forward and reverse mode including lateral bubble drift, to predict water quality of the recovered water. We show that hydrogeochemical modeling of a complex ASR-system can be relatively easy and straightforward, if aquifer reactivity is low and redox reactions can be ignored. The pilot observations and modeling results demonstrate that in scenario A recovered water quality still complies with Abu Dhabi’s drinking water standards (even up to 85% recovery). For scenario B, however, the recovery efficiency declines to 60% after which various drinking water standards are exceeded, especially the one for chromium.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China
by 1,2, 1,2,* and 1,2,*
1 State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, No. 8 Donghu South Road, Wuhan 430072, China
2 Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Water Resources Security, Wuhan 430072, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030178
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1634 | PDF Full-text (16535 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original), we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB) of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT), Australia
1 CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Road, Urrbrae 5064, SA, Australia
2 Departamento de Geologia Aplicada, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro 13506, SP, Brazil
Water 2017, 9(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030179
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1712 | PDF Full-text (2251 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigation was carried out via soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using recharge basins located within a mixture of fine and coarse grained riverine deposits in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. A total of 2.6 Mm3 was delivered via five SAT basins over six years; this evaluation focused on three years of operation (2011–2014), recharging 1.5 Mm3 treated wastewater via an expanded recharge area of approximately 38,400 m2. Average infiltration rates per basin varied from 0.1 to 1 m/day due to heterogeneous soil characteristics and variability in recharge water quality. A treatment upgrade to include sand filtration and UV disinfection (in 2013) prior to recharge improved the average infiltration rate per basin by 40% to 100%.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Economic Analysis of Water Use in the Water Framework Directive Based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water: A Case Study of the Guadalquivir River Basin
1 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Córdoba, Campus Rabanales, Ctra. N-IV km 396, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
2 Department of Economics, Quantitative Methods and Economic History, University Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Water 2017, 9(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030180
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 26 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2130 | PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: This paper develops a methodology for the economic analysis of water use proposed by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-Water) standard tables. Our proposal satisfies the requirements for the economic characterization set out in Article 5 of the WFD. A case study in the Guadalquivir river basin shows a similar characterization in the baseline scenario to previous studies, including apparent water productivity. The main contribution of our research, however, is the proposal of a methodology that would enhance comparability and knowledge-sharing between regions, countries, and sectors both in the European Union and worldwide.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda
1 Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke St West, Burnside Hall 614, Montreal, QC H3A 0B9, Canada
2 Department of Geography, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda
3 Institut des Sciences De L’environnement, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, Succursale Centre-ville Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada
Water 2017, 9(3), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030181
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1991 | PDF Full-text (1224 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.
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Open AccessEditorial Strategic Points in Aquaponics
1 Institute for Natural Resource Sciences, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, 8820 Waedenswil, Switzerland
2 Humboldt-University of Berlin, Thaer Institute and IRI THESys, 10099 Berlin, Germany
3 School of Agricultural Engineering, Technical University of Madrid. Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4 Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Research, Herman Otto 15, 1022 Budapest, Hungary
5 Faculty of Agricultural Science, Esterhazy Karoly University, Matrai ut 36, Gyongyos 3200, Hungary
6 Integrated and Urban Plant Pathology, Gembloux Agro Bio-Tech, University of Liège, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium
Water 2017, 9(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030182
Received: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3950 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Global environmental, social and economic challenges drive the need for new and improved solutions for food production and consumption. Food production within a sustainability corridor requires innovations exceeding traditional paradigms, acknowledging the complexity arising from sustainability. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how to direct further activities, to develop technologies as potential solutions for questions related to climate change, loss of soil fertility and biodiversity, scarcity of resources, and shortage of drinking water. One approach that promises to address these problems is controlled environment agriculture. Aquaponics (AP) combines two technologies: recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) and hydroponics (plant production in water, without soil) in a closed-loop system. One challenge to the development of this technology is the conversion of the toxic ammonium produced by the fish into nitrate, via bacteria in a biofilter, to provide nitrogen to the plants. However, as this Special Issue shows, there are many other challenges that need to be addressed if the goal of the technology is to contribute to more sustainable food production systems.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessArticle A Pilot Study of the Sludge Recycling Enhanced Coagulation–Ultrafiltration Process for Drinking Water: The Effects of Sludge Recycling Ratio and Coagulation Stirring Strategy
1 State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment (SKLUWRE), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems (ProcESS), KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
Water 2017, 9(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030183
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1709 | PDF Full-text (2063 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The pilot-scale study on a sludge recycling enhanced coagulation–ultrafiltration (UF) process for surface water treatment is investigated in this paper. The impact of the sludge recycling ratio and coagulation stirring strategy on removal, sedimentation efficiency, and membrane fouling control was studied in this work. Sludge recycling ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% were applied, and the optimal ratio was found to be 10%. Moreover, four stirring strategies were also applied, and the best stirring strategy for coagulation was found to be rapid mixing (velocity gradient: 280 s−1), which is quite different from the coagulation stirring strategy without sludge recycling. This suggests that the adsorption effect of sludge could play a leading role during the procedure. Moreover, shortening the coagulation process makes it possible to reduce energy consumption.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Depth-Averaged Non-Hydrostatic Hydrodynamic Model Using a New Multithreading Parallel Computing Method
School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030184
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
Abstract Viewed by 1417 | PDF Full-text (3361 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Compared to the hydrostatic hydrodynamic model, the non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model can accurately simulate flows that feature vertical accelerations. The model’s low computational efficiency severely restricts its wider application. This paper proposes a non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model based on a multithreading parallel computing method. The horizontal momentum equation is obtained by integrating the Navier–Stokes equations from the bottom to the free surface. The vertical momentum equation is approximated by the Keller-box scheme. A two-step method is used to solve the model equations. A parallel strategy based on block decomposition computation is utilized. The original computational domain is subdivided into two subdomains that are physically connected via a virtual boundary technique. Two sub-threads are created and tasked with the computation of the two subdomains. The producer–consumer model and the thread lock technique are used to achieve synchronous communication between sub-threads. The validity of the model was verified by solitary wave propagation experiments over a flat bottom and slope, followed by two sinusoidal wave propagation experiments over submerged breakwater. The parallel computing method proposed here was found to effectively enhance computational efficiency and save 20%–40% computation time compared to serial computing. The parallel acceleration rate and acceleration efficiency are approximately 1.45% and 72%, respectively. The parallel computing method makes a contribution to the popularization of non-hydrostatic models.
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Bioelectricity Generation in Constructed Wetland-Coupled Microbial Fuel Cell Systems
1 School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2 School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030185
Received: 27 November 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1939 | PDF Full-text (2132 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Constructed wetland-coupled microbial fuel cell systems (CW-MFCs) incorporate an aerobic zone and an anaerobic zone to generate electricity that achieves the oxidative degradation of contaminants. However, there are few reports on the performance of such coupled systems. In this study, we determined the optimal configuration of CW-MFCs to characterize their electricity generation performance. Based on the results using different levels of dissolved oxygen among the CW-MFCs, we concluded that a 20-cm distance between the anode and cathode produced an optimal removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 94.90% with a 0.15 W/m3 power density, 339.80 Ω internal resistance, and 0.31% coulombic efficiency. In addition, a COD of 200 mg/L provided greater electricity generation (741 mV open circuit voltage, 0.20 W/m3 power density, 339.80 Ω internal resistance, and 0.49 mA current) and purification ability (90.45% COD removal) to meet system COD loading limitations than did higher COD values. By adding 50 mM phosphate buffer solution to synthetic wastewater, relatively high conductivity and buffer capacity were achieved, resulting in improvement in electricity generation. These findings highlight important aspects of bioelectricity generation in CW-MFCs.
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Open AccessEditorial Use of Meta-Heuristic Techniques in Rainfall-Runoff Modelling
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Water 2017, 9(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030186
Received: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 30 | Viewed by 1383 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Each year, extreme floods, which appear to be occurring more frequently in recent years (owing to climate change), lead to enormous economic damage and human suffering around the world. It is therefore imperative to be able to accurately predict both the occurrence time and magnitude of peak discharge in advance of an impending flood event. The use of meta-heuristic techniques in rainfall-runoff modeling is a growing field of endeavor in water resources management. These techniques can be used to calibrate data-driven rainfall-runoff models to improve forecasting accuracies. This Special Issue of the journal Water is designed to fill the analytical void by including papers concerning advances in the contemporary use of meta-heuristic techniques in rainfall-runoff modeling. The information and analyses can contribute to the development and implementation of effective hydrological predictions, and thus, of appropriate precautionary measures.
Open AccessArticle Multiobjective Automatic Parameter Calibration of a Hydrological Model
1 Research Center for Disaster Prevention Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713, Korea
2 School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Anam-ro 145, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713, Korea
Water 2017, 9(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030187
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2311 | PDF Full-text (4249 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: This study proposes variable balancing approaches for the exploration (diversification) and exploitation (intensification) of the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) with simulated binary crossover (SBX) and polynomial mutation (PM) in the multiobjective automatic parameter calibration of a lumped hydrological model, the HYMOD model. Two objectives—minimizing the percent bias and minimizing three peak flow differences—are considered in the calibration of the six parameters of the model. The proposed balancing approaches, which migrate the focus between exploration and exploitation over generations by varying the crossover and mutation distribution indices of SBX and PM, respectively, are compared with traditional static balancing approaches (the two dices value is fixed during optimization) in a benchmark hydrological calibration problem for the Leaf River (1950 km2) near Collins, Mississippi. Three performance metrics—solution quality, spacing, and convergence—are used to quantify and compare the quality of the Pareto solutions obtained by the two different balancing approaches. The variable balancing approaches that migrate the focus of exploration and exploitation differently for SBX and PM outperformed other methods.
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Open AccessArticle A Thermodynamical Approach for Evaluating Energy Consumption of the Forward Osmosis Process Using Various Draw Solutes
Beijing Key Laboratory of Membrane Materials and Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030189
Received: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1813 | PDF Full-text (3204 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The forward-osmosis (FO) processes have received much attention in past years as an energy saving desalination process. A typical FO process should inclu de a draw solute recovery step which contributes to the main operation costs of the process. Therefore, investigating the energy consumption is very important for the development and employment of the forward osmosis process. In this work, NH3-CO2, Na2SO4, propylene glycol mono-butyl ether, and dipropylamine were selected as draw solutes. The FO processes of different draw solute recovery approaches were simulated by Aspen PlusTM with a customized FO unit model. The electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (Electrolyte-NRTL) and Universal Quasi Chemical (UNIQUAC) models were employed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the feed and draw solutions. The simulation results indicated that the FO performance decreased under high feed concentration, while the energy consumption was improved at high draw solution concentration. The FO process using Na2SO4 showed the lowest energy consumption, followed by NH3-CO2, and dipropylamine. The propylene glycol mono-butyl ether process exhibited the highest energy consumption due to its low solubility in water. Finally, in order to compare the equivalent work of the FO processes, the thermal energy requirements were converted to electrical work.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessEditorial Water Governance, Stakeholder Engagement, and Sustainable Water Resources Management
1 Water Resources Research Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
2 Hydrologic Research Center, 11440 West Bernardo Court, Suite 375, San Diego, CA 92127, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030190
Received: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2166 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Water governance and stakeholder engagement are receiving research attention for their role in formulating and implementing solutions to the world’s critical water challenges. The inspiration for this Special Issue came from our desire to provide a platform for sharing results and informing the global water governance community about the wealth of excellent interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research and projects being carried out around the world. The 20 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into three categories: stakeholder engagement, tools for building water management and governance capacity, and perspectives on water management and governance. Following a brief summary of the papers, concluding remarks that reflect on what the papers, taken as a whole, contribute to our understanding are provided.
Open AccessArticle Stakeholder Engagement and Knowledge Co-Creation in Water Planning: Can Public Participation Increase Cost-Effectiveness?
1 Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
2 Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 25, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Water 2017, 9(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030191
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1832 | PDF Full-text (8279 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In 2014, a radical shift took place in Danish water planning. Following years of a top-down water planning approach, 23 regional water councils were established to co-create and provide input to Danish authorities on the development of River Basin Management Plans (RBMP). The water councils advised local authorities on the application of measures to improve the physical conditions in Danish streams within a given economic frame. The paper shows the difference the use of water councils (public participation) made by comparing the final water council proposal included in the 2015 RBMP to the RBMPs proposed by the central government (Nature Agency) in 2014. The study concludes that the measures proposed by the water councils will generally deliver better results than the proposed Nature Agency plans, which do not include the same level of participation. Specifically, the water councils with stakeholder involvement proposed a much longer network of streams (3800 km), yielding a better ecological outcome than the shorter stream network (1615 km) proposed by the Nature Agency for the same budget. Having a structured and fixed institutional frame around public participation (top-down meeting bottom-up) can produce cost-effective results, but the results show that cost-effectiveness was not the only deciding factor, and that local circumstances like the practicalities of implementing the measures were also considered when developing the Programmes of Measures. The findings suggest that the use of water councils in water planning has significant advantages, including the fact that the knowledge of local conditions helps to identify efficient solutions at lower costs, which can be useful for administrators, policy-makers, and other stakeholders implementing the Water Framework Directive in years to come.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Photoautotrophic Microalgae Screening for Tertiary Treatment of Livestock Wastewater and Bioresource Recovery
Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, deokjin-gu, Jeonju 54896, Korea
Water 2017, 9(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030192
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1524 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Photoautotrophic microalgae offer high promise for a tertiary treatment of livestock wastewater owing to their rapid growth and nutrient uptake. To screen better microalga for the tertiary treatment, batch photobioreactor tests were conducted using Chlorella emersonii, Chlorella sorokiniana, and Botryococcus braunii. This study evaluated their specific growth rates, CO2 utilization rates, and nutrient removal rates to provide appropriate selection guidelines. Based on statistical comparisons, results indicate that selecting the right microalgae was the key to success in the tertiary treatment since each microalga responded differently, even under the same light, temperature, and nutrient conditions. Among the tested species, Chlorella emersonii was found to present the fastest photoautotrophic growth, total inorganic carbon (TIC) utilization, and nutrient removal for livestock wastewater treatment. Regression results identified that its specific growth and total nitrogen removal rates were as high as 0.51 day−1 and 0.18 day−1, respectively. Estimated TIC utilization over the supplied TIC was much higher (~34%) than those of others (11%–18%). This systemic evaluation of rate-limiting factors provides a quantitative understanding of the kinetic-based selection strategy of microalgae to polish livestock wastewater with better effluent quality.
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Impact of Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Water Quantity and Quality under Different Development Designs Using SWAT
1 National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Korea
2 Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, Dallas, TX 75252, USA
3 Spatial Science Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
4 Blackland Research Center, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Temple, TX 76502, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030193
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2225 | PDF Full-text (2784 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The effects of Low Impact Development (LID) practices on urban runoff and pollutants have proven to be positive in many studies. However, the effectiveness of LID practices can vary depending on different urban patterns. In the present study, the performance of LID practices was explored under three land uses with different urban forms: (1) a compact high-density urban form; (2) a conventional medium-density urban form; and (3) a conservational medium-density urban form. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to reflect hydrologic behavior by the application of LID practices. Rain gardens, permeable pavements, and rainwater harvesting tanks were considered for simulations, and a modeling procedure for the representation of LID practices in SWAT was specifically illustrated in this context. Simulations were done for each land use, and the results were compared and evaluated. The application of LID practices demonstrated a decrease in surface runoff and pollutant loadings for all land uses, and different reductions were represented in response to the land uses with different urban forms on a watershed scale. In addition, the results among post-LIDs scenarios generally showed lower values for surface runoff and nitrate in the compact high-density urban land use and for total phosphorus in the conventional medium-density urban land use compared to the other land uses. We suggest effective strategies for implementing LID practices.
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Mapping Palaeohydrography in Deserts: Contribution from Space-Borne Imaging Radar
Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5804-CNRS, 33600 Pessac, France
Water 2017, 9(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030194
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1801 | PDF Full-text (10995 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has the capability to image subsurface features down to several meters in arid regions. A first demonstration of this capability was performed in the Egyptian desert during the early eighties, thanks to the first Shuttle Imaging Radar mission. Global coverage provided by recent SARs, such as the Japanese ALOS/PALSAR sensor, allowed the mapping of vast ancient hydrographic systems in Northern Africa. We present a summary of palaeohydrography results obtained using PALSAR data over large deserts such as the Sahara and the Gobi. An ancient river system was discovered in eastern Lybia, connecting in the past the Kufrah oasis to the Mediterranean Sea, and the terminal part of the Tamanrasett river was mapped in western Mauritania, ending with a large submarine canyon. In southern Mongolia, PALSAR images combined with topography analysis allowed the mapping of the ancient Ulaan Nuur lake. We finally show the potentials of future low frequency SAR sensors by comparing L-band (1.25 GHz) and P-band (435 MHz) airborne SAR acquisitions over a desert site in southern Tunisia.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Methodology to Model Environmental Preferences of EPT Taxa in the Machangara River Basin (Ecuador)
1 Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Department of Applied Ecology and Environmental Biology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2 BIOMATH, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bio-informatics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3 PROMAS, Programa para el manejo del agua y del suelo, Universidad de Cuenca, Av. 12 de abril s/n y Agustín Cueva, 010103 Cuenca, Ecuador
4 Asociación de Consultores Técnicos ACOTECNIC Cia. Ltda. Ecuador, Aguaruna s/n y Autopista Cuenca Azogues, 010109 Cuenca, Ecuador
5 Empresa Pública Municipal de Telecomunicaciones, Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento–ETAPA EP. Ecuador, Benigno Malo No. 7-78 y Mariscal Sucre, 010101 Cuenca, Ecuador
Water 2017, 9(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030195
Received: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1644 | PDF Full-text (11071 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Rivers have been frequently assessed based on the presence of the Ephemeroptera— Plecoptera—Trichoptera (EPT) taxa in order to determine the water quality status and develop conservation programs. This research evaluates the abiotic preferences of three families of the EPT taxa Baetidae, Leptoceridae and Perlidae in the Machangara River Basin located in the southern Andes of Ecuador. With this objective, using generalized linear models (GLMs), we analyzed the relation between the probability of occurrence of these pollution-sensitive macroinvertebrates families and physicochemical water quality conditions. The explanatory variables of the constructed GLMs differed substantially among the taxa, as did the preference range of the common predictors. In total, eight variables had a substantial influence on the outcomes of the three models. For choosing the best predictors of each studied taxa and for evaluation of the accuracy of its models, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used. The results indicated that the GLMs can be applied to predict either the presence or the absence of the invertebrate taxa and moreover, to clarify the relation to the environmental conditions of the stream. In this manner, these modeling tools can help to determine key variables for river restoration and protection management.
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Open AccessArticle Putting Flow–Ecology Relationships into Practice: A Decision-Support System to Assess Fish Community Response to Water-Management Scenarios
1 U.S. Geological Survey, Lower Mississippi-Gulf Water Science Center, Nashville, 37211 TN, USA
2 HydroLogics, Boulder, 80027 CO, USA
3 HydroLogics, Chapel Hill, 27517 NC, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030196
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2001 | PDF Full-text (1851 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual framework to operationalize flow–ecology relationships into decision-support systems of practical use to water-resource managers, who are commonly tasked with balancing multiple competing socioeconomic and environmental priorities. We illustrate this framework with a case study, whereby fish community responses to various water-management scenarios were predicted in a partially regulated river system at a local watershed scale. This case study simulates management scenarios based on interactive effects of dam operation protocols, withdrawals for municipal water supply, effluent discharges from wastewater treatment, and inter-basin water transfers. Modeled streamflow was integrated with flow–ecology relationships relating hydrologic departure from reference conditions to fish species richness, stratified by trophic, reproductive, and habitat characteristics. Adding a hypothetical new water-withdrawal site was predicted to increase the frequency of low-flow conditions with adverse effects for several fish groups. Imposition of new reservoir release requirements was predicted to enhance flow and fish species richness immediately downstream of the reservoir, but these effects were dissipated further downstream. The framework presented here can be used to translate flow–ecology relationships into evidence-based management by developing decision-support systems for conservation of riverine biodiversity while optimizing water availability for human use.
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Open AccessArticle Establishment and Application of Wetlands Ecosystem Services and Sustainable Ecological Evaluation Indicators
1 School of Health Diet and Industry Management, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
2 Department of Medical Management, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, No. 110, Sec. 1, Jianguo N. Rd., Taichung City 40201, Taiwan
Water 2017, 9(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030197
Received: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1094 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Gaomei wetlands are national Taiwanese coastal wetlands. Over the past few years, they have grown into an important water bird habitat and popular bird-watching location. However, the rapid growth in tourism has begun to affect the environmental quality in the Gaomei wetlands. This study combined ecosystem services (ES) and ecological footprint (EF) assessments to evaluate the sustainability status according to the features of each ecosystem service for the different Gaomei wetlands land uses. The results found that (a) the total Gaomei wetlands ecosystem service value increased from 59.24 million TWD in 2008 to 98.10 million TWD in 2015, and the ecosystem service function was continuously improving; (b) the EF increased by 56.12% over 8 years; and (c) there was a negative growth rate of 106.54% in the ecological deficit (ED) in the sustainable ecological evaluation indicators (SEEI). The ecological footprint index (EFI) in 2015 was at Level 4 at 1.02, and the environmental sustainability index (ESI) was at Level 3 at 0.49. Results show that Gaomei wetlands have a low sustainability; therefore, the local, regional, and national governments need to implement regulations to strictly control the Gaomei wetlands land use. This study demonstrated that ES and EF theory application can give an objective guidance to decision-makers to ensure that wetlands eco-security can be maintained at safe levels.
Open AccessArticle Multivariate Analysis of Joint Probability of Different Rainfall Frequencies Based on Copulas
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030198
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 25 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1555 | PDF Full-text (3897 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The performance evaluation of a city’s flood control system is essentially based on accurate storm designs, where a particular challenge is the development of the joint distributions of dependent rainfall variables. When it comes to the research design for consecutive rainfall, the analytical investigation is only focused on the maximum of consecutive rainfalls, and it does not consider the probabilistic relations between the first day of rainfall and the overall rainfall included in consecutive rainfall events. In this study, the copula method is used to separate the dependence structure of multi-day rainfall from its marginal distribution and analyse the different impacts of the dependence structure and marginal distribution on system performance. Three one-parameter Archimedean copulas, including the Clayton, Gumbel, and Frank families, are fitted and compared for different combinations of marginal distributions that cannot be rejected by statistical tests. The fitted copulas are used to generate rainfall events for a system performance analysis, including the conditional probability and design values for different return periods. The results obtained in this study highlight the importance of taking into account the dependence structure of one-day and multi-day rainfall in the context of storm design evaluations and reveal the different impacts of the dependence structure and the marginal distributions on the probability.
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Open AccessArticle Impacts of Climate Change on the Water Quality of a Regulated Prairie River
1 Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada
2 Graduate Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C5, Canada
Water 2017, 9(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030199
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1921 | PDF Full-text (3737 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Flows along the upper Qu’Appelle River are expected to increase in the future via increased discharge from Lake Diefenbaker to meet the demands of increased agricultural and industrial activity and population growth in southern Saskatchewan. This increased discharge and increased air temperature due to climate change are both expected to have an impact on the water quality of the river. The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP7) was used to model current and future water quality of the upper Qu’Appelle River. The model was calibrated and validated to characterize the current state of the water quality of the river. The model was then used to predict water quality [nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations and oxygen dynamics] for the years 2050–2055 and 2080–2085. The modelling results indicate that global warming will result in a decrease in ice thickness, a shorter ice cover period, and decreased nutrient concentrations in 2050 or 2080 relative to 2010, with a greater decrease of nutrient concentrations in open water. In contrast to the effect of warmer water temperatures, increased flow through water management may cause increases in ammonium, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen concentrations and decreases in orthophosphate concentrations in summer.
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Open AccessArticle Spatiotemporal Distribution of Eutrophication in Lake Tai as Affected by Wind
1 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030200
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1575 | PDF Full-text (9858 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: One common hypothesis is that wind can affect concentrations of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in shallow lakes. However, the tests of this hypothesis have yet to be conclusive in existing literature. The objective of this study was to use long-term data to examine how wind direction and wind speed affect the spatiotemporal variations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and Chl-a in Lake Tai, a typical shallow lake located in east China. The results indicated that the concentrations of nutrients and Chl-a tended to decrease from the northwest to the southeast of Lake Tai, with the highest concentrations in the two leeward bays (namely Meiliang Bay and Zhushan Bay) in the northwestern part of the lake. In addition to possible artificial reasons (e.g., wastewater discharge), the prevalent southeastward winds in warm seasons (i.e., spring and summer) and northwestward winds in cool seasons (i.e., fall and winter) might be the major natural factor for such a northwest-southeast decreasing spatial pattern. For the lake as a whole, the concentrations of TN, TP and Chl-a were highest for a wind speed between 2.1 and 3.2 m·s−1, which can be attributed to the idea that the wind-induced drifting and mixing effects might be dominant in the bays while the wind-induced drifting and resuspension effects could be more important in the other parts of the lake. Given that the water depth of the bays was relatively larger than that of the other parts, the drifting and mixing effects were likely dominant in the bays, as indicated by the negative relationships between the ratios of wind speed to lake depth, which can be a surrogate for the vertical distribution of wind-induced shear stress and the TN, TP and Chl-a concentration. Moreover, the decreasing temporal trend of wind speed in combination with the ongoing anthropogenic activities will likely increase the challenge for dealing with the eutrophication problem of Lake Tai.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Soil-Vegetation Dynamic Interactions in Changing Climate)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Perspectives’ Comparisons and Mitigating Implications for the COD and NH3-N Discharges into the Wastewater from the Industrial Sector of China
1 Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
2 School of Geography and Environment, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
3 Graduate School of Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China
4 Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013, China
5 Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030201
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1465 | PDF Full-text (1691 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Taking China as a case study, we analyzed the underlying driving forces of two discharges—chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N)—from both periodic and structural perspectives by the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Changes in the two discharges were decomposed into three effects: the economic output effect, the industrial structure effect and the discharge intensity effect. The discharge intensity effect could be further decomposed into the cleaner production (technologies’) effect and the pollution abatement (technologies’) effect. Results showed that the economic output effect was mainly responsible for the growth of the two discharges; the average annual contribution rates were 10.77% and 10.39%, respectively. Inversely, the pollution abatement (technologies’) effect presented the most obvious mitigating effects (−9.71% and −9.52%, respectively). Furthermore, the clean production (technologies’) effect followed it (−4.36% and −5.22%). So, we found that the discharge intensity effect played a crucial role in the reduction of the two discharges. Then, the mitigation effect of industrial structure adjustment was the weakest (−0.19% and 0.47%). However, we could still not ignore the potential impact of industrial structure optimization for reducing the absolute amount of discharges in the long run. In addition, to simultaneously reduce the COD and NH3-N discharges, the sub-sectors of “Processing of Food from Agricultural Products (I7)”, “Manufacture of Foods (I8)”, “Manufacture of Raw Chemical Materials and Chemical Products (I20)”, “Manufacture of Non-metallic Mineral Products (I24)” and “Smelting and Pressing of Non-ferrous Metals (I26)” were suggested to be given prior consideration for the design of related mitigation policies. Finally, some particular policy implications were also recommended for reducing the two discharges.
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Local Development Project on Social Capital: Evidence from the Bohol Irrigation Scheme in the Philippines
1 School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, 202 Manly Miles Building, 1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
2 Center for Global Change and Earth Observation (CGCEO), Michigan State University, 202 Manly Miles Building, 1405 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
3 International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Chitedze Agricultural Research Station, P.O. Box 1096, Lilongwe, Malawi
4 International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila 1301, Philippines
5 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, #82, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Water 2017, 9(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030202
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319 | PDF Full-text (3346 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between local development projects and the residents’ social capital in Bohol, The Philippines. From this perspective, we hypothesized that social behaviors of local farmers are influenced by the availability of canal irrigation due to the collective water management required in irrigated societies. By combining the results of the ultimatum game (UG) with a household survey on 245 villagers in Bohol, this paper (1) measures the degree of social capital at the individual level and (2) quantifies the effects of irrigation on social capital by controlling household as well as individual characteristics. Moreover, we employed a Spatial Autoregressive model to explore the spatial effects and social contexts of farmers’ behavioral patterns. The empirical results show that the level of measured social behavior is strongly associated with access to community irrigation water and asset holdings. Additionally, increased physical distance between residents leads to a decrease in social capital, or interdependency, among them. The results suggest that community engagement (e.g., irrigation management committee and turnout service association) with local development projects would not only improve agricultural productivity but also enhance social relationships among farmers, highlighting its importance.
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Open AccessArticle Modeling the Influence of River Cross-Section Data on a River Stage Using a Two-Dimensional/Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model
1 National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, New Taipei City 23143, Taiwan
2 Department of Civil Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36063, Taiwan
Water 2017, 9(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030203
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2131 | PDF Full-text (11791 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: A large amount of accurate river cross-section data is indispensable for predicting river stages. However, the measured river cross-section data are usually sparse in the transverse direction at each cross-section as well as in the longitudinal direction along the river channel. This study presents three algorithms to resample the river cross-section data points in both the transverse and longitudinal directions from the original data. A two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution unstructured-grid hydrodynamic model was used to assess the performance of the original and resampled cross-section data on a simulated river stage under low flow and high flow conditions. The simulated river stages are significantly improved using the resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation in the tidal river and non-tidal river segments. The resampled cross-section data based on the linear interpolation satisfactorily maintains the topographic and morphological features of the river channel, especially in the meandering river segment. Furthermore, the performance of the 2D and three-dimensional (3D) models on the simulated river stage was also evaluated using the resampled cross-section data. The results indicate that the 2D and 3D models reproduce similar river stages in both tidal and non-tidal river segments under the low flow condition. However, the 2D model overestimates the river stages in both the tidal and non-tidal river segments compared to the 3D model under the high flow condition. The model sensitivity was implemented to investigate the influence of bottom drag coefficient and vertical eddy viscosity on river stage using 2D and 3D models based on the linear interpolation method to resample river bed cross-section. The results reveal that the change of bottom drag coefficient has a minor impact on river stage, but the change of vertical eddy viscosity is insensitive to river stage.
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Three Representative Ukrainian Catchments Using Eco-Hydrological Modelling
1 Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
2 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), 14473 Potsdam, Germany
3 Department of Meteorology and Climatology, The Faculty of Geography, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 01033 Kyiv, Ukraine
4 Danish Meteorological Institute, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Water 2017, 9(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030204
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1945 | PDF Full-text (2797 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The information about climate change impact on river discharge is vitally important for planning adaptation measures. The future changes can affect different water-related sectors. The main goal of this study was to investigate the potential water resource changes in Ukraine, focusing on three mesoscale river catchments (Teteriv, Upper Western Bug, and Samara) characteristic for different geographical zones. The catchment scale watershed model—Soil and Water Integrated Model (SWIM)—was setup, calibrated, and validated for the three catchments under consideration. A set of seven GCM-RCM (General Circulation Model-Regional Climate Model) coupled climate scenarios corresponding to RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways) 4.5 and 8.5 were used to drive the hydrological catchment model. The climate projections, used in the study, were considered as three combinations of low, intermediate, and high end scenarios. Our results indicate the shifts in the seasonal distribution of runoff in all three catchments. The spring high flow occurs earlier as a result of temperature increases and earlier snowmelt. The fairly robust trend is an increase in river discharge in the winter season, and most of the scenarios show a potential decrease in river discharge in the spring.
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to Predict Debris Flow Average Velocity
1 College of Construction Engineering of Jilin University, Changchun 130026, Jilin, China
2 Changchun Sci-Tech University, Changchun 130600, Jilin, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030205
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1510 | PDF Full-text (13196 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF) neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for predicting debris flow velocity. A total of 50 debris flow events were investigated in the Jiangjia gully. These data were used for building the GSA-based RBF approach (GSA-RBF). Eighty percent (40 groups) of the measured data were selected randomly as the training database. The other 20% (10 groups) of data were used as testing data. Finally, the approach was applied to predict six debris flow gullies velocities in the Wudongde Dam site area, where environmental conditions were similar to the Jiangjia gully. The modified Dongchuan empirical equation and the pulled particle analysis of debris flow (PPA) approach were used for comparison and validation. The results showed that: (i) the GSA-RBF predicted debris flow velocity values are very close to the measured values, which performs better than those using RBF neural network alone; (ii) the GSA-RBF results and the MDEE results are similar in the Jiangjia gully debris flow velocities prediction, and GSA-RBF performs better; (iii) in the study area, the GSA-RBF results are validated reliable; and (iv) we could consider more variables in predicting the debris flow velocity by using GSA-RBF on the basis of measured data in other areas, which is more applicable. Because the GSA-RBF approach was more accurate, both the numerical simulation and the empirical equation can be taken into consideration for constructing debris flow mitigation works. They could be complementary and verified for each other.
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Open AccessArticle Societal Drivers of European Water Governance: A Comparison of Urban River Restoration Practices in France and Germany
1 Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Emil-Ramann-Str. 6, 85354 Freising, Germany
2 Interdisciplinary Research Center for Cities, Territories, Environment and Society (UMR CNRS 7324 CITERES), Université François Rabelais, 33 allée Ferdinand de Lesseps, 37000 Tours, France
3 Applied Aquatic Ecology and UNESCO “River Culture-Fleuves et Patrimoine”, Université François Rabelais, 33 allée Ferdinand de Lesseps, 37000 Tours, France
Water 2017, 9(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030206
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1857 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The European water governance took a decisive turn with the formulation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which demands the restoration of all water bodies that did not achieve sufficient ecological status. Urban rivers are particularly impaired by human activities and their restorations are motivated by multiple ecological and societal drivers, such as requirements of laws and legislation, and citizen needs for a better quality of life. In this study we investigated the relative influence of socio-political and socio-cultural drivers on urban river restorations by comparing projects of different policy contexts and cultural norms to cross-fertilize knowledge. A database of 75 projects in French and German major cities was compiled to apply (a) a comparative statistical analysis of main project features, i.e., motivation, goals, measures, morphological status, and project date; and (b) a qualitative textual analysis on project descriptions and titles. The results showed that despite a powerful European directive, urban river restoration projects still keep national specificities. The WFD drives with more intensity German, rather than French, urban river restoration. This study showed the limits of macro-level governance and the influence of microlevel governance driven by societal aspects such as nature perception and relationships between humans and rivers.
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Open AccessArticle Water Consumption of Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems along the Ili River in China and Kazakhstan
1 Central Asia Office, World Agroforestry Center, Bishkek 720001, Kyrgyzstan
2 Institute of Botanik and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald 17489, Germany
3 Biological Faculty, Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
Water 2017, 9(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030207
Received: 29 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2142 | PDF Full-text (5627 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The Ili River is a transboundary river shared by China, upstream, and Kazakhstan, downstream. The Ili is the main water supplier to Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in Central Asia after desiccation of the Aral Sea. Agreements over water allocation have not been concluded between China and Kazakhstan. This paper investigated water consumption of agriculture and riparian ecosystems in the Ili river basin, to provide information for further debate on water allocation, through the Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI) approach using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. The overall water consumption in the Ili river basin was 14.3 km3/a in 2000, 17.2 km3/a in 2005, and 15 km3/a in 2014. In 2000, China and Kazakhstan consumed 38% and 62% of the water, respectively. By 2014, the relative share of China’s water consumption increased to 43%. In China, 80% of the water consumption is due to agriculture. High runoff during the past 10 years enabled increasing water consumption in China and sufficient water supply to agriculture and riparian ecosystems in Kazakhstan. When runoff of the Ili River decreases, as expected for most rivers in Central Asia, then irrigation efficiency has to be further increased in China, and irrigation systems in Kazakhstan have to be restored and modernized in order to reduce water consumption and protect Lake Balkhash and the riparian ecosystems.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Manipulation of Precipitation Affects Soil Nitrogen Availability in Semiarid Mongolian Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Plantation
1 Institute of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001, Liaoning, China
2 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, China
3 Department of Medical Administration, the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030208
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1397 | PDF Full-text (3401 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Expected changes in precipitation over large regions of the world under global climate change will have profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems in arid and semiarid regions. To explore how changes in the amount of precipitation in the growing season would affect soil nitrogen (N) availability in a semiarid ecosystem, we established rainout shelters and irrigation systems by simulating 30% reduced (DRY) and 30% increased precipitation (WET) relative to natural precipitation (Control) to measure some key soil process properties for two growing seasons in a nutrient-poor Mongolian pine (P. sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation. Both WET and DRY treatments significantly affected monthly soil inorganic nitrogen concentrations, which showed a higher inorganic N under DRY than Control in each month and lower in WET than Control. Monthly soil microbial biomass N content was reduced by DRY and raised by WET treatments. The results indicated the asynchrony of the availability of soil moisture and soil nutrients in Mongolian pine plantations at the Horqin Sandy Lands in Northeast China. Water limited plant growth in Mongolian pine plantations when precipitation decreased, and nitrogen limitation became increasingly important when precipitation increased. Accumulation of N in microbial biomass is an important mechanism for N cycling in this ecosystem. To effectively manage Mongolian pine plantations, it is advised that evapotranspiration is minimized when precipitation decreases and that there is an increase in soil N availability by protecting litterfall when precipitation increases.
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Open AccessArticle Climate Variability Structures Plant Community Dynamics in Mediterranean Restored and Reference Tidal Wetlands
1 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2 765 Miller Ave, Mill Valley, CA 94941, USA
3 Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030209
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1529 | PDF Full-text (2908 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In Mediterranean regions and other areas with variable climates, interannual weather variability may impact ecosystem dynamics, and by extension ecological restoration projects. Conditions at reference sites, which are often used to evaluate restoration projects, may also be influenced by weather variability, confounding interpretations of restoration outcomes. To better understand the influence of weather variability on plant community dynamics, we explore change in a vegetation dataset collected between 1990 and 2005 at a historic tidal wetland reference site and a nearby tidal wetland restoration project initiated in 1976 in California’s San Francisco (SF) Bay. To determine the factors influencing reference and restoration trajectories, we examine changes in plant community identity in relation to annual salinity levels in the SF Bay, annual rainfall, and tidal channel structure. Over the entire study period, both sites experienced significant directional change away from the 1990 community. Community change was accelerated following low salinity conditions that resulted from strong El Niño events in 1994–1995 and 1997–1998. Overall rates of change were greater at the restoration site and driven by a combination of dominant and sub-dominant species, whereas change at the reference site was driven by sub-dominant species. Sub-dominant species first appeared at the restoration site in 1996 and incrementally increased during each subsequent year, whereas sub-dominant species cover at the reference site peaked in 1999 and subsequently declined. Our results show that frequent, long-term monitoring is needed to adequately capture plant community dynamics in variable Mediterranean ecosystems and demonstrate the need for expanding restoration monitoring and timing restoration actions to match weather conditions.
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Farmers’ Climate Risk Perceptions in Agriculture—A Rural Ghana Perspective
School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology, 2-22 Eikokuji, Kochi City, Kochi780-8515, Japan
Water 2017, 9(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030210
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1412 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: This study evaluates the socio-economic predictors of farmers’ perceptions about climate risk in agriculture. The levels of risk perception among different farmers’ wealth groups are also investigated. A total of 100 farmers in the Lawra district of Ghana are randomly selected and interviewed. Data is obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. A climate risk perception index (CRPI) is derived and applied to assess the degree of perceived risk among different wealth groups of farmers. The linear regression model is also used to analyze the data. The results showed that 93% of farmers have perceived climate risk while 7% are not sure if they have perceived it. Results of the CRPI showed that resource-poor farmers are concerned about climate risk on agricultural production, while resource-moderate and resource-rich farmers are concerned about risk impacts on climatic variables, and health and socio-economy, respectively. Results of the regression model showed that education, age, a perceived increase in human disease and mortality, and a decrease in food security and incomes are predictors of risk perception. The policy implication of this study is that predictors of farmers’ climate risk perception should be factored into climate change risk communication in order to boost awareness and adaptation to climate change.
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Open AccessReview CryoSat-2 Altimetry Applications over Rivers and Lakes
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet B115, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
2 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Water 2017, 9(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030211
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2115 | PDF Full-text (6084 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Monitoring the variation of rivers and lakes is of great importance. Satellite radar altimetry is a promising technology to do this on a regional to global scale. Satellite radar altimetry data has been used successfully to observe water levels in lakes and (large) rivers, and has also been combined with hydrologic/hydrodynamic models. Except CryoSat-2, all radar altimetry missions have been operated in conventional low resolution mode with a short repeat orbit (35 days or less). CryoSat-2, carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimeter, has a 369-day repeat and a drifting ground track pattern and provides new opportunities for hydrologic research. The narrow inter-track distance (7.5 km at the equator) makes it possible to monitor many lakes and rivers and SAR mode provides a finer along-track resolution, higher return power and speckle reduction through multi-looks. However, CryoSat-2 challenges conventional ways of dealing with satellite inland water altimetry data because virtual station time series cannot be directly derived for rivers. We review the CryoSat-2 mission characteristics, data products, and its use and perspectives for inland water applications. We discuss all the important steps in the workflow for hydrologic analysis with CryoSat-2, and conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Monitoring, Restoration, and Source Water Protection: Canadian Community-Based Environmental Organizations’ Efforts towards Improving Aquatic Ecosystem Health
1 School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 1459 Oxford St, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
2 Department of Geography and Planning & Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen’s University, 68 University Ave, Kingston, ON K7L 3N9, Canada
3 Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, St. Mary’s University, 923 Robie St, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada
Water 2017, 9(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030212
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 4 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2264 | PDF Full-text (3659 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In Canada, environmental monitoring has been the responsibility of government for decades; however, funding cutbacks have left many agencies unable to provide comprehensive coverage. This has stimulated a rise in community-based water monitoring (CBWM) organizations. These organizations, operating at multiple scales, have tasked themselves with monitoring aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, they often engage in restoration projects stemming from their monitoring work. Despite the growing abundance of CBWM organizations, there is uncertainty as to whether their activities lead to aquatic ecosystem benefits. A thematic analysis of photographic and qualitative interview data was employed to examine restoration projects conducted by five CBWM organizations, and the projects’ potential impact on source waters. Findings show that while they are conducting activities that show physical change, which is indicative of ecosystem improvement, examples of measurable responses within aquatic ecosystems remain rare. Monitoring, restoration, and source water protection processes are challenged by a lack of funding, capacity, and monitoring procedures. Funding, particularly, restricted the extent to which monitoring could be conducted and influenced project scope and scale. This leads to a lack of capacity to conduct large-scale restoration and rigorous scientific monitoring. Consequently, our findings highlight the issues with detecting effects of small-scale projects at the watershed scale.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Source Water Protection: State of the Art and Science)
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Open AccessArticle The Assessment of Sustainability Indexes and Climate Change Impacts on Integrated Water Resource Management
1 Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering (IIAMA), Technical University of Valence, 46022 Valence, Spain
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Michoacan University of Saint Nicolas of Hidalgo, 58030 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
Water 2017, 9(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030213
Received: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2320 | PDF Full-text (1434 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is facing great challenges due to growing uncertainties caused by climate change (CC), rapid socio-economic and technological changes, and population growth. In the present study, we have developed different indices to assess the availability of water using an IWRM approach. These indices evaluate supply to demands, surface availability, groundwater availability, reservoirs, and environmental flow. Moreover, reliability, resilience, and vulnerability were determined. Sustainability index (SI) and sustainability index by groups (SG) were determined based on the five indices (all indices vary from 0 to 1). The impacts of climate change affect surface and groundwater availability, as do the agricultural, urban, and industrial requirements on the different supplies. We used the generalized AQUATOOL Decision Support System Shell (DSSS) to evaluate the IWRM in the Rio Grande Basin (Morelia, México). Various emission scenarios from representative concentration pathways (RCPs) were applied to the basin for the years 2015–2039 and 2075–2099. The results indicate increases in agricultural and urban demand, and decreases in surface runoff, as well as groundwater recharge. The proposed indices are useful for different approaches (decision-makers, water policy, and drought risks, among others). CC significantly affects the different proposed indices and indicates a decrease of the SI, SG1, and SG2 (i.e., less availability). For example, we found that SG2 decreased from 0.812 to 0.195 under the RCP 8.5 2075–2099 scenario, and SG2 equal to 0.252 and 0.326 for the RCP 6.0 2075–2099 and RCP 4.5 2070–2099 scenarios, respectively (values close to 0 indicate worst drought conditions).
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Economic Insight from Utah’s Water Efficiency Supply Curve
1 Department of Applied Economics, Utah State University, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
2 Undergraduate Researchers, Utah State University, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030214
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 19 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1741 | PDF Full-text (4937 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Across the western US, growing populations and urbanization along with environmental demands and a changing climate have strained water allocation mechanisms originally designed to provide water to agriculture. This paper provides a methodology, using Utah as an example, for examining the options for new water supply via conservation, interpretable by policymakers, water agencies, and water users. Findings indicate that the largest potential water savings, at the lowest cost, are in agriculture and outdoor residential water use, where more efficient applications can maintain the acreage of crops and lawns at current levels while dramatically reducing use.
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Crop Coefficients (Kc) of Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) under Salt Stress
1 State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2 Crop Science Group, Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), University of Bonn, Katzenburgweg 5, D-53115 Bonn, Germany
3 State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
4 Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030215
Received: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1447 | PDF Full-text (4403 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Crop coefficients (Kc) are important for the development of irrigation schedules, but few studies on Kc focus on saline soils. To propose the growth-stage-specific Kc values for sunflowers in saline soils, a two-year micro-plot experiment was conducted in Yichang Experimental Station, Hetao Irrigation District. Four salinity levels including non-salinized (ECe = 3.4–4.1 dS·m–1), low (ECe = 5.5–8.2 dS·m–1), moderate (ECe = 12.1–14.5 dS·m–1), and high (ECe = 18.3–18.5 dS·m–1) levels were arranged in 12 micro-plots. Based on the soil moisture observations, Vensim software was used to establish and develop a physically-based water flow in the soil-plant system (WFSP) model. Observations in 2012 were used to calibrate the WFSP model and acceptable accuracy was obtained, especially for soil moisture simulation below 5 cm (R2 > 0.6). The locally-based Kc values (LKc) of sunflowers in saline soils were presented according to the WFSP calibration results. To be specific, LKc for initial stages (Kc1) could be expressed as a function of soil salinity (R2 = 0.86), while R2 of LKc for rapid growth (Kc2), middle (Kc3), and mature (Kc4) stages were 0.659, 1.156, and 0.324, respectively. The proposed LKc values were also evaluated by observations in 2013 and the R2 for initial, rapid growth, middle, and mature stages were 0.66, 0.68, 0.56 and 0.58, respectively. It is expected that the LKc would be of great value in irrigation management and provide precise water application values for salt-affected regions.
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Open AccessArticle Modelling Hydrology and Sediment Transport in a Semi-Arid and Anthropized Catchment Using the SWAT Model: The Case of the Tafna River (Northwest Algeria)
1 Laboratoire d’Écologie et Gastion des Ecosystmes Naturels (LECGEN), University of Tlemcen, 13000 Tlemcen, Algeria
2 Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement (EcoLab), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, 31400 Toulouse, France
3 Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS, 31400 Toulouse, France
Water 2017, 9(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030216
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2824 | PDF Full-text (5409 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Sediment deposits in North African catchments contribute to around 2%–5% of the yearly loss in the water storage capacity of dams. Despite its semi-arid climate, the Tafna River plays an important role in Algeria’s water self-sufficiency. There is continuous pressure on the Tafna’s dams to respond to the demand for water. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the contribution of different compartments in the basin to surface water and the dams’ impact on water and sediment storage and its flux to the sea in order to develop reservoir management. The hydrological modelling fitted well with the observed data (Nash varying between 0.42 and 0.75 and R2 varying between 0.25 and 0.84). A large proportion of the surface water came from surface runoff (59%) and lateral flow (40%), while the contribution of groundwater was insignificant (1%). SWAT was used to predict sediments in all the gauging stations. Tafna River carries an average annual quantity of 2942 t·yr−1 to the Mediterranean Sea. A large amount of water was stored in reservoirs (49%), which affected the irrigated agricultural zone downstream of the basin. As the dams contain a large amount of sediment, in excess of 27,000 t·yr−1 (90% of the sediment transported by Tafna), storage of sediment reduces the lifetime of reservoirs.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA
School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
Water 2017, 9(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030217
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1616 | PDF Full-text (1965 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater and Their Interaction with Shallow Aquifers: A Case Study of Horní Beřkovice, Czech Republic
1 T.G. Masaryk Water Research Institute, Podbabská 2582/30, 160 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
2 Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
3 Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
4 Vodní Zdroje a.s., Jindřicha Plachty 16, 150 00 Prague 5, Czech Republic
5 Department of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Water 2017, 9(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030218
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1845 | PDF Full-text (2194 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: The application of innovative technologies in water management, such as wastewater reuse, requires a deeper understanding of emerging pollutants, including pharmaceuticals. This study presents a unique pilot site at Horní Beřkovice in Central Bohemia, where wastewater parameters are significantly influenced by the effluent from a local psychiatric hospital, and where the treated wastewater infiltrates into a shallow aquifer over a long period. The survey compared the quality parameters of local wastewater with those of the wastewater in four other catchments with no sources of concentrated pharmaceutical contamination. A total of 10 pharmaceuticals were detected while monitoring a common sewage system, but their number increased 3-fold at Horní Beřkovice. The water quality data revealed the effectiveness of the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater at the local sewage treatment plant and tracked the fate of substances that move from the treatment plant into the recharge ponds and then gradually into groundwater. The findings showed a significant decrease in all the monitored micropollutants that remained bound in sediments and in the unsaturated zone. Their passage into groundwater was highly reduced, and they virtually disappear after a few hundred meters in the saturated zone. The only exception is carbamazepine. This substance passes through the treatment technology and unsaturated zone. It systematically appears in the groundwater samples collected about 1 km from the infiltration site.
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Open AccessArticle The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China
1 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Water 2017, 9(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030219
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944 | PDF Full-text (13780 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.
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Open AccessArticle Internet of Things-Based Arduino Intelligent Monitoring and Cluster Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical Parameters of Jungnangcheon, an Urban Stream
by 1 and 1,2,*
1 Jae Sung Civil Engineering Building, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wasgsimini-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, BUITEMS, Quetta 87650, Balochistan, Pakistan
Water 2017, 9(3), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030220
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2320 | PDF Full-text (22503 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: In the present case study, the use of an advanced, efficient and low-cost technique for monitoring an urban stream was reported. Physicochemical parameters (PcPs) of Jungnangcheon stream (Seoul, South Korea) were assessed using an Internet of Things (IoT) platform. Temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH parameters were monitored for the three summer months and the first fall month at a fixed location. Analysis was performed using clustering techniques (CTs), such as K-means clustering, agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). An IoT-based Arduino sensor module (ASM) network with a 99.99% efficient communication platform was developed to allow collection of stream data with user-friendly software and hardware and facilitated data analysis by interested individuals using their smartphones. Clustering was used to formulate relationships among physicochemical parameters. K-means clustering was used to identify natural clusters using the silhouette coefficient based on cluster compactness and looseness. AHC grouped all data into two clusters as well as temperature, DO and pH into four, eight, and four clusters, respectively. DBSCAN analysis was also performed to evaluate yearly variations in physicochemical parameters. Noise points (NOISE) of temperature in 2016 were border points (ƥ), whereas in 2014 and 2015 they remained core points (ɋ), indicating a trend toward increasing stream temperature. We found the stream parameters were within the permissible limits set by the Water Quality Standards for River Water, South Korea.
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Open AccessArticle Advancing Sequential Managed Aquifer Recharge Technology (SMART) Using Different Intermediate Oxidation Processes
1 Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching, Germany
2 Chair of Water Quality Control, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Water 2017, 9(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030221
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2024 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs removal which is obtained by combining two filtration systems with an intermediate aeration step. In this study, four parallel laboratory-scale soil column experiments using different intermittent aeration techniques were selected to further optimize TOrCs transformation during MAR: no aeration, aeration with air, pure oxygen and ozone. Rapid oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction and dissolution of manganese confirmed anoxic conditions within the first filtration step, mimicking traditional bank filtration. Aeration with air led to suboxic conditions, whereas oxidation by pure oxygen and ozone led to fully oxic conditions throughout the second system. The sequential system resulted in an equal or better transformation of most TOrCs compared to the single step bank filtration system. Despite the fast oxygen consumption, acesulfame, iopromide, iomeprol and valsartan were degraded within the first infiltration step. The compounds benzotriazole, diclofenac, 4-Formylaminoantipyrine, gabapentin, metoprolol, valsartan acid and venlafaxine revealed a significantly enhanced removal in the systems with intermittent oxidation compared to the conventional treatment without aeration. Further improvement of benzotriazole and gabapentin removal by using pure oxygen confirmed potential oxygen limitation in the second column after aeration with air. Ozonation resulted in an enhanced removal of persistent compounds (i.e., carbamazepine, candesartan, olmesartan) and further increased the attenuation of gabapentin, methylbenzotriazole, benzotriazole, and venlafaxine. Diatrizoic acid revealed little degradation in an ozone–MAR hybrid system.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake
1 Interdisciplinary Centre for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2 Kobe City College of Nursing, Kobe City, Hyogo 651-2103, Japan
3 The Small Earth Nepal, Tripureshowr, P O Box 20533, Kathmandu, Nepal
4 Center for Integrated Urban Development, Sanepa, Lalitpur, GPO 8975, EPC 1916 Kathmandu, Nepal
5 School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
6 Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
Water 2017, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030222
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2664 | PDF Full-text (2466 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract: Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped, ground, and jar water consumption and the increase in tanker water consumption post-GEQ appeared to be due to the impact of the GEQ. However, the impact did not appear to be prominent on per capita water consumption, although it was reduced from 117 to 99 L post-GEQ. Piped, ground, and tanker water use were associated with an increase and jar water use was associated with a decrease in water consumption. Despite improvements in quantity, inequality in water consumption and inequity in affordability across wealth status was well established. This study suggests to KUKL the areas of priority where improvements to supply are required, and recommends an emphasis on resuming performance. Policy planners should consider the existing inequity in affordability, which is a major issue in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.
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Open AccessReview Achieving Resilience through Water Recycling in Peri-Urban Agriculture
1 Capital Works and Facilities, Western Sydney University, Penrith 2751, Australia
2 School of Science and Health, Western Sydney University, Penrith 2751, Australia
Water 2017, 9(3), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030223
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1471 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Pressures on urban, peri-urban and rural water and agricultural systems are increasingly complex with multiple interacting stresses and impacts. As a way of addressing these issues there has been increasing consideration as to how to build and manage resilience in these complex social-ecological systems. This paper presents a case study of the role of water recycling for agricultural use within the context of the peri-urban water cycle in Western Sydney, Australia. Building upon a description of the water cycle associated with water reclaimed from urban wastewater and stormwater harvesting; aspects which enhance resilience are identified and discussed. These include water resource security, avoidance of wastewater discharges to receiving waters, enhanced processes of landscape ecology, provision of ecosystem services, environmental risk management, local agricultural products and services, social values, livelihood opportunity, and the industrial ecology of recycled organics.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Clustering and Support Vector Regression for Water Demand Forecasting and Anomaly Detection
Department of Computer Science, Systems and Communication, University of Milano-Bicocca, viale Sarca 336, 20126 Milan, Italy
Water 2017, 9(3), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030224
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2125 | PDF Full-text (3521 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: This paper presents a completely data-driven and machine-learning-based approach, in two stages, to first characterize and then forecast hourly water demand in the short term with applications of two different data sources: urban water demand (SCADA data) and individual customer water consumption (AMR data). In the first case, reliable forecasting can be used to optimize operations, particularly the pumping schedule, in order to reduce energy-related costs, while in the second case, the comparison between forecast and actual values may support the online detection of anomalies, such as smart meter faults, fraud or possible cyber-physical attacks. Results are presented for a real case: the water distribution network in Milan.
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Short Duration Intense Rainfall Events on Sanitary Sewer Network Performance
1 College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
2 Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
Water 2017, 9(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030225
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
Abstract | Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1880 | PDF Full-text (3390 KB) | HTML Full-textXML Full-text
Abstract: Short duration intense rainfall causes an increase in rainfall derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into aging sewer networks, which leads to Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs). This study presents a generalised framework for assessing and mitigating the impacts of intense rainfall on sanitary sewer networks. The first part of the proposed framework involves a detailed hydraulic modelling to evaluate the performance of the sewer network. The second part deals with the development of SSO mitigation strategies based on Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) approaches. This paper also demonstrates the application of the first part of the proposed framework for a case study catchment in Melbourne, Australia. The hydraulic performance of the case study sewer network during a wet and a dry year is presented. The analysis found that for the wet year, 11 manholes had sewer overflows, whereas 53 of 57 manholes in the network of 3.2 km had surcharges. Such a study will benefit the water authorities to develop mitigation strategies for controlling SSOs in their sewer systems.
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Streamflow Using Projections of the 5th Assessment Report for the Bernam River Basin, Malaysia