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Water, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2017) – 80 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Clogging due to the accumulation of suspended solids is a major constraint that limits the capacity [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects
Water 2017, 9(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020150 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in [...] Read more.
High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D) depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA) and overall suitability index (OSI) of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE) increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using SWAT and Fuzzy TOPSIS to Assess the Impact of Climate Change in the Headwaters of the Segura River Basin (SE Spain)
Water 2017, 9(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020149 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. [...] Read more.
The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. This study assessed the impact of climate change in the headwaters of the Segura River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data from two Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the medium term (2041–2070) and the long term (2071–2100) under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Bias correction was performed using the distribution mapping approach. The fuzzy TOPSIS technique was applied to rank a set of nine GCM–RCM combinations, choosing the climate models with a higher relative closeness. The study results show that the SWAT performed satisfactorily for both calibration (NSE = 0.80) and validation (NSE = 0.77) periods. Comparing the long-term and baseline (1971–2000) periods, precipitation showed a negative trend between 6% and 32%, whereas projected annual mean temperatures demonstrated an estimated increase of 1.5–3.3 °C. Water resources were estimated to experience a decrease of 2%–54%. These findings provide local water management authorities with very useful information in the face of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvements to Runoff Predictions from a Land Surface Model with a Lateral Flow Scheme Using Remote Sensing and In Situ Observations
Water 2017, 9(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020148 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2080
Abstract
Like most land surface models (LSMs) coupled to regional climate models (RCMs), the original Common Land Model (CoLM) predicts runoff from net water at each computational grid without explicit lateral flow (LF) schemes. This study has therefore proposed a CoLM+LF model incorporating a [...] Read more.
Like most land surface models (LSMs) coupled to regional climate models (RCMs), the original Common Land Model (CoLM) predicts runoff from net water at each computational grid without explicit lateral flow (LF) schemes. This study has therefore proposed a CoLM+LF model incorporating a set of lateral surface and subsurface runoff computations controlled by topography into the existing terrestrial hydrologic processes in the CoLM to improve runoff predictions in land surface parameterizations. This study has assessed the new CoLM+LF using Earth observations at the 30-km resolution targeted for mesoscale climate applications, especially for surface and subsurface runoff predictions in the Nakdong River Watershed of Korea under study. Both the baseline CoLM and the new CoLM+LF are implemented in a standalone mode using the realistic surface boundary conditions (SBCs) and meteorological forcings constructed from remote sensing products and in situ observations, mainly by geoprocessing tools in a Geographic Information System (GIS) for the study domain. The performance of the CoLM and the CoLM+LF simulations are evaluated by the comparison of daily runoff results from both models with observations during 2009 at the Jindong stream gauge station in the study watershed. The proposed CoLM+LF, which can simulate the effect of runoff travel time over a watershed by an explicit lateral flow scheme, more effectively captures seasonal variations in daily streamflow than the baseline CoLM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Rainfall-Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Change in Rwanda (1990–2016)
Water 2017, 9(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020147 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
Stormwater runoff poses serious environmental problems and public health issues in Rwanda, a tropical country that is increasingly suffering from severe floods, landslides, soil erosion and water pollution. Using the WetSpa Extension model, this study assessed the changes in rainfall runoff depth in [...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff poses serious environmental problems and public health issues in Rwanda, a tropical country that is increasingly suffering from severe floods, landslides, soil erosion and water pollution. Using the WetSpa Extension model, this study assessed the changes in rainfall runoff depth in Rwanda from 1990 to 2016 in response to precipitation and land use changes. Our results show that Rwanda has experienced a significant conversion of natural forest and grassland to cropland and built-up areas. During the period 1990–2016, 7090.02 km2 (64.5%) and 1715.26 km2 (32.1%) of forest and grassland covers were lost, respectively, while the cropland and built-up areas increased by 135.3% (8503.75 km2) and 304.3% (355.02 km2), respectively. According to our estimates, the land use change effect resulted in a national mean runoff depth increase of 2.33 mm/year (0.38%). Although precipitation change affected the inter-annual fluctuation of runoff, the long-term trend of runoff was dominated by land use change. The top five districts that experienced the annual runoff depth increase (all >3.8 mm/year) are Rubavu, Nyabihu, Ngororero, Gakenke, and Musanze. Their annual runoff depths increased at a rate of >3.8 mm/year during the past 27 years, due to severe deforestation (ranging from 62% to 85%) and cropland expansion (ranging from 123% to 293%). These areas require high priority in runoff control using terracing in croplands and rainwater harvesting systems such as dam/reservoirs, percolation tanks, storage tanks, etc. The wet season runoff was three times higher than the dry season runoff in Rwanda; appropriate rainwater management and reservation could provide valuable irrigation water for the dry season or drought years (late rainfall onsets or early rainfall cessations). It was estimated that a reservation of 30.5% (3.99 km3) of the runoff in the wet season could meet the cropland irrigation water gap during the dry season in 2016. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) Curves under Climate Change Uncertainty: The Case of Bangkok, Thailand
Water 2017, 9(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020145 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5928
Abstract
The magnitude and frequency of hydrological events are expected to increase in coming years due to climate change in megacities of Asia. Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves represent essential means to study effects on the performance of drainage systems. Therefore, the need for updating IDF [...] Read more.
The magnitude and frequency of hydrological events are expected to increase in coming years due to climate change in megacities of Asia. Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves represent essential means to study effects on the performance of drainage systems. Therefore, the need for updating IDF curves comes from the necessity to gain better understanding of climate change effects. The present paper explores an approach based on spatial downscaling-temporal disaggregation method (DDM) to develop future IDFs using stochastic weather generator, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and the rainfall disaggregation tool, Hyetos. The work was carried out for the case of Bangkok, Thailand. The application of LARS-WG to project extreme rainfalls showed promising results and nine global climate models (GCMs) were used to estimate changes in IDF characteristics for future time periods of 2011–2030 and 2046–2065 under climate change scenarios. The IDFs derived from this approach were corrected using higher order equation to mitigate biases. IDFs from all GCMs showed increasing intensities in the future for all return periods. The work presented demonstrates the potential of this approach in projecting future climate scenarios for urban catchment where long term hourly rainfall data are not readily available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Water Leakage and Nitrate Leaching Characteristics in the Winter Wheat–Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain under Different Irrigation and Fertilization Management Practices
Water 2017, 9(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020141 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP). [...] Read more.
Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP). Two N fertilization (NF1, the traditional one; NF2, fertilization based on soil testing) and two irrigation (IR1, the traditional one; IR2, irrigation based on real-time soil water content monitoring) management practices were designed in the experiments. Water and nitrate amounts leaving the soil layer at a depth of 2.0 m below the soil surface were calculated and compared. Results showed that the IR2 effectively reduced water leakage and nitrate leaching amounts in the two-year period, especially in the winter wheat season. Less than 10 percent irrigation water could be saved in a dry winter wheat season, but about 60 percent could be saved in a wet winter wheat season. Besides, 58.8 percent nitrate under single NF2IR1 and 85.2 percent under NF2IR2 could be prevented from leaching. The IR2 should be considered as the best management practice to save groundwater resources and prevent nitrate from leaching. The amounts of N input play a great role in affecting nitrate concentrations in the soil solutions in the winter wheat–summer maize rotation system. The NF2 significantly reduced N inputs and should be encouraged in ordinary agricultural production. Thus, nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination could be alleviated, but timely N supplement might be needed under high precipitation condition. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Where to Find Water Pipes and Sewers?—On the Correlation of Infrastructure Networks in the Urban Environment
Water 2017, 9(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020146 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2353
Abstract
Urban water infrastructure, i.e., water supply and sewer networks, are underground structures, implying that detailed information on their location and features is not directly accessible, frequently erroneous, or missing. For public use, data is also not made available due to security concerns. This [...] Read more.
Urban water infrastructure, i.e., water supply and sewer networks, are underground structures, implying that detailed information on their location and features is not directly accessible, frequently erroneous, or missing. For public use, data is also not made available due to security concerns. This lack of quality data, especially for research purposes, requires substantial effort when such data is sought for both statistical and model‐based analyses. An alternative to gathering data from archives and observations is to extract the information from surrogate data sources (e.g., the street network). The key for such an undertaking is to identify the common characteristics of all urban infrastructure network types and to quantify them. In this work, the network correlations of the street, water supply, and sewer networks are systematically analyzed. The results showed a strong correlation between the street networks and urban water infrastructure networks, in general. For the investigated cases, on average, 50% of the street network length correlates with 80%-85% of the total water supply/sewer network. A correlation between street types and water infrastructure properties (e.g., pipe diameter) cannot be found. All analyses are quantified in the form of different geometric‐ and graph‐based indicators. The obtained results improve the understanding of urban network infrastructure from an integrated point of view. Moreover, the method can be fundamental for different research purposes, such as data verification, data completion, or even the entire generation of feasible datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synergies in Urban Water Infrastructure Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Extraction of Urban Water Bodies from ZY‐3 Multi‐Spectral Imagery
Water 2017, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020144 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
The extraction of urban water bodies from high‐resolution remote sensing images, which has been a hotspot in researches, has drawn a lot of attention both domestic and abroad. A challenging issue is to distinguish the shadow of high‐rise buildings from water bodies. To [...] Read more.
The extraction of urban water bodies from high‐resolution remote sensing images, which has been a hotspot in researches, has drawn a lot of attention both domestic and abroad. A challenging issue is to distinguish the shadow of high‐rise buildings from water bodies. To tackle this issue, we propose the automatic urban water extraction method (AUWEM) to extract urban water bodies from high‐resolution remote sensing images. First, in order to improve the extraction accuracy, we refine the NDWI algorithm. Instead of Band2 in NDWI, we select the first principal component after PCA transformation as well as Band1 for ZY‐3 multi‐spectral image data to construct two new indices, namely NNDWI1, which is sensitive to turbid water, and NNDWI2, which is sensitive to the water body whose spectral information is interfered by vegetation. We superimpose the image threshold segmentation results generated by applying NNDWI1 and NNDWI2, then detect and remove the shadows in the small areas of the segmentation results using object‐oriented shadow detection technology, and finally obtain the results of the urban water extraction. By comparing the Maximum Likelihood Method (MaxLike) and NDWI, we find that the average Kappa coefficients of AUWEM, NDWI and MaxLike in the five experimental areas are about 93%, 86.2% and 88.6%, respectively. AUWEM exhibits lower omission error rates and commission error rates compared with the NDWI and MaxLike. The average total error rates of the three methods are about 11.9%, 18.2%, and 22.1%, respectively. AUWEM not only shows higher water edge detection accuracy, but it also is relatively stable with the change of threshold. Therefore, it can satisfy demands of extracting water bodies from ZY‐3 images. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in the Use of Chemical Markers for Tracing Wastewater Contamination in Aquatic Environment: A Review
Water 2017, 9(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020143 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 2820
Abstract
There has been increasing research focus on the detection and occurrence of wastewater contamination in aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants receive effluents containing various chemical pollutants. These chemicals may not be fully removed during treatment and could potentially enter the receiving water bodies. [...] Read more.
There has been increasing research focus on the detection and occurrence of wastewater contamination in aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants receive effluents containing various chemical pollutants. These chemicals may not be fully removed during treatment and could potentially enter the receiving water bodies. Detection of these chemical pollutants and source identification could be a challenging research task due to the diversified chemical and functional groups, concentration levels and fate and transportation mechanisms of these pollutants in the environment. Chemical markers such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, artificial sweeteners, fluorescent whitening agents, sterols and stanols, and nitrate and nitrogen isotopics have been widely used by most research as markers. These markers served as indicators of wastewater contamination to the receiving bodies due to their frequent usage, resistance to biodegradability and, more importantly, anthropogenic origin. These markers are commonly used in combination to identify the contaminant source of different origins. This article discusses the main chemical markers that are used to identify wastewater contamination in receiving bodies, the current trends, and approach to select suitable chemical markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants: Occurrence, Fate and Transport, and Removal)
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Open AccessArticle
Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Piped Supplies, Groundwater Management and Product Transportation
Water 2017, 9(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020142 - 21 Feb 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3049
Abstract
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low‐income and middle‐income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and the implications for water resource management and transport‐related environmental impacts have [...] Read more.
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low‐income and middle‐income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and the implications for water resource management and transport‐related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand for natural mineral water and hydrogeological characteristics. A total of 764 addresses for premises licensed to produce packaged water from 2009 to 2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and examined beverage import/export data. We found evidence to suggest that packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. Groundwater abstraction for packaged water is low relative to piped water production and domestic borehole abstraction nationally, but may be locally significant. For natural mineral water, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. In future, packaged water producer surveys could be used to quantify unregulated production, volumes of piped versus groundwater abstracted and treatment processes used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Soil Moisture for Hydrological Applications: Open Questions and New Opportunities
Water 2017, 9(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020140 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 82 | Viewed by 6687
Abstract
Soil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in the mass and energy balance between the land surface and the atmosphere and, hence, the potential societal benefits of an accurate estimation of soil moisture are immense. Recently, scientific community is making great [...] Read more.
Soil moisture is widely recognized as a key parameter in the mass and energy balance between the land surface and the atmosphere and, hence, the potential societal benefits of an accurate estimation of soil moisture are immense. Recently, scientific community is making great effort for addressing the estimation of soil moisture over large areas through in situ sensors, remote sensing and modelling approaches. The different techniques used for addressing the monitoring of soil moisture for hydrological applications are briefly reviewed here. Moreover, some examples in which in situ and satellite soil moisture data are successfully employed for improving hydrological monitoring and predictions (e.g., floods, landslides, precipitation and irrigation) are presented. Finally, the emerging applications, the open issues and the future opportunities given by the increased availability of soil moisture measurements are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydro-Meteorological Monitoring) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Could Changing Power Relationships Lead to Better Water Sharing in Central Asia?
Water 2017, 9(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020139 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3320
Abstract
Even though Central Asia is water rich, water disputes have characterized the region after crumbling of the Soviet Union in 1991. The uneven spatial distribution and complex pattern of transboundary water sources with contrasting national water needs have created an intricate water dilemma. [...] Read more.
Even though Central Asia is water rich, water disputes have characterized the region after crumbling of the Soviet Union in 1991. The uneven spatial distribution and complex pattern of transboundary water sources with contrasting national water needs have created an intricate water dilemma. Increasing national water needs, water claims by surrounding countries, uncertainties in renewable water volumes, and effects of climate change will put further strain on the future water use in Central Asia. We argue that the present power distribution with three downstream hegemons (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) and two upstream much poorer countries with less political influence (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) is not likely to lead forward to a greater willingness to share water. We discuss this situation with the analogue Egypt-Sudan-Ethiopia in the Nile Basin. Thus, as in the case of Ethiopia in the Nile Basin, gradually economically stronger upstream countries Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan due to hydropower development are likely to eventually re-define the hydropolitical map of Central Asia. As in the case of the Nile Basin, a more even power balance between upstream and downstream countries may lead to an improved political structure for a much-needed better collaboration on water issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Water Management in Central Asia)
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Open AccessArticle
Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland
Water 2017, 9(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020138 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3179
Abstract
The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR [...] Read more.
The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment) was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Tracer Experiments and Hydraulic Performance Improvements in a Treatment Pond
Water 2017, 9(2), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020137 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The treatment efficiency of a wetland constructed for nutrient removal depends strongly on the flow patterns and residence times of the wetland. In this study, a tracer experiment was performed to estimate the residence time distribution and the hydraulic efficiency of a treatment [...] Read more.
The treatment efficiency of a wetland constructed for nutrient removal depends strongly on the flow patterns and residence times of the wetland. In this study, a tracer experiment was performed to estimate the residence time distribution and the hydraulic efficiency of a treatment pond with shallow and deep‐water areas. Rhodamine WT experiments revealed a non‐uniform flow pattern in the deep‐water area and an overall poor hydraulic efficiency in the wetland. To improve flow uniformity and hydraulic efficiency, several design options for different inlet-outlet configurations, flow rates, water depths, and emergent baffle additions were considered. The effects on hydraulic performance were investigated through mathematical model simulations. The results revealed that increasing the flow rate and decreasing the water depth slightly improved the hydraulic performance, whereas changing the positions of the inlet and outlet produced inconsistent effects. The most effective improvement involved installing emergent baffles, with the number of baffles presenting the largest positive effect, followed by the width and length of the baffles. Long and thin baffles resulted in a uniform flow velocity field, a meandering flow path, and greater residence times and effective volume ratios. The installation of two baffles increased the hydraulic efficiency to 1.00, indicating excellent hydraulic performance. The thin baffles occupied approximately 3.7%-6.3% of the deep‐water area and 1.9%-3.2% of the entire pond, indicating the potential for their practical application in limited land use regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment Wetlands for Nutrient Removal)
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Open AccessArticle
Agricultural Irrigation Water Use in a Closed Basin and the Impacts on Water Productivity: The Case of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Southern Spain)
Water 2017, 9(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020136 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2833
Abstract
This paper analyses the agricultural irrigation water use in a closed basin and the impacts on water productivity, and examines how they have affected the ‘closure’ process of the Guadalquivir river basin observed in recent decades. Following a period of expansion in irrigation, [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the agricultural irrigation water use in a closed basin and the impacts on water productivity, and examines how they have affected the ‘closure’ process of the Guadalquivir river basin observed in recent decades. Following a period of expansion in irrigation, an administrative moratorium was declared on new irrigated areas in 2005. Since then, the main policy measure has been aimed at the modernisation of irrigated agriculture and the implementation of water conservation technologies. The analysis carried out in this paper shows a significant increase in mean irrigation water productivity in the pre‐moratorium period (1989–2005), driven by the creation of new irrigated areas devoted to high value crops and with a dominant use of deficit irrigation strategies, while a second phase (2005–2012) is characterised by slower growth in terms of the mean productivity of irrigation water, primarily as a result of a significant reduction in water use per area. Findings show that productivity gains seem to have reached a ceiling in this river basin, since technological innovations (such as new crops, deficit irrigation, and water‐saving and conservation technologies) have reached the limits of their capacity to create new value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Accessing the Difference in the Climate Elasticity of Runoff across the Poyang Lake Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020135 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2047
Abstract
Understanding the effects of climate and catchment properties’ changes on water yield is a challenging component in assessments of future water resources. Here, we spatially applied the water-energy balance equation, based on the widely-used Budyko framework, to quantify the temporal and spatial differences [...] Read more.
Understanding the effects of climate and catchment properties’ changes on water yield is a challenging component in assessments of future water resources. Here, we spatially applied the water-energy balance equation, based on the widely-used Budyko framework, to quantify the temporal and spatial differences of the climate elasticity of runoff in the Poyang Lake Basin (PYLB), highlighting the influence of the catchment properties’ parameter n variation on the climate elasticity and runoff prediction. By using Sen’s slope and the Mann–Kendall method, we found that, for the whole study period (1960–2010), annual temperature in PYLB significantly increased at a rate of 1.44% per decade. Basin-wide wind speed and net radiation had been declining at 0.17 m/s and 46.30 MJ/m2 per decade. No significant trend was detected in precipitation and relative humidity. The moving average method was applied to evaluate the temporal pattern of n. The results showed that the calibrated catchment properties’ parameter and the derived elasticities were not constant during the past 50 years. We found that in most sub-basins, the n values increased during 1970–1980, followed by a decreasing trend in the period from 1980 to 1990, whereas the n value in Fuhe sub-basin kept increasing for the almost the whole study period. In addition, the climate elasticity is highly correlated with the n value, indicating that the catchment properties’ parameter was the dominant factor influencing climate elasticity in PYLB in the past 50 years. We also attempted to predict the runoff trend with the consideration of trends in n. However, in some sub-basins, there were still considerable differences between the predicted runoff trend and the observed one. The method used here to evaluate the temporal pattern of n should be an extension of the existing literature and will provide a better understanding of elasticity in the regional hydrological cycle. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Representing Field-Scale Infiltration and Surface Soil Moisture in Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils Subjected to Rainfall Events
Water 2017, 9(2), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020134 - 20 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
Spatial heterogeneity in soil properties has been a challenge for providing field-scale estimates of infiltration rates and surface soil moisture content over natural fields. In this study, we develop analytical expressions for effective saturated hydraulic conductivity for use with the Green-Ampt model to [...] Read more.
Spatial heterogeneity in soil properties has been a challenge for providing field-scale estimates of infiltration rates and surface soil moisture content over natural fields. In this study, we develop analytical expressions for effective saturated hydraulic conductivity for use with the Green-Ampt model to describe field-scale infiltration rates and evolution of surface soil moisture over unsaturated fields subjected to a rainfall event. The heterogeneity in soil properties is described by a log-normal distribution for surface saturated hydraulic conductivity. Comparisons between field-scale numerical and analytical simulation results for water movement in heterogeneous unsaturated soils show that the proposed expressions reproduce the evolution of surface soil moisture and infiltration rate with time. The analytical expressions hold promise for describing mean field infiltration rates and surface soil moisture evolution at field-scale over sandy loam and loamy sand soils. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Where There Is No History: How to Create Trust and Connection in Learning for Transformation in Water Governance
Water 2017, 9(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020130 - 19 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5259
Abstract
Trust is often seen as an important element in settings of knowledge sharing and the co-creation of knowledge for dealing with transformations in water governance. However, seemingly similar conversations during a co-creation workshop in Uppsala resulted in both trust and distrust, and thereby [...] Read more.
Trust is often seen as an important element in settings of knowledge sharing and the co-creation of knowledge for dealing with transformations in water governance. However, seemingly similar conversations during a co-creation workshop in Uppsala resulted in both trust and distrust, and thereby influenced consequent possibilities for the co-creation of knowledge. Therefore, this article focuses on how trust influences knowledge sharing and how knowledge sharing influences trust. We use a case study approach to analyze the Uppsala co-creation workshop—part of the Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance (CADWAGO) project—by comparing 25 conversations, making use of theories on swift trust and trust dynamics. We found four different conversation patterns (1) sending; (2) defending; (3) misunderstanding; and (4) connecting. The first three patterns influenced trust negatively and did not lead to knowledge sharing, whereas pattern four showed trust development and co-creation of knowledge. From our comparative analyses, we conclude that trust starts to emerge when there is mutual openness and empathy visible in turn-taking patterns. More specifically, trust emerges when communication styles allow for recognition and exploring underlying needs and wishes, resulting in a more dynamic dialogue, further trust development, and connection between actors. Our list of conversation patterns is provisional but we argue that understanding how different kinds of interactions can lead to trust or distrust is crucial to understanding why and how learning takes place—insights that are essential for fostering learning and transformations in water governance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structuring Climate Adaptation through Multiple Perspectives: Framework and Case Study on Flood Risk Management
Water 2017, 9(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020129 - 19 Feb 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2939
Abstract
Adaptation to climate change is being addressed in many domains. This means that there are multiple perspectives on adaptation; often with differing visions resulting in disconnected responses and outcomes. Combining singular perspectives into coherent, combined perspectives that include multiple needs and visions can [...] Read more.
Adaptation to climate change is being addressed in many domains. This means that there are multiple perspectives on adaptation; often with differing visions resulting in disconnected responses and outcomes. Combining singular perspectives into coherent, combined perspectives that include multiple needs and visions can help to deepen the understanding of various aspects of adaptation and provide more effective responses. Such combinations of perspectives can help to increase the range and variety of adaptation measures available for implementation or avoid maladaptation compared with adaptations derived from a singular perspective. The objective of this paper is to present and demonstrate a framework for structuring the local adaptation responses using the inputs from multiple perspectives. The adaptation response framing has been done by: (i) contextualizing climate change adaptation needs; (ii) analyzing drivers of change; (iii) characterizing measures of adaptation; and (iv) establishing links between the measures with a particular emphasis on taking account of multiple perspectives. This framework was demonstrated with reference to the management of flood risks in a case study Can Tho, Vietnam. The results from the case study show that framing of adaptation responses from multiple perspectives can enhance the understanding of adaptation measures, thereby helping to bring about more flexible implementation practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantifying River Channel Stability at the Basin Scale
Water 2017, 9(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020133 - 17 Feb 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
This paper examines the feasibility of a basin‐scale scheme for characterising and quantifying river reaches in terms of their geomorphological stability status and potential for morphological adjustment based on auditing stream energy. A River Energy Audit Scheme (REAS) is explored, which involves integrating [...] Read more.
This paper examines the feasibility of a basin‐scale scheme for characterising and quantifying river reaches in terms of their geomorphological stability status and potential for morphological adjustment based on auditing stream energy. A River Energy Audit Scheme (REAS) is explored, which involves integrating stream power with flow duration to investigate the downstream distribution of Annual Geomorphic Energy (AGE). This measure represents the average annual energy available with which to perform geomorphological work in reshaping the channel boundary. Changes in AGE between successive reaches might indicate whether adjustments are likely to be led by erosion or deposition at the channel perimeter. A case study of the River Kent in Cumbria, UK, demonstrates that basin‐wide application is achievable without excessive field work and data processing. However, in addressing the basin scale, the research found that this is inevitably at the cost of a number of assumptions and limitations, which are discussed herein. Technological advances in remotely sensed data capture, developments in image processing and emerging GIS tools provide the near‐term prospect of fully quantifying river channel stability at the basin scale, although as yet not fully realized. Potential applications of this type of approach include system‐wide assessment of river channel stability and sensitivity to land‐use or climate change, and informing strategic planning for river channel and flood risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stream Channel Stability, Assessment, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle
SPH Simulations of Solute Transport in Flows with Steep Velocity and Concentration Gradients
Water 2017, 9(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020132 - 17 Feb 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
In this study, a meshless particle method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), is adopted to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) and the advection diffusion equations (ADEs) for simulating solute transport processes under 1D/2D conditions with steep gradients. A new SPH-SWEs-ADEs model is herein [...] Read more.
In this study, a meshless particle method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), is adopted to solve the shallow water equations (SWEs) and the advection diffusion equations (ADEs) for simulating solute transport processes under 1D/2D conditions with steep gradients. A new SPH-SWEs-ADEs model is herein developed to focus on the numerical performance of solute transport in flows with steep velocity and concentration gradients, since the traditional mesh-based methods have numerical difficulties on solving such steep velocity/concentration gradient flows. The present model is validated by six benchmark study cases, including three steep concentration gradient cases and three coupled steep concentration/velocity gradient cases. The comparison between the simulated results and the exact solutions for the former three cases shows that complete mass concentration conservation in pure advection-dominated flows is preserved. The numerical oscillation in concentration and the negative concentration resulted from the discretization of the advection term of ADEs can be totally avoided. The other three cases confirm that this model can also well capture coupled steep gradients of velocities and concentrations. It is demonstrated that the presented solver is an effective and reliable tool to investigate solute transports in complex flows incorporating steep velocity gradients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling of Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Dissolved Oxygen/Sediment Oxygen Demand under Ice in a Shallow Eutrophic Prairie Reservoir
Water 2017, 9(2), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020131 - 17 Feb 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
Dissolved oxygen is an influential factor of aquatic ecosystem health. Future predictions of oxygen deficits are paramount for maintaining water quality. Oxygen demands depend greatly on a waterbody’s attributes. A large sediment–water interface relative to volume means sediment oxygen demand has greater influence [...] Read more.
Dissolved oxygen is an influential factor of aquatic ecosystem health. Future predictions of oxygen deficits are paramount for maintaining water quality. Oxygen demands depend greatly on a waterbody’s attributes. A large sediment–water interface relative to volume means sediment oxygen demand has greater influence in shallow systems. In shallow, ice-covered waterbodies the potential for winter anoxia is high. Water quality models offer two options for modelling sediment oxygen demand: a zero-order constant rate, or a sediment diagenesis model. The constant rate is unrepresentative of a real system, yet a diagenesis model is difficult to parameterise and calibrate without data. We use the water quality model CE-QUAL-W2 to increase the complexity of a zero-order sediment compartment with limited data. We model summer and winter conditions individually to capture decay rates under-ice. Using a semi-automated calibration method, we find an annual pattern in sediment oxygen demand that follows the trend of chlorophyll-a concentrations in a shallow, eutrophic Prairie reservoir. We use chlorophyll-a as a proxy for estimation of summer oxygen demand and winter decay. We show that winter sediment oxygen demand is dependent on the previous summer’s maximum chlorophyll-a concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds
Water 2017, 9(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020128 - 16 Feb 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS) ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case [...] Read more.
Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS) ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS), and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation) exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference) ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes
Water 2017, 9(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020127 - 16 Feb 2017
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, [...] Read more.
Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, receiving sewage effluents and undergoing restoration. The first step of restoration in both lakes was sewage effluent diversion. Additionally, in hypertrophic Lake Eymir, biomanipulation was conducted, involving removal of benthi-planktivorous fish and prohibition of pike fishing. The monitoring period included high (H) and low (L) water levels (WL) enabling elucidation of the effects of hydrological changes on lake restoration. In shallower Lake Mogan, macrophyte abundance increased after the sewage effluent diversion in periods with low water levels even at turbid water. In comparatively deeper Lake Eymir, the first biomanipulation led to a clear water state with abundant macrophyte coverage. However, shortly after biomanipulation, the water clarity declined, coinciding with low water level (LWL) periods during which nutrient concentrations increased. A second biomanipulation was conducted, mostly during high water level (HWL) period, resulting in a major decrease in nutrient concentrations and clearer water, but without an expansion of macrophytes. We conclude that repetitive fish removal may induce recovery but its success may be confounded by high availability of nutrients and adverse hydrological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Climate Change Impacts and Water Management Adaptation in Two Mediterranean-Climate Watersheds: Learning from the Durance and Sacramento Rivers
Water 2017, 9(2), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020126 - 16 Feb 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Climate change is bringing more risk and uncertainty to water management in the world’s Mediterranean-climate regions. In this paper, we compare two Mediterranean-climate watersheds: the Durance basin in southern France, and the Sacramento River in northern California, USA. For the Durance basin, we [...] Read more.
Climate change is bringing more risk and uncertainty to water management in the world’s Mediterranean-climate regions. In this paper, we compare two Mediterranean-climate watersheds: the Durance basin in southern France, and the Sacramento River in northern California, USA. For the Durance basin, we present new research on climate change impacts on water management, and discuss their implications for potential adaptation responses. For the Sacramento River, we review existing climate data and research on impacts and describe the progress in implementing various adaptation strategies. We find that the Durance and Sacramento—while certainly at different scales—nonetheless share many characteristics, such as a highly variable climate and hydrology, and extensive hydromodification and intense water competition, which will be affected by climate change. Although some issues and approaches to adaptation are unique to each region, at the same time, these two river basins are utilizing some similar strategies to cope with a changing climate, such as regional planning and management and water conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Applicability of Zero-Inflated Models to Fit the Torrential Rainfall Count Data with Extra Zeros in South Korea
Water 2017, 9(2), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020123 - 16 Feb 2017
Viewed by 1912
Abstract
Several natural disasters occur because of torrential rainfalls. The change in global climate most likely increases the occurrences of such downpours. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the torrential rainfall events in order to introduce effective measures for mitigating disasters [...] Read more.
Several natural disasters occur because of torrential rainfalls. The change in global climate most likely increases the occurrences of such downpours. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of the torrential rainfall events in order to introduce effective measures for mitigating disasters such as urban floods and landslides. However, one of the major problems is evaluating the number of torrential rainfall events from a statistical viewpoint. If the number of torrential rainfall occurrences during a month is considered as count data, their frequency distribution could be identified using a probability distribution. Generally, the number of torrential rainfall occurrences has been analyzed using the Poisson distribution (POI) or the Generalized Poisson Distribution (GPD). However, it was reported that POI and GPD often overestimated or underestimated the observed count data when additional or fewer zeros were included. Hence, in this study, a zero-inflated model concept was applied to solve this problem existing in the conventional models. Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) model, Zero-Inflated Generalized Poisson (ZIGP) model, and the Bayesian ZIGP model have often been applied to fit the count data having additional or fewer zeros. However, the applications of these models in water resource management have been very limited despite their efficiency and accuracy. The five models, namely, POI, GPD, ZIP, ZIGP, and Bayesian ZIGP, were applied to the torrential rainfall data having additional zeros obtained from two rain gauges in South Korea, and their applicability was examined in this study. In particular, the informative prior distributions evaluated via the empirical Bayes method using ten rain gauges were developed in the Bayesian ZIGP model. Finally, it was suggested to avoid using the POI and GPD models to fit the frequency of torrential rainfall data. In addition, it was concluded that the Bayesian ZIGP model used in this study provided the most accurate results for the count data having additional zeros. Moreover, it was recommended that the ZIP model could be an alternative from a practical viewpoint, as the Bayesian approach used in this study was considerably complex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrates in Groundwater Discharges from the Azores Archipelago: Occurrence and Fluxes to Coastal Waters
Water 2017, 9(2), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020125 - 15 Feb 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the [...] Read more.
Groundwater discharge is an important vector of chemical fluxes to the ocean environment, and as the concentration of nutrients is often higher in discharging groundwater, the deterioration of water quality in the receiving environment can be the result. The main objective of the present paper is to estimate the total NO3 flux to coastal water bodies due to groundwater discharge in the volcanic Azores archipelago (Portugal). Therefore, 78 springs discharging from perched-water bodies have been monitored since 2003, corresponding to cold (mean = 14.9 °C) and low mineralized (47.2–583 µS/cm) groundwater from the sodium-bicarbonate to sodium-chloride water types. A set of 36 wells was also monitored, presenting groundwater with a higher mineralization. The nitrate content in springs range between 0.02 and 37.4 mg/L, and the most enriched samples are associated to the impact of agricultural activities. The total groundwater NO3 flux to the ocean is estimated in the range of 5.23 × 103 to 190.6 × 103 mol/km2/a (∑ = ~523 × 103 mol/km2/a), exceeding the total flux associated to surface runoff (∑ = ~281 × 103 mol/km2/a). In the majority of the islands, the estimated fluxes are higher than runoff fluxes, with the exception of Pico (47.2%), Corvo (46%) and Faial (7.2%). The total N-NO3 flux estimated in the Azores (~118.9 × 103 mol/km2/a) is in the lower range of estimates made in other volcanic islands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decoupling Water Consumption and Environmental Impact on Textile Industry by Using Water Footprint Method: A Case Study in China
Water 2017, 9(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020124 - 15 Feb 2017
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3384
Abstract
The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020). The premise of sustainable development [...] Read more.
The rapid development of China’s textile industry has led to consumption and pollution of large volumes of water. Therefore, the textile industry has been the focus of water conservation and waste reduction in China’s 13th Five-Year Plan (2016–2020). The premise of sustainable development is to achieve decoupling of economic growth from water consumption and wastewater discharge. In this work, changes in the blue water footprint, grey water footprint, and the total water footprint of the textile industry from 2001 to 2014 were calculated. The relationship between water footprint and economic growth was then examined using the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, factors influencing water footprint were determined through logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Results show that the water footprint of China’s textile industry has strongly decoupled for five years (2003, 2006, 2008, 2011, and 2013) and weakly decoupled for four years (2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010). A decoupling trend occurred during 2001–2014, but a steady stage of decoupling had not been achieved yet. Based on the decomposition analysis, the total water footprint mainly increased along with the production scale. On the contrary, technical level is the most important factor in inhibiting the water footprint. In addition, the effect of industrial structure adjustment is relatively weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessEditorial
Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective: An Introduction
Water 2017, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020122 - 14 Feb 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
Lakes all around the globe are under severe pressure due to an increasing anthropogenic impact from a growing population in a more developed world. Accordingly, today, many lakes are highly eutrophic and suffer from severe blooms of often toxic cyanobacteria and may become [...] Read more.
Lakes all around the globe are under severe pressure due to an increasing anthropogenic impact from a growing population in a more developed world. Accordingly, today, many lakes are highly eutrophic and suffer from severe blooms of often toxic cyanobacteria and may become even more eutrophic in the future unless strong lake management actions are taken. Recent research has further shown that global warming and subsequent changes in water use will further exacerbate the eutrophication process in lakes. There is therefore a growing demand for lake restoration and insight into sustainable lake management. The measures to be taken, however, depend on the climate and other local conditions. This special issue addresses lake restoration and management with special emphasis on the restoration of eutrophicated lakes within a climate change perspective. The papers included collectively highlight that the ongoing climate change affects lake water quality by (1) changes in external and internal nutrient loading; (2) higher frequency of extreme events (such as hurricanes); (3) temperature‐induced changes in biota, biotic interactions; and (4) water level. Lower nutrient loading is therefore needed in a future warmer world to achieve the same ecological state as today. Several papers discuss lake restoration methods within a climate change perspective and show practical results, notably of various attempts of biomanipulation. Finally, some papers discuss the effects of other anthropogenic stressors and their interaction with climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
The June 2016 Australian East Coast Low: Importance of Wave Direction for Coastal Erosion Assessment
Water 2017, 9(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020121 - 14 Feb 2017
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3859
Abstract
In June 2016, an unusual East Coast Low storm affected some 2000 km of the eastern seaboard of Australia bringing heavy rain, strong winds and powerful wave conditions. While wave heights offshore of Sydney were not exceptional, nearshore wave conditions were such that [...] Read more.
In June 2016, an unusual East Coast Low storm affected some 2000 km of the eastern seaboard of Australia bringing heavy rain, strong winds and powerful wave conditions. While wave heights offshore of Sydney were not exceptional, nearshore wave conditions were such that beaches experienced some of the worst erosion in 40 years. Hydrodynamic modelling of wave and current behaviour as well as contemporaneous sand transport shows the east to north-east storm wave direction to be the major determinant of erosion magnitude. This arises because of reduced energy attenuation across the continental shelf and the focussing of wave energy on coastal sections not equilibrated with such wave exposure under the prevailing south-easterly wave climate. Narrabeen–Collaroy, a well-known erosion hot spot on Sydney’s Northern Beaches, is shown to be particularly vulnerable to storms from this direction because the destructive erosion potential is amplified by the influence of the local embayment geometry. We demonstrate the magnified erosion response that occurs when there is bi-directionality between an extreme wave event and preceding modal conditions and the importance of considering wave direction in extreme value analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters) Printed Edition available
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