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Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

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Interdisciplinary Centre for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
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Kobe City College of Nursing, Kobe City, Hyogo 651-2103, Japan
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The Small Earth Nepal, Tripureshowr, P O Box 20533, Kathmandu, Nepal
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Center for Integrated Urban Development, Sanepa, Lalitpur, GPO 8975, EPC 1916 Kathmandu, Nepal
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School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
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Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y. Jun Xu
Water 2017, 9(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030222
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Information regarding domestic water consumption is vital, as the Kathmandu Valley will soon be implementing the Melamchi Water Supply Project; however, updated information on the current situation after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake (GEQ) is still lacking. We investigated the dynamics of domestic water consumption pre- and post-GEQ. The piped water supply was short, and consumption varied widely across the Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) branches and altitude. The reduction in piped, ground, and jar water consumption and the increase in tanker water consumption post-GEQ appeared to be due to the impact of the GEQ. However, the impact did not appear to be prominent on per capita water consumption, although it was reduced from 117 to 99 L post-GEQ. Piped, ground, and tanker water use were associated with an increase and jar water use was associated with a decrease in water consumption. Despite improvements in quantity, inequality in water consumption and inequity in affordability across wealth status was well established. This study suggests to KUKL the areas of priority where improvements to supply are required, and recommends an emphasis on resuming performance. Policy planners should consider the existing inequity in affordability, which is a major issue in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. View Full-Text
Keywords: domestic water consumption; per capita water consumption (LPCD); water supply; water sources; water cost; earthquake; Kathmandu Valley domestic water consumption; per capita water consumption (LPCD); water supply; water sources; water cost; earthquake; Kathmandu Valley
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shrestha, S.; Aihara, Y.; Bhattarai, A.P.; Bista, N.; Rajbhandari, S.; Kondo, N.; Kazama, F.; Nishida, K.; Shindo, J. Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. Water 2017, 9, 222.

AMA Style

Shrestha S, Aihara Y, Bhattarai AP, Bista N, Rajbhandari S, Kondo N, Kazama F, Nishida K, Shindo J. Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. Water. 2017; 9(3):222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shrestha, Sadhana; Aihara, Yoko; Bhattarai, Arun Prasad; Bista, Niranjan; Rajbhandari, Sudarshan; Kondo, Naoki; Kazama, Futaba; Nishida, Kei; Shindo, Junko. 2017. "Dynamics of Domestic Water Consumption in the Urban Area of the Kathmandu Valley: Situation Analysis Pre and Post 2015 Gorkha Earthquake" Water 9, no. 3: 222.

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