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Special Issue "Integrated Soil and Water Management: Selected Papers from 2016 International SWAT Conference"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Karim Abbaspour

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstr. 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41 58 765 5359
Interests: watershed modeling; calibration/uncertainty analysis; large-scale simulations; climate/landuse change impact studies; development of system tools
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raghavan Srinivasan

Spatial Science Lab, Ecosystem Science and Management and Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: SWAT, hydrologic and water quality modeling, climate change, ecosystem services
Guest Editor
Dr. Saeid Ashraf Vaghefi

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstr. 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41 58 765 5358
Interests: climate change; watershed modeling; model development; drought/flood analysis; dam operation optimization; landuse change impact analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Monireh Faramarzi

University of Alberta, 11455 Saskatchewan, Drive Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 780 492 5196
Interests: watershed modeling; water resources management; hydrology; crop modeling; climate change analysis
Guest Editor
Dr. Lei Chen

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nonpoint source pollution; watershed modeling; decision support system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil and water are two key life-susstaining resources on Earth. If not protected, both elements will become humanity’s worst nightmares. Uncontrolable water flows, polluted water, and lack of water on the one hand, and infertile soils, polluted soils, duststorms, and topsoil erosion, on the other hand, can wreak havoc on human life and threaten its very existance. Ensuing dangers from climate change and populatoin growth will further strain these resources. To stop a nighmare scenario from happening, our only way is to manage these prized resources. Modeling programs, such as SWAT, are valuable tools in finding ways of combating food and water insecurity, and mitigating the impact of climate change and growing demands of resources. This Special Issue of Water is designed to show the results of analyses of scientists from all over the world in dealing with various environmental problems. The papers here are selected from the works presented at the 16th International SWAT conference held in Beijng. The information and analyses are intended to contribute to the development and implementation of effective soil and water manegement programs.

Dr. Karim Abbaspour
Prof. Dr. Raghavan Srinivasan
Dr. Saeid Ashraf Vaghefi
Dr. Monireh Faramarzi
Dr. Lei Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Climate change impact
  • Watershed management
  • Modeling, Calibration/Uncertainty
  • Water balance
  • Conservation practices
  • Water quality
  • Large-scale modeling

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial
A Guideline for Successful Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis for Soil and Water Assessment: A Review of Papers from the 2016 International SWAT Conference
Water 2018, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010006
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (3238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Application of integrated hydrological models to manage a watershed’s water resources are increasingly finding their way into the decision-making processes. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a multi-process model integrating hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and water quality. SWAT is a continuation of [...] Read more.
Application of integrated hydrological models to manage a watershed’s water resources are increasingly finding their way into the decision-making processes. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a multi-process model integrating hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and water quality. SWAT is a continuation of nearly 40 years of modeling efforts conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS). A large number of SWAT-related papers have appeared in ISI journals, building a world-wide consensus around the model’s stability and usefulness. The current issue is a collection of the latest research using SWAT as the modeling tool. Most models must undergo calibration/validation and uncertainty analysis. Unfortunately, these sciences are not formal subjects of teaching in most universities and the students are often left to their own resources to calibrate their model. In this paper, we focus on calibration and uncertainty analysis highlighting some serious issues in the calibration of distributed models. A protocol for calibration is also highlighted to guide the users to obtain better modeling results. Finally, a summary of the papers published in this special issue is provided in the Appendix. Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Water-Resources Potential of Istanbul by Using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Hydrological Model
Water 2017, 9(10), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100814
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components [...] Read more.
Uncertainties due to climate change and population growth have created a critical situation for many megacities. Investigating spatio-temporal variability of water resources is, therefore, a critical initial step for water-resource management. This paper is a first study on the evaluation of water-budget components of water resources in Istanbul using a high-resolution hydrological model. In this work, the water resources of Istanbul and surrounding watersheds were modeled using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which is a continuous-time, semi-distributed, process-based model. The SWAT-CUP program was used for calibration/validation of the model with uncertainty analysis using the SUFI-2 algorithm over the period 1977–2013 at 25 gauge stations. The results reveal that the annual blue-water potential of Istanbul is 3.5 billion m3, whereas the green-water flow and storage are 2.9 billion m3 and 0.7 billion m3, respectively. Watersheds located on the Asian side of the Istanbul megacity yield more blue-water resources compared to the European side, and constitute 75% of the total potential water resources. The model highlights the water potential of the city under current circumstances and gives an insight into its spatial distribution over the region. This study provides a strong basis for forthcoming studies concerning better water-resources management practices, climate change and water-quality studies, as well as other socio-economic scenario analyses in the region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simulating Climate Change Induced Thermal Stress in Coldwater Fish Habitat Using SWAT Model
Water 2017, 9(10), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100732
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5446 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflows will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate historical [...] Read more.
Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflows will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate historical streamflow and stream temperatures within three forested, baseflow-driven watersheds in Rhode Island, USA followed by simulations of future climate scenarios for comparison. Low greenhouse gas emission scenarios are based on the 2007 International Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B1 scenario and the high emissions are based on the SRES A1fi scenario. The output data are analyzed to identify daily occurrences where brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are exposed to stressful events, defined herein as any day where Q25 or Q75 flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C. Results indicate that under both high- and low-emission greenhouse gas scenarios, coldwater fish species such as brook trout will be increasingly exposed to stressful events. The percent chance of stressful event occurrence increased by an average of 6.5% under low-emission scenarios and by 14.2% under high-emission scenarios relative to the historical simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Uncertainty of Multiple Input Datasets in the Prediction of Water Resource Components
Water 2017, 9(9), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090709
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A large number of local and global databases for soil, land use, crops, and climate are now available from different sources, which often differ, even when addressing the same spatial and temporal resolutions. As the correct database is unknown, their impact on estimating [...] Read more.
A large number of local and global databases for soil, land use, crops, and climate are now available from different sources, which often differ, even when addressing the same spatial and temporal resolutions. As the correct database is unknown, their impact on estimating water resource components (WRC) has mostly been ignored. Here, we study the uncertainty stemming from the use of multiple databases and their impacts on WRC estimates such as blue water and soil water for the Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in Iran. Four climate databases and two land use maps were used to build multiple configurations of the KRB model using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), which were similarly calibrated against monthly river discharges. We classified the configurations based on their calibration performances and estimated WRC for each one. The results showed significant differences in WRC estimates, even in models of the same class i.e., with similar performance after calibration. We concluded that a non-negligible level of uncertainty stems from the availability of different sources of input data. As the use of any one database among several produces questionable outputs, it is prudent for modelers to pay more attention to the selection of input data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Combined Effects of Threshold Selection and Parameter Estimation of Generalized Pareto Distribution with Applications to Flood Frequency Analysis
Water 2017, 9(9), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090692
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 10 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Floods are costly natural disasters that are projected to increase in severity and frequency into the future. Exceedances over a high threshold and analysis of their distributions, as determined through the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method and approximated by a Generalized Pareto Distribution [...] Read more.
Floods are costly natural disasters that are projected to increase in severity and frequency into the future. Exceedances over a high threshold and analysis of their distributions, as determined through the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method and approximated by a Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), respectively, are widely used for flood frequency analysis. This study investigates the combined effects of threshold selection and GPD parameter estimation on the accuracy of flood quantile estimates, and develops a new, widely-applicable framework that significantly improves the accuracy of flood quantile estimations. First, the performance of several parameter estimators (i.e., Maximum Likelihood; Probability Weighted Moments; Maximum Goodness of Fit; Likelihood Moment; Modified Likelihood Moment; and Nonlinear Weighted Least Square Error) for the GPD was compared through Monte Carlo simulation. Then, a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for the province of Alberta, Canada, was used to reproduce daily streamflow series for 47 watersheds distributed across the province, and the POT was applied to each. The Goodness of Fit for the resulting flood frequency models was measured by the upper tail Anderson-Darling (AD) test and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and demonstrated improvements for more than one-third of stations by averages of 65% (AD) and 47% (RMSE), respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Thermally Stressful Events in a Rhode Island Coldwater Fish Habitat Using the SWAT Model
Water 2017, 9(9), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9090667
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, [...] Read more.
It has become increasingly important to recognize historical water quality trends so that the future impacts of climate change may be better understood. Climate studies have suggested that inland stream temperatures and average streamflow will increase over the next century in New England, thereby putting aquatic species sustained by coldwater habitats at risk. In this study we evaluated two different approaches for modeling historical streamflow and stream temperature in a Rhode Island, USA, watershed with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), using (i) original SWAT and (ii) SWAT plus a hydroclimatological model component that considers both hydrological inputs and air temperature. Based on daily calibration results with six years of measured streamflow and four years of stream temperature data, we examined occurrences of stressful conditions for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) using the hydroclimatological model. SWAT with the hydroclimatological component improved modestly during calibration (NSE of 0.93, R2 of 0.95) compared to the original SWAT (NSE of 0.83, R2 of 0.93). Between 1980–2009, the number of stressful events, a moment in time where high or low flows occur simultaneously with stream temperatures exceeding 21 °C, increased by 55% and average streamflow increased by 60%. This study supports using the hydroclimatological SWAT component and provides an example method for assessing stressful conditions in southern New England’s coldwater habitats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Nitrogen Inputs into Hunt River by Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems via SWAT Simulation
Water 2017, 9(8), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080610
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is difficult to effectively model in groundwater systems. This study aims to elucidate anthropogenic nonpoint source pollution discharging into Potowomut Pond and ultimately Narragansett Bay. Hydrologic modeling with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty [...] Read more.
Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is difficult to effectively model in groundwater systems. This study aims to elucidate anthropogenic nonpoint source pollution discharging into Potowomut Pond and ultimately Narragansett Bay. Hydrologic modeling with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Program (SWAT-CUP) was used to simulate streamflow and nitrogen levels in the Hunt River with and without onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). The objective of this study was to determine how input of OWTS data impacts nitrogen loading into the Hunt River Watershed in Rhode Island, USA. The model was simulated from 2006 to 2014, calibrated from 2007 to 2011 and validated from 2012 to 2014. Observed streamflow data was sourced from a US Geological Survey gauge and nitrogen loading data from University of Rhode Island Watershed Watch (URIWW). From the results, adding OWTS data to the SWAT simulation produced a better calibration and validation fit for total fit (Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) = 0.50 calibration, 0.78 validation) when compared with SWAT simulation without OWTS data (NSE = −1.3 calibration, −6.95) validation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Resources of the Black Sea Catchment under Future Climate and Landuse Change Projections
Water 2017, 9(8), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080598
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As water resources become further stressed due to increasing levels of societal demand, understanding the effect of climate and landuse change on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance. In this study we used a previously developed hydrologic model of [...] Read more.
As water resources become further stressed due to increasing levels of societal demand, understanding the effect of climate and landuse change on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance. In this study we used a previously developed hydrologic model of the Black Sea Catchment (BSC) to assess the impact of potential climate and landuse changes on the fresh water availability. The BSC model was built, calibrated, and validated against observed daily river discharge for the period of 1973–2006 using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) as the modeling tool. We employed the A2 and B2 scenarios of 2017–2050 generated by the Danish Regional Climate Model (HIRHAM), and four potential future landuse scenarios based on the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC)’s special report on emissions scenarios (SRES) storylines, to analyze the impact of climate change and landuse change on the water resources of the BSC. The detailed modeling and the ensemble of the scenarios showed that a substantial part of the catchment will likely experience a decrease in freshwater resources by 30 to 50%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of SWAT and GWLF Model Simulation Performance in Humid South and Semi-Arid North of China
Water 2017, 9(8), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080567
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Watershed models have gradually been adapted to support both decision and policy making for global environmental pollution control. In this study, two watershed models with different complexity, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF), were applied [...] Read more.
Watershed models have gradually been adapted to support both decision and policy making for global environmental pollution control. In this study, two watershed models with different complexity, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF), were applied in two catchments in data scarce China, namely the Tunxi and the Hanjiaying basins with contrasting climatic conditions (humid and semi-arid, respectively). The performances of both models were assessed via comparison between simulated and measured monthly streamflow, sediment yield, and total nitrogen. Time series plots as well as four statistical measures (the coefficient of determination (R2), the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and RMSE (root mean square error)—observations standard deviation ratio (RSR)) were used to estimate the performance of both models. The results show that both models were generally able to simulate monthly streamflow, sediment, and total nitrogen loadings during the simulation period. However, SWAT performed better for detailed representations, while GWLF could produce much better average values of the observed data. Thus, GWLF offers a user-friendly prospective alternative watershed model that requires little input data and that is applicable for areas where the input data required for SWAT are not always available. SWAT is more suitable for projects that require high accuracy and offers an advantage when measured data are scarce. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Fate and Transport of Malathion in the Pagsanjan-Lumban Basin, Philippines
Water 2017, 9(7), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070451
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to highly toxic pesticides could potentially cause cancer and disrupt the development of vital systems. Monitoring activities were performed to assess the level of contamination; however, these were costly, laborious, and short-term leading to insufficient monitoring data. However, the performance of the [...] Read more.
Exposure to highly toxic pesticides could potentially cause cancer and disrupt the development of vital systems. Monitoring activities were performed to assess the level of contamination; however, these were costly, laborious, and short-term leading to insufficient monitoring data. However, the performance of the existing Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) can be restricted by its two-phase partitioning approach, which is inadequate when it comes to simulating pesticides with limited dataset. This study developed a modified SWAT pesticide model to address these challenges. The modified model considered the three-phase partitioning model that classifies the pesticide into three forms: dissolved, particle-bound, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated pesticide. The addition of DOC-associated pesticide particles increases the scope of the pesticide model by also considering the adherence of pesticides to the organic carbon in the soil. The modified SWAT and original SWAT pesticide model was applied to the Pagsanjan-Lumban (PL) basin, a highly agricultural region. Malathion was chosen as the target pesticide since it is commonly used in the basin. The pesticide models simulated the fate and transport of malathion in the PL basin and showed the temporal pattern of selected subbasins. The sensitivity analyses revealed that application efficiency and settling velocity were the most sensitive parameters for the original and modified SWAT model, respectively. Degradation of particulate-phase malathion were also significant to both models. The rate of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values showed that the modified model (R2 = 0.52; NSE = 0.36) gave a slightly better performance compared to the original (R2 = 0.39; NSE = 0.18). Results from this study will be able to aid the government and private agriculture sectors to have an in-depth understanding in managing pesticide usage in agricultural watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Station Based Climate Database for SWAT and APEX Assessments in the US
Water 2017, 9(6), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060437
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 17 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily [...] Read more.
Water quality simulation models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy EXtender (APEX) are widely used in the US. These models require large amounts of spatial and tabular data to simulate the natural world. Accurate and seamless daily climatic data are critical for accurate depiction of the hydrologic cycle, yet these data are among the most difficult to obtain and process. In this paper we describe the development of a national (US) database of preprocessed climate data derived from monitoring stations applicable to USGS 12-digit watersheds. Various sources and processing methods are explored and discussed. A relatively simple method was employed to choose representative stations for each of the 83,000 12-digit watersheds in the continental US. Fully processed climate data resulting from this research were published online to facilitate other SWAT and APEX modeling efforts in the US. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using Modeling Tools to Better Understand Permafrost Hydrology
Water 2017, 9(6), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060418
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modification of the hydrological cycle and, subsequently, of other global cycles is expected in Arctic watersheds owing to global change. Future climate scenarios imply widespread permafrost degradation caused by an increase in air temperature, and the expected effect on permafrost hydrology is immense. [...] Read more.
Modification of the hydrological cycle and, subsequently, of other global cycles is expected in Arctic watersheds owing to global change. Future climate scenarios imply widespread permafrost degradation caused by an increase in air temperature, and the expected effect on permafrost hydrology is immense. This study aims at analyzing, and quantifying the daily water transfer in the largest Arctic river system, the Yenisei River in central Siberia, Russia, partially underlain by permafrost. The semi-distributed SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrological model has been calibrated and validated at a daily time step in historical discharge simulations for the 2003–2014 period. The model parameters have been adjusted to embrace the hydrological features of permafrost. SWAT is shown capable to estimate water fluxes at a daily time step, especially during unfrozen periods, once are considered specific climatic and soils conditions adapted to a permafrost watershed. The model simulates average annual contribution to runoff of 263 millimeters per year (mm yr−1) distributed as 152 mm yr−1 (58%) of surface runoff, 103 mm yr−1 (39%) of lateral flow and 8 mm yr−1 (3%) of return flow from the aquifer. These results are integrated on a reduced basin area downstream from large dams and are closer to observations than previous modeling exercises. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity of Calibrated Parameters and Water Resource Estimates on Different Objective Functions and Optimization Algorithms
Water 2017, 9(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9060384
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3980 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The successful application of hydrological models relies on careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. However, there are many different calibration/uncertainty analysis algorithms, and each could be run with different objective functions. In this paper, we highlight the fact that each combination of optimization algorithm-objective [...] Read more.
The successful application of hydrological models relies on careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. However, there are many different calibration/uncertainty analysis algorithms, and each could be run with different objective functions. In this paper, we highlight the fact that each combination of optimization algorithm-objective functions may lead to a different set of optimum parameters, while having the same performance; this makes the interpretation of dominant hydrological processes in a watershed highly uncertain. We used three different optimization algorithms (SUFI-2, GLUE, and PSO), and eight different objective functions (R2, bR2, NSE, MNS, RSR, SSQR, KGE, and PBIAS) in a SWAT model to calibrate the monthly discharges in two watersheds in Iran. The results show that all three algorithms, using the same objective function, produced acceptable calibration results; however, with significantly different parameter ranges. Similarly, an algorithm using different objective functions also produced acceptable calibration results, but with different parameter ranges. The different calibrated parameter ranges consequently resulted in significantly different water resource estimates. Hence, the parameters and the outputs that they produce in a calibrated model are “conditioned” on the choices of the optimization algorithm and objective function. This adds another level of non-negligible uncertainty to watershed models, calling for more attention and investigation in this area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Various Low-Impact Development Scenarios for Optimal Design Criteria Development
Water 2017, 9(4), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040270
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Low-impact development (LID) practices as a new approach to urban stormwater management have demonstrated their positive effects through the reduction of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings in a substantial amount of research. The effectiveness of LID practices can be affected by various [...] Read more.
Low-impact development (LID) practices as a new approach to urban stormwater management have demonstrated their positive effects through the reduction of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings in a substantial amount of research. The effectiveness of LID practices can be affected by various LID conditions such as type, location, and area. Cost is also an important factor to be considered in the evaluation of LID effects. This study presented the optimal LID conditions that can achieve targeted reduction goals with minimal cost, and analyzed the effectiveness of LID practices under optimal LID conditions and the consequential cost on a watershed scale. To determine cost-effective LID conditions, three types of LID practices (rain gardens, rainwater harvesting tanks, and permeable pavements), two locations (residential and commercial areas), and percent allocation of LID practices were considered. Manual optimization was conducted under those LID conditions for five targeted reduction goals which were set for surface runoff and nutrient loadings. The results provided various configurations of cost-effective conditions in treating the targeted goals, and represented the impacts of the optimized LID conditions on the effectiveness of LID practices and the consequential cost. The present study could ultimately assist regulators in establishing proper watershed-scale strategies of LID conditions for effectively managing watersheds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Flood Frequency Alteration by Dam Construction via SWAT Simulation
Water 2017, 9(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040264
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (7759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the upstream Soyanggang and Chungju multi-purpose dams on the frequency of downstream floods in the Han River basin, South Korea. A continuous hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), was used [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the upstream Soyanggang and Chungju multi-purpose dams on the frequency of downstream floods in the Han River basin, South Korea. A continuous hydrological model, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), was used to individually simulate regulated and unregulated daily streamflows entering the Paldang Dam, which is located at the outlet of the basin of interest. The simulation of the regulated flows by the Soyanggang and Chungju dams was calibrated with observed inflow data to the Paldang Dam. The estimated daily flood peaks were used for a frequency analysis, using the extreme Type-I distribution, for which the parameters were estimated via the L-moment method. This novel approach was applied to the study area to assess the effects of the dams on downstream floods. From the results, the two upstream dams were found to be able to reduce downstream floods by approximately 31% compared to naturally occurring floods without dam regulation. Furthermore, an approach to estimate the flood frequency based on the hourly extreme peak flow data, obtained by combining SWAT simulation and Sangal’s method, was proposed and then verified by comparison with the observation-based results. The increased percentage of floods estimated with hourly simulated data for the three scenarios of dam regulation ranged from 16.1% to 44.1%. The reduced percentages were a little higher than those for the daily-based flood frequency estimates. The developed approach allowed for better understanding of flood frequency, as influenced by dam regulation on a relatively large watershed scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Urban Non-Point Source Pollution from Baoding City on Baiyangdian Lake, China
Water 2017, 9(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040249
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, urban non‐point source pollution has become a serious problem encountered worldwide. This study investigated and analyzed the characteristics of non‐point source pollution in Baoding City. [...] Read more.
Due to the high density of buildings and low quality of the drainage pipe network in the city, urban non‐point source pollution has become a serious problem encountered worldwide. This study investigated and analyzed the characteristics of non‐point source pollution in Baoding City. A simulation model for non‐point source pollution was developed based on the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), and, the process of non‐point source pollution was simulated for Baoding City. The data was calibrated using data from two observed rainfall events (25.6 and 25.4 mm, the total rainfall on 31 July 2008 (07312008) was 25.6 mm, the total rainfall amount on 21 August 2008 (08212008) was 25.4 mm) and validated using data from an observed rainfall event (92.6 mm, the total rainfall on 08102008 was 92.6 mm) (Our monitoring data is limited by the lack of long‐term monitoring, but it can meet the requests of model calibration and validation basically). In order to analyze the effects of non‐point source pollution on Baiyangdian Lake, the characteristics and development trends of water pollution were determined using a one‐dimensional water quality model for Baoding City. The results showed that the pollutant loads for Pb, Zn, TN (Total Nitrogen), and TP (Total Phosphorus) accounted for about 30% of the total amount of pollutant load. Finally, applicable control measures for non‐point source pollution especially for Baoding were suggested, including urban rainwater and flood resources utilization and Best Management Practices (BMPs) for urban non‐point source pollution control. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Multilevel Drought Hazard Assessment under Climate Change Scenarios in Semi-Arid Regions—A Case Study of the Karkheh River Basin in Iran
Water 2017, 9(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040241
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
Studies using Drought Hazard Indices (DHIs) have been performed at various scales, but few studies associated DHIs of different drought types with climate change scenarios. To highlight the regional differences in droughts at meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural levels, we utilized historic [...] Read more.
Studies using Drought Hazard Indices (DHIs) have been performed at various scales, but few studies associated DHIs of different drought types with climate change scenarios. To highlight the regional differences in droughts at meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural levels, we utilized historic and future DHIs derived from the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Runoff Index (SRI), and Standardized Soil Water Index (SSWI), respectively. To calculate SPI, SRI, and SSWI, we used a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in Iran. Five bias-corrected Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios projected future climate. For each drought type, we aggregated drought severity and occurrence probability rate of each index into a unique DHI. Five historic droughts were identified with different characteristics in each type. Future projections indicated a higher probability of severe and extreme drought intensities for all three types. The duration and frequency of droughts were predicted to decrease in precipitation-based SPI. However, due to the impact of rising temperature, the duration and frequency of SRI and SSWI were predicted to intensify. The DHI maps of KRB illustrated the highest agricultural drought exposures. Our analyses provide a comprehensive way to monitor multilevel droughts complementing the existing approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Three Long-Term Gridded Climate Products for Hydro-Climatic Simulations in Tropical River Basins
Water 2017, 9(3), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030229
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
Gridded climate products (GCPs) provide a potential source for representing weather in remote, poor quality or short-term observation regions. The accuracy of three long-term GCPs (Asian Precipitation—Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources: APHRODITE, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using [...] Read more.
Gridded climate products (GCPs) provide a potential source for representing weather in remote, poor quality or short-term observation regions. The accuracy of three long-term GCPs (Asian Precipitation—Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources: APHRODITE, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network-Climate Data Record: PERSIANN-CDR and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis: NCEP-CFSR) was analyzed for the Kelantan River Basin (KRB) and Johor River Basin (JRB) in Malaysia from 1983 to 2007. Then, these GCPs were used as inputs into calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models, to assess their capability in simulating streamflow. The results show that the APHRODITE data performed the best in precipitation estimation, followed by the PERSIANN-CDR and NCEP-CFSR datasets. The NCEP-CFSR daily maximum temperature data exhibited a better correlation than the minimum temperature data. For streamflow simulations, the APHRODITE data resulted in strong results for both basins, while the NCEP-CFSR data showed unsatisfactory performance. In contrast, the PERSIANN-CDR data showed acceptable representation of observed streamflow in the KRB, but failed to track the JRB observed streamflow. The combination of the APHRODITE precipitation and NCEP-CFSR temperature data resulted in accurate streamflow simulations. The APHRODITE and PERSIANN-CDR data often underestimated the extreme precipitation and streamflow, while the NCEP-CFSR data produced dramatic overestimations. Therefore, a direct application of NCEP-CFSR data should be avoided in this region. We recommend the use of APHRODITE precipitation and NCEP-CFSR temperature data in modeling of Malaysian water resources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating the Impact of Low Impact Development (LID) Practices on Water Quantity and Quality under Different Development Designs Using SWAT
Water 2017, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030193
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
The effects of Low Impact Development (LID) practices on urban runoff and pollutants have proven to be positive in many studies. However, the effectiveness of LID practices can vary depending on different urban patterns. In the present study, the performance of LID practices [...] Read more.
The effects of Low Impact Development (LID) practices on urban runoff and pollutants have proven to be positive in many studies. However, the effectiveness of LID practices can vary depending on different urban patterns. In the present study, the performance of LID practices was explored under three land uses with different urban forms: (1) a compact high-density urban form; (2) a conventional medium-density urban form; and (3) a conservational medium-density urban form. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to reflect hydrologic behavior by the application of LID practices. Rain gardens, permeable pavements, and rainwater harvesting tanks were considered for simulations, and a modeling procedure for the representation of LID practices in SWAT was specifically illustrated in this context. Simulations were done for each land use, and the results were compared and evaluated. The application of LID practices demonstrated a decrease in surface runoff and pollutant loadings for all land uses, and different reductions were represented in response to the land uses with different urban forms on a watershed scale. In addition, the results among post-LIDs scenarios generally showed lower values for surface runoff and nitrate in the compact high-density urban land use and for total phosphorus in the conventional medium-density urban land use compared to the other land uses. We suggest effective strategies for implementing LID practices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence Mechanisms of Rainfall and Terrain Characteristics on Total Nitrogen Losses from Regosol
Water 2017, 9(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030167
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
The upper reach of the Yangtze River is an ecologically sensitive region where water loss, soil erosion, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are serious issues. In this drainage area, regosol is the most widely distributed soil type. Cultivation on regosol is extensive and [...] Read more.
The upper reach of the Yangtze River is an ecologically sensitive region where water loss, soil erosion, and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are serious issues. In this drainage area, regosol is the most widely distributed soil type. Cultivation on regosol is extensive and total nitrogen (TN) has become a common NPS pollutant. Artificial rainfall experiments were conducted to reveal the influence mechanisms of rainfall and terrain on TN losses from regosol. The results showed that there were positive correlations between precipitations and TN loads but negative ones between precipitations and TN concentrations. Furthermore, negative correlations were more obvious on fields with slopes of 5° and 25° than on other slopes. With increasing rainfall intensity, TN loads rose simultaneously. However, TN concentration in runoff-yielding time presented a decline over time. As far as terrain was concerned, TN loads grew generally but not limitlessly when slopes increased. Similarly, TN concentrations also rose with rising slopes; upward trends were more obvious for steeper slopes. Furthermore, the initial runoff-yielding time became longer for steeper slopes and the differences under various rainfall intensity conditions diminished gradually. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Crop Water Productivity Using a Coupled SWAT–MODSIM Model
Water 2017, 9(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030157
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic [...] Read more.
This study examines the water productivity of irrigated wheat and maize yields in Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in the semi-arid region of Iran using a coupled modeling approach consisting of the hydrological model (SWAT) and the river basin water allocation model (MODSIM). Dynamic irrigation requirements instead of constant time series of demand were considered. As the cereal production of KRB plays a major role in supplying the food market of Iran, it is necessary to understand the crop yield-water relations for irrigated wheat and maize in the lower part of KRB (LKRB) where most of the irrigated agricultural plains are located. Irrigated wheat and maize yields (Y) and consumptive water use (AET) were modeled with uncertainty analysis at a subbasin level for 1990–2010. Simulated Y and AET were used to calculate crop water productivity (CWP). The coupled SWAT–MODSIM approach improved the accuracy of SWAT outputs by considering the water allocation derived from MODSIM. The results indicated that the highest CWP across this region was 1.31 kg·m−3 and 1.13 kg·m−3 for wheat and maize, respectively; and the lowest was less than 0.62 kg·m−3 and 0.58 kg·m−3. A close linear relationship was found for CWP and yield. The results showed a continuing increase for AET over the years while CWP peaks and then declines. This is evidence of the existence of a plateau in CWP as AET continues to increase and evidence of the fact that higher AET does not necessarily result in a higher yield. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Climate Change on Hydrology, Sediment and Nutrient Losses in Two Lowland Catchments in Poland
Water 2017, 9(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030156
Received: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Future climate change is projected to have significant impact on water resources availability and quality in many parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of projected climate change on water quantity and quality in two lowland [...] Read more.
Future climate change is projected to have significant impact on water resources availability and quality in many parts of the world. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of projected climate change on water quantity and quality in two lowland catchments (the Upper Narew and the Barycz) in Poland in two future periods (near future: 2021–2050, and far future: 2071– 2100). The hydrological model SWAT was driven by climate forcing data from an ensemble of nine bias-corrected General Circulation Models—Regional Climate Models (GCM-RCM) runs based on the Coordinated Downscaling Experiment—European Domain (EURO-CORDEX). Hydrological response to climate warming and wetter conditions (particularly in winter and spring) in both catchments includes: lower snowmelt, increased percolation and baseflow and higher runoff. Seasonal differences in the response between catchments can be explained by their properties (e.g., different thermal conditions and soil permeability). Projections suggest only moderate increases in sediment loss, occurring mainly in summer and winter. A sharper increase is projected in both catchments for TN losses, especially in the Barycz catchment characterized by a more intensive agriculture. The signal of change in annual TP losses is blurred by climate model uncertainty in the Barycz catchment, whereas a weak and uncertain increase is projected in the Upper Narew catchment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using SWAT and Fuzzy TOPSIS to Assess the Impact of Climate Change in the Headwaters of the Segura River Basin (SE Spain)
Water 2017, 9(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020149
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. [...] Read more.
The Segura River Basin is one of the most water-stressed basins in Mediterranean Europe. If we add to the actual situation that most climate change projections forecast important decreases in water resource availability in the Mediterranean region, the situation will become totally unsustainable. This study assessed the impact of climate change in the headwaters of the Segura River Basin using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data from two Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the medium term (2041–2070) and the long term (2071–2100) under two emission scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Bias correction was performed using the distribution mapping approach. The fuzzy TOPSIS technique was applied to rank a set of nine GCM–RCM combinations, choosing the climate models with a higher relative closeness. The study results show that the SWAT performed satisfactorily for both calibration (NSE = 0.80) and validation (NSE = 0.77) periods. Comparing the long-term and baseline (1971–2000) periods, precipitation showed a negative trend between 6% and 32%, whereas projected annual mean temperatures demonstrated an estimated increase of 1.5–3.3 °C. Water resources were estimated to experience a decrease of 2%–54%. These findings provide local water management authorities with very useful information in the face of climate change. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Leakage and Nitrate Leaching Characteristics in the Winter Wheat–Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain under Different Irrigation and Fertilization Management Practices
Water 2017, 9(2), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020141
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP). [...] Read more.
Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP). Two N fertilization (NF1, the traditional one; NF2, fertilization based on soil testing) and two irrigation (IR1, the traditional one; IR2, irrigation based on real-time soil water content monitoring) management practices were designed in the experiments. Water and nitrate amounts leaving the soil layer at a depth of 2.0 m below the soil surface were calculated and compared. Results showed that the IR2 effectively reduced water leakage and nitrate leaching amounts in the two-year period, especially in the winter wheat season. Less than 10 percent irrigation water could be saved in a dry winter wheat season, but about 60 percent could be saved in a wet winter wheat season. Besides, 58.8 percent nitrate under single NF2IR1 and 85.2 percent under NF2IR2 could be prevented from leaching. The IR2 should be considered as the best management practice to save groundwater resources and prevent nitrate from leaching. The amounts of N input play a great role in affecting nitrate concentrations in the soil solutions in the winter wheat–summer maize rotation system. The NF2 significantly reduced N inputs and should be encouraged in ordinary agricultural production. Thus, nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination could be alleviated, but timely N supplement might be needed under high precipitation condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality Using Two Models: HAWQS and US Basins
Water 2017, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020118
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydrologic and Water Quality System; [...] Read more.
Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydrologic and Water Quality System; HAWQS and US Basins), five climate models, and two greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, we assess future water quality in the continental U.S. to 2100 considering four water quality parameters: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Once these parameters are aggregated into a water quality index, we find that, while the water quality models differ under the baseline, there is more agreement between future projections. In addition, we find that the difference in national-scale economic benefits across climate models is generally larger than the difference between the two water quality models. Both water quality models find that water quality will more likely worsen in the East than in the West. Under the business-as-usual emissions scenario, we find that climate change is likely to cause economic impacts ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 (2005 billion USD/year) in 2050 and 2.7 to 4.8 in 2090 across all climate and water quality models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Testing the SWAT Model with Gridded Weather Data of Different Spatial Resolutions
Water 2017, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010054
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study explored the influence of the spatial resolution of a gridded weather dataset when inputted in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) over the Garonne River watershed. Several datasets are compared: ground-based weather stations, the 8-km SAFRAN product (Système d’Analyse Fournissant [...] Read more.
This study explored the influence of the spatial resolution of a gridded weather dataset when inputted in the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) over the Garonne River watershed. Several datasets are compared: ground-based weather stations, the 8-km SAFRAN product (Système d’Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie), the 0.5° CFSR product (Climate Forecasting System Reanalysis) and several derived SAFRAN grids upscaled to 16, 32, 64 and 128 km. The SWAT model, calibrated on weather stations, was successively run with each gridded weather dataset. Performances with SAFRAN up to 64 or 128 km were poor, due to a contraction of the spatial variance of daily precipitation. Performances with 8-km SAFRAN are similar to that of the aggregated 16- and 32-km SAFRAN grids. The ~30-km CFSR product was found to perform well at some sites, while in others, its performance was considerably inferior because of grid points where precipitation was overestimated. The same problem was found in the calibration, where data at some weather stations did not appear to be representative of the subwatershed in which they are used to compute hydrology. These results suggest that the difference in the representation of the climate was more influential than its spatial resolution, an analysis that was confirmed by similar performances obtained with the SWAT model calibrated on the 16- and 32-km SAFRAN grids. However, the better performances obtained from these two weather datasets than from the ground-based stations’ dataset confirmed the advantage of using the SAFRAN product in SWAT modelling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and [...] Read more.
At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET) of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Mitigation Potential of Buffer Strips for Reservoir Sediment Yields: The Itumbiara Hydroelectric Power Plant in Brazil
Water 2016, 8(11), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110489
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soil erosion and deposition mechanisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of both existing reservoirs and newly planned projects. Soil erosion is one of the most important factors influencing sediment transport yields, and, in the context of existing reservoirs, the surrounding watersheds [...] Read more.
Soil erosion and deposition mechanisms play a crucial role in the sustainability of both existing reservoirs and newly planned projects. Soil erosion is one of the most important factors influencing sediment transport yields, and, in the context of existing reservoirs, the surrounding watersheds supply both runoff and sediment yield to the receiving water body. Therefore, appropriate land management strategies are needed to minimize the influence of sediment yields on reservoir volume and, hence, the capacity of power generation. In this context, soil erosion control measures such as buffer strips may provide a practical and low-cost option for large reservoirs, but need to be tested at the catchment scale. This paper represents a study case for the Itumbiara hydroelectric power plant (HPP) in Brazil. Four different scenarios considering radially planted buffer strips of Vetivergrass with widths of 20 m, 40 m, 100 m and 200 m are analyzed. A semi-distributed hydrological model, SWAT, was used to perform the simulations. Results indicate a reduction of sediments transported to the reservoir of between 0.2% and 1.0% per year is possible with buffer strip provision, and that this reduction, over the life of Itumbiara HPP, may prove important for lengthening the productivity of the plant. Full article
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