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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2015) , Pages 1378-2084

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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Orosensory Perception of Oleic Acid, the Common Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the CD36 Gene, and 6-n-Propylthiouracil (PROP) Tasting
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2068-2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032068
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 2 February 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 2838 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of [...] Read more.
Orosensory perception of dietary fat varies in individuals, thus influencing nutritional status. Several studies associated fat detection and preference with CD36 or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity. Other studies have not confirmed the latter association. We analyzed the relationship between orosensory perception of oleic acid, two CD36 variants, and PROP tasting. Thresholds of oleic acid perception were assessed in 64 subjects using a modification of the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. Subjects were classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38 and CD36 (SNPs: rs1761667 and rs1527483). Subjects homozygous for GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism showed higher sensitivity to oleic acid than AA subjects. The capability to detect oleic acid was directly associated with TAS2R38 or PROP responsiveness. PROP non-tasters had a lower papilla density than tasters, and those with genotype GG of the rs1761667 polymorphism had lower oleic acid thresholds than PROP non-tasters with genotype AA. In conclusion, results showed a direct association between orosensory perception of oleic acid and PROP tasting or rs1761667 polymorphism of CD36, which play a significant role in PROP non-tasters, given their low number of taste papillae. Characterization of individual capability to detect fatty acids may have important nutritional implications by explaining variations in human fat preferences. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2061-2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032061
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3258 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed [...] Read more.
A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age). Full article
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Open AccessReview
Can We Translate Vitamin D Immunomodulating Effect on Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Vaccine Response?
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2044-2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032044
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5078 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D (VitD), which is well known for its classic role in the maintenance of bone mineral density, has now become increasingly studied for its extra-skeletal roles. It has an important influence on the body’s immune system and modulates both innate and adaptive [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (VitD), which is well known for its classic role in the maintenance of bone mineral density, has now become increasingly studied for its extra-skeletal roles. It has an important influence on the body’s immune system and modulates both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the inflammatory cascade. In this review our aim was to describe how VitD might influence immune responsiveness and its potential modulating role in vaccine immunogenicity. In the first instance, we consider the literature that may provide molecular and genetic support to the idea that VitD status may be related to innate and/or adaptive immune response with a particular focus on vaccine immunogenicity and then discuss observational studies and controlled trials of VitD supplementation conducted in humans. Finally, we conclude with some knowledge gaps surrounding VitD and vaccine response, and that it is still premature to recommend “booster” of VitD at vaccination time to enhance vaccine response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
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Open AccessArticle
Interpreting the Australian Dietary Guideline to “Limit” into Practical and Personalised Advice
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2026-2043; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032026
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3183 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food-based dietary guidelines shift the focus from single nutrients to whole diet. Guideline 3 of the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) recommends “limiting” discretionary foods and beverages (DF)—Those high in saturated fat, added sugars, salt, and/or alcohol. In Australia, DF contribute 35% of total [...] Read more.
Food-based dietary guidelines shift the focus from single nutrients to whole diet. Guideline 3 of the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) recommends “limiting” discretionary foods and beverages (DF)—Those high in saturated fat, added sugars, salt, and/or alcohol. In Australia, DF contribute 35% of total energy intake. Using the ADG supporting documents, the aim of this study was to develop a food‑based educational toolkit to help translate guideline 3 and interpret portion size. The methodology used to produce the toolkit is presented here. “Additional energy allowance” is specific to gender, age, height and physical activity level, and can be met from core foods, unsaturated fats/oils/spreads and/or DF. To develop the toolkit, additional energy allowance was converted to serves equaling 600 kJ. Common DF were selected and serves were determined based on nutrient profile. Portion sizes were used to calculate number of DF serves. A consumer brochure consisting of DF, portion sizes and equivalent number of DF serves was developed. A healthcare professional guide outlines the methodology used. The toolkit was designed to assist dietitians and consumers to translate guideline 3 of the ADF and develop a personalized approach to include DF as part of the diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
The Controversial Role of Food Allergy in Infantile Colic: Evidence and Clinical Management
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2015-2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032015
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5009 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food allergies (FAs) are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC) is still controversial. We report the [...] Read more.
Food allergies (FAs) are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC) is still controversial. We report the most recent evidence on the pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic aspects of FA-induced infantile colic (IC) and suggest a stepwise diagnostic approach. We selected articles on clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis and management of FAs and IC from of 1981 to 2015. Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed, using the following terms: colic, infantile colic, food allergy and infantile colic, infantile colic treatment. The possible relationship between FAs and IC derives from the presence of dysmotility with visceral hypersensitivity and dysbiosis, demonstrated in both conditions, and the clinical response to dietary interventions. Unfortunately, the design of the studies, poor characterization of atopy and different dietary approaches limit the understanding of the importance of FAs in subjects with IC. The role of FAs in IC subjects without other symptoms of atopy remains controversial. However, where there is a suspicion of FAs, a short trial with an extensively hydrolyzed cow’s proteins formula or, if breast fed, with maternal elimination diet may be considered a reasonable option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Fish Intake during Pregnancy and Foetal Neurodevelopment—A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 2001-2014; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7032001
Received: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 3982 | PDF Full-text (511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish is a source of several nutrients that are important for healthy foetal development. Guidelines from Australia, Europe and the USA encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. The potential for contamination by heavy metals, as well as risk of listeriosis requires careful consideration of [...] Read more.
Fish is a source of several nutrients that are important for healthy foetal development. Guidelines from Australia, Europe and the USA encourage fish consumption during pregnancy. The potential for contamination by heavy metals, as well as risk of listeriosis requires careful consideration of the shaping of dietary messages related to fish intake during pregnancy. This review critically evaluates literature on fish intake in pregnant women, with a focus on the association between neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring and maternal fish intake during pregnancy. Peer-reviewed journal articles published between January 2000 and March 2014 were included. Eligible studies included those of healthy pregnant women who had experienced full term births and those that had measured fish or seafood intake and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane Library were searched using the search terms: pregnant, neurodevelopment, cognition, fish and seafood. Of 279 papers sourced, eight were included in the final review. Due to heterogeneity in methodology and measured outcomes, a qualitative comparison of study findings was conducted. This review indicates that the benefits of diets providing moderate amounts of fish during pregnancy outweigh potential detrimental effects in regards to offspring neurodevelopment. It is important that the type of fish consumed is low in mercury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Alcohol: A Nutrient with Multiple Salutary Effects
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1992-2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031992
Received: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2963 | PDF Full-text (418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly its cardioprotective effects until it was reported that acetate, the terminal product of alcohol metabolism, is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPCR43), which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we recast much of some of the major lipid and lipoprotein effects of alcohol in the context of this newly discovered G-protein and develop a mechanistic model connecting the interaction of acetate with adipose tissue-GPCR43 with these effects. According to our model, ingestions of acetate could replace alcohol as a means of improving plasma lipid risk factors, improving glucose disposal, and reducing cardiovascular disease. Future studies should include biochemical, cell, animal, and human tests of acetate on energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1978-1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031978
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3107 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested [...] Read more.
To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Could a Change in Diet Revitalize Children Who Suffer from Unresolved Fatigue?
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1965-1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031965
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 16 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3611 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Many children deal with fatigue for which no proper treatment can be given. A possible explanation for their fatigue is a micro deficiency of minerals and vitamins. In this non-randomized controlled trial, we clinically evaluated symptoms of fatigue in children for whom a [...] Read more.
Many children deal with fatigue for which no proper treatment can be given. A possible explanation for their fatigue is a micro deficiency of minerals and vitamins. In this non-randomized controlled trial, we clinically evaluated symptoms of fatigue in children for whom a nutrient-rich diet was advised. A group of 98 children (2–18 years old) with unexplained symptoms of fatigue was examined. The dietary modifications consisted of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. Children in the intervention group were asked to follow the diet for three months, whereas the control-group followed their normal diet. The primary outcome was symptoms of fatigue, as determined by a PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and secondary outcomes were compliance with the diet and BMI. Children, who followed the diet showed a significant decrease in the need to sleep (CI 0.83; 14.86, p = 0.03). They slept better through the night and took fewer naps. When analyzing components of the advised diet separately, a significant larger decrease in cognitive fatigue symptoms was seen for eating green vegetables according to the diet guidelines (CI 2.27; 30.63, p = 0.024). Furthermore, a lower need to sleep was seen when whole milk was consumed almost daily (CI 0.02; 14.62, p = 0.049). Our study showed that nutritional advice is an elegant, and effective method for decreasing some symptoms of medically unresolved fatigue in children. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Gastroprotective Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Scoparone Derivatives on Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions in Rodents
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1945-1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031945
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2863 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were [...] Read more.
This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were found to have gastroprotective activity greater than the standard drug rebamipide; 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, and 6,7-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin were found to be equipotent or less potent that of rebamipide. Pharmacological studies suggest that the presence of a methoxy group at position C-5 or C-8 of the scoparone’s phenyl ring significantly improves gastroprotective activity, whereas the presence of a dioxolane ring at C-6, C-7, or C-8 was found to have decreased activity. In order to assess toxicological safety, two of the potent gastroprotective scoparone derivatives—5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin—were examined for their acute toxicity in mice as well as their effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. These two compounds showed low acute oral toxicity in adult male and female mice, and caused minimal changes to CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity. These results indicate that compared to other scoparone derivatives, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin can improve gastroprotective effects, and they have low toxicity and minimal effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1933-1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031933
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2734 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006 in this cross-sectional study. We used locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) to depict the relationship between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and ARI. We then performed a multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARI, while adjusting for known confounders. The median serum 25OHD level was 21 (IQR 15–27) ng/mL. Overall, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5–5.2) of participants reported an ARI within 30 days before their participation in the national survey. LOWESS analysis revealed a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of ARI up to 25OHD levels around 30 ng/mL. After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33) compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. Among the 14,108 participants in NHANES 2001–2006, 25OHD levels were inversely associated with ARI. Carefully designed, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of ARI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Folate Deficiency Decreases Apoptosis of Endometrium Decidual Cells in Pregnant Mice via the Mitochondrial Pathway
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1916-1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031916
Received: 19 January 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2698 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
It is well known that maternal folate deficiency results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition to aspects in embryonic development, maternal uterine receptivity and the decidualization of stromal cells is also very important for a successful pregnancy. In this study, we focused on [...] Read more.
It is well known that maternal folate deficiency results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition to aspects in embryonic development, maternal uterine receptivity and the decidualization of stromal cells is also very important for a successful pregnancy. In this study, we focused on endometrium decidualization and investigated whether apoptosis, which is essential for decidualization, was impaired. Flow cytometry and TUNEL detection revealed that apoptosis of mouse endometrium decidual cells was suppressed in the dietary folate-deficient group on Days 7 and 8 of pregnancy (Day 1 = vaginal plug) when decidua regression is initiated. The endometrium decidual tissue of the folate deficiency group expressed less Bax compared to the normal diet group while they had nearly equal expression of Bcl2 protein. Further examination revealed that the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) decreased, and the fluorescence of diffuse cytoplasmic cytochrome c protein was detected using laser confocal microscopy in normal decidual cells. However, no corresponding changes were observed in the folate-deficient group. Western blotting analyses confirmed that more cytochrome c was released from mitochondria in normal decidual cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that folate deficiency could inhibit apoptosis of decidual cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, thereby restraining decidualization of the endometrium and further impairing pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Effects of a High Nitrate Diet on Nitrate Metabolism in Healthy Individuals
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1906-1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031906
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 February 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2588 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Understanding the Role of Maternal Diet on Kidney Development; an Opportunity to Improve Cardiovascular and Renal Health for Future Generations
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1881-1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031881
Received: 21 November 2014 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3627 | PDF Full-text (856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide are cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, high cholesterol and renal disease), cancer and diabetes. It is increasingly obvious that the development of these diseases encompasses complex interactions between adult lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Maternal malnutrition [...] Read more.
The leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide are cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, high cholesterol and renal disease), cancer and diabetes. It is increasingly obvious that the development of these diseases encompasses complex interactions between adult lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Maternal malnutrition can influence the fetal and early life environment and pose a risk factor for the future development of adult diseases, most likely due to impaired organogenesis in the developing offspring. This then predisposes these offspring to cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have further illustrated the significant impact maternal diet has on offspring health. Many studies report changes in kidney structure (a reduction in the number of nephrons in the kidney) in offspring of protein-deprived dams. Although the early studies suggested that increased blood pressure was also present in offspring of protein-restricted dams, this is not a universal finding and requires clarification. Importantly, to date, the literature offers little to no understanding of when in development these changes in kidney development occur, nor are the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive these changes well characterised. Moreover, the mechanisms linking maternal nutrition and a suboptimal renal phenotype in offspring are yet to be discerned—one potential mechanism involves epigenetics. This review will focus on recent information on potential mechanisms by which maternal nutrition (focusing on malnutrition due to protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excessive fat intake) influences kidney development and thereby function in later life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommentary
Live Longer with Vitamin D?
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1871-1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031871
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4152 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between [...] Read more.
The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L). Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OH)D > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OH)D levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1859-1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031859
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 23 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2904 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects [...] Read more.
Citronella oil is one of the most famous Indonesian essential oils, having a distinctive aroma. As with other essential oils, it is crucial to explore the effects of inhalation of this oil. Therefore, the aim of this research was to elucidate the effects of inhalation of citronella oil and its components isolated from Cymbopogon nardus L. (Poaceae), Indonesian local name: “Sereh Wangi” on the body weight, blood lipid profile, and liver function of rats, as well as on the sympathetic nerve activity and temperature of brown adipose tissue. Sprague-Dawley male adult rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) were made to inhale citronella oil, R-(+)-citronellal, and β-citronellol for five weeks, and the observations were compared to those of HFD rats that were not subjected to inhalation treatment. The results showed that inhalation of β-citronellol decreased feed consumption. As a consequence, the percentage of weight gain decreased compared with that in control group and the blood cholesterol level in the β-citronellol group was significantly lowered. Concentration of liver function enzymes were not significantly different among the groups. In conclusion, inhalation of citronella oil, specifically β-citronellol, decreased body weight by decreasing appetite, without any marked changes in liver enzyme concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1841-1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031841
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 31 December 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2826 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Phase Angle and Handgrip Strength Are Sensitive Early Markers of Energy Intake in Hypophagic, Non-Surgical Patients at Nutritional Risk, with Contraindications to Enteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1828-1840; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031828
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
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Abstract
The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in [...] Read more.
The assessment of nutritional intakes during hospitalization is crucial, as it is known that nutritional status tends to worsen during the hospital stay, and this can lead to the negative consequences of malnutrition. International guidelines recommend the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. However, to date, there are no published data regarding either energy intake or objective measurements associated with it in this patient population. The aim of the present exploratory methodological study was to evaluate whether phase angle (PhA) and handgrip strength normalized for skeletal muscle mass (HG/SMM) are sensitive early markers of energy intake in hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk, with contraindications to enteral nutrition. We evaluated 30 eligible patients, who were treated with personalized dietary modifications and supplemental PN for at least one week during hospitalization. In a liner regression model adjusted for age, gender, basal protein intake and the basal value of each variable, a trend toward improvement of PhA and preservation of HG/SMM was observed in patients satisfying the estimated calorie requirements (N = 20), while a significant deterioration of these parameters occurred in those who were not able to reach the target (N = 10). The mean adjusted difference and 95% CI were +1.4° (0.5–2.3) (p = 0.005) for PhA and +0.23 (0.20–0.43) (p = 0.033) for HG/SMM. A significant correlation between PhA and HG/SMM variations was also observed (r = 0.56 (95% CI, 0.23–0.77); p = 0.0023). PhA and HG/SMM were able to distinguish between hypophagic, non-surgical patients at nutritional risk who satisfied their estimated caloric requirements and those who did not after a one-week personalized nutritional support. Clinical studies are warranted, in order to verify these preliminary observations and to validate the role of PhA variations as early markers of anabolic/catabolic fluctuations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1817-1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031817
Received: 20 November 2014 / Revised: 6 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3257 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen [...] Read more.
Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Composition of Caecal Microbiota Associated with Increased Colon Inflammation in Interleukin-10 Gene-Deficient Mice Inoculated with Enterococcus Species
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1798-1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031798
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3095 | PDF Full-text (707 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response [...] Read more.
Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response to commensal bacteria. We have previously reported changes in intestinal morphology and colonic gene expression in Il10-/- mice in response to oral bacterial inoculation. In this study, we aimed to identify specific changes in the caecal microbiota associated with colonic inflammation in these mice. The microbiota was evaluated using pyrotag sequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR. Microbiota profiles were influenced by genotype of the mice and by bacterial inoculation, and a strong correlation was observed between the microbiota and colonic inflammation scores. Although un-inoculated Il10-/- and C57 mice had similar microbiota communities, bacterial inoculation resulted in different changes to the microbiota in Il10-/- and C57 mice. Inoculated Il10-/- mice had significantly less total bacteria than un-inoculated Il10-/- mice, with a strong negative correlation between total bacterial numbers, relative abundance of Escherichia/Shigella, microbiota diversity, and colonic inflammation score. Our results show a putative causative role for the microbiota in the development of IBD, with potentially key roles for Akkermansia, or for Bacteroides, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, and Alistipes, depending on the composition of the bacterial inoculum. These data support the use of bacterially-inoculated Il10-/- mice as an appropriate model to investigate human IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
What Do Studies of Insect Polyphenisms Tell Us about Nutritionally-Triggered Epigenomic Changes and Their Consequences?
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1787-1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031787
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2889 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many insects are capable of remarkable changes in biology and form in response to their environment or diet. The most extreme example of these are polyphenisms, which are when two or more different phenotypes are produced from a single genotype in response to [...] Read more.
Many insects are capable of remarkable changes in biology and form in response to their environment or diet. The most extreme example of these are polyphenisms, which are when two or more different phenotypes are produced from a single genotype in response to the environment. Polyphenisms provide a fascinating opportunity to study how the environment affects an animal’s genome, and how this produces changes in form. Here we review the current state of knowledge of the molecular basis of polyphenisms and what can be learnt from them to understand how nutrition may influence our own genomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle
Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1769-1786; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031769
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3084 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our [...] Read more.
Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between total energy intake and other nutrients and the development of CRC in the Jordanian population. Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary data was collected from 169 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 248 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). These control subjects were healthy and disease free. Data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between quartiles of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes with the risk of developing CRC in our study population. Results: Total energy intake was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC (OR = 2.60 for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 1.21–5.56, p-trend = 0.03). Intakes of protein (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.63–8.05, p-trend = 0.002), carbohydrates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.67–2.99, p-trend = 0.043), and percentage of energy from fat (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.38–11.70, p-trend = 0.009) significantly increased the risk for the development of CRC. Saturated fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium intake showed a significant association with the risk of developing CRC (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 2.33–11.76; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18–5.21; and OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.59–7.38, respectively), while vitamin E and caffeine intake were indicative of a protective effect against the development of CRC, OR = 0.002 (95% CI: 0.0003–0.011) and 0.023 (95%CI: 0.008–0.067), respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased risk for the development of CRC in subjects with high dietary intake of energy, protein, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, and diets high in vitamin E and caffeine were suggestive of a protective effect against the risk of developing CRC. Impact: This is the first study in Jordan to suggest that it may be possible to reduce CRC risk by adjusting the intake of some macro-and micronutrients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview
Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1744-1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031744
Received: 23 August 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5096 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to [...] Read more.
Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life-long influences on reproductive outcomes, including inter-generational ones, both clinical and public health measures need to ensure adequate micronutrient intakes during pregnancy, but also during adolescence, the first few years of life, and during lactation. Many antenatal programmes are not currently achieving this. We aim to address the need for micronutrients during pregnancy, the importance of micronutrient deficiencies during gestation and before, and propose the scaling-up of clinical and public health approaches that achieve healthier pregnancies and improved pregnancy outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Supplementation with the Fat-Soluble Vitamins E and D on Fasting Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1728-1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031728
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3801 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized [...] Read more.
The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day) and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015). No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: −0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41). These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin A Intake, Serum Vitamin D and Bone Mineral Density: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2011)
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1716-1727; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031716
Received: 29 December 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2910 | PDF Full-text (398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) [...] Read more.
The association of high vitamin A intake and low bone mineral density (BMD) is still controversial. To determine the association of dietary vitamin A intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with BMD, a total of 6481 subjects (2907 men and 3574 women) aged ≥50 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011) were divided into groups according to dietary vitamin A intake (tertiles) and serum 25(OH)D (<50, 50–75, >75 nmol/L), and evaluated for BMD after adjusting for relevant variables. Mean dietary vitamin A intakes were 737 and 600 μg RE (Retinol Equivalents) in men and women, respectively. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in men and lumbar spine BMD in women were both positively correlated with dietary vitamin A intake in subjects with serum 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Among men with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, both the top (mean 1353 μg RE) and bottom (mean 218 μg RE) tertiles of dietary vitamin A intake had lower BMD than the middle group (mean 577 μg RE). In this population, BMD was the highest among men and women with serum 25(OH)D = 50–75 nmol/L and that there were no differences in BMD by vitamin A intake in these vitamin D adequate groups. This cross-sectional study indicates that vitamin A intake does not affect bone mineral density as long as the serum 25(OH)D concentration is maintained in the moderate level of 50–75 nmol/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1696-1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031696
Received: 29 November 2014 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3648 | PDF Full-text (1011 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability [...] Read more.
Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg1 body weight). One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05). The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Iodized Salt Sales in the United States
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1691-1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031691
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2754 | PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt [...] Read more.
Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. Full article
Open AccessLetter
Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A Statistical Error in the Estimation of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472–4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1688-1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031688
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 13312 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators [...] Read more.
Recently Veugelers and Ekwaru published data [1] indicating that, in its dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had made a serious calculation error [2]. Using the same data set as had the IOM panel, these investigators showed that the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin D had been underestimated by an order of magnitude. Veugelers and Ekwaru, using the IOM’s data, calculated an RDA of 8895 IU per day. They noted that there was some uncertainty in that estimate, inasmuch as this value required an extrapolation from the available data, which did not include individuals receiving daily vitamin D inputs above 2400 IU/day.[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structures of Phytosterols and Triterpenoids with Potential Anti-Cancer Activity in Bran of Black Non-Glutinous Rice
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1672-1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031672
Received: 26 October 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3839 | PDF Full-text (406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Structures of some bioactive phytochemicals in bran extract of the black rice cv. Riceberry that had demonstrated anti-cancer activity in leukemic cell line were investigated. After saponification with potassium hydroxide, separation of the unsaponified fraction by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) resulted [...] Read more.
Structures of some bioactive phytochemicals in bran extract of the black rice cv. Riceberry that had demonstrated anti-cancer activity in leukemic cell line were investigated. After saponification with potassium hydroxide, separation of the unsaponified fraction by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) resulted in four sub-fractions that had a certain degree of anti-proliferation against a mouse leukemic cell line (WEHI-3 cell), this being IC50 at 24 h ranging between 2.80–467.11 μg/mL. Further purification of the bioactive substances contained in these four sub-fractions was performed by normal-phase HPLC. Structural characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) resulted in, overall, the structures of seven phytosterols and four triterpenoids. Four phytosterols, 24-methylene-ergosta-5-en-3β-ol, 24-methylene-ergosta-7-en-3β-ol, fucosterol, and gramisterol, along with three triterpenoids, cycloeucalenol, lupenone, and lupeol, were found in the two sub-fractions that showed strong anti-leukemic cell proliferation (IC50 = 2.80 and 32.89 μg/mL). The other sterols and triterpenoids were campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and 24-methylenecycloartanol. Together with the data from in vitro biological analysis, we suggest that gramisterol is a significant anti-cancer lead compound in Riceberry bran extract. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1657-1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031657
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3082 | PDF Full-text (1082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments. Full article
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