Next Article in Journal
Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial
Previous Article in Journal
The Periconceptional Environment and Cardiovascular Disease: Does In Vitro Embryo Culture and Transfer Influence Cardiovascular Development and Health?
Open AccessReview

Arginine and Citrulline and the Immune Response in Sepsis

Department of Surgery, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6200MD, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1426-1463;
Received: 18 October 2014 / Revised: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 26 January 2015 / Published: 18 February 2015
Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid is an important initiator of the immune response. Arginine serves as a precursor in several metabolic pathways in different organs. In the immune response, arginine metabolism and availability is determined by the nitric oxide synthases and the arginase enzymes, which convert arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and ornithine, respectively. Limitations in arginine availability during inflammatory conditions regulate macrophages and T-lymfocyte activation. Furthermore, over the past years more evidence has been gathered which showed that arginine and citrulline deficiencies may underlie the detrimental outcome of inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis and endotoxemia. Not only does the immune response contribute to the arginine deficiency, also the impaired arginine de novo synthesis in the kidney has a key role in the eventual observed arginine deficiency. The complex interplay between the immune response and the arginine-NO metabolism is further underscored by recent data of our group. In this review we give an overview of physiological arginine and citrulline metabolism and we address the experimental and clinical studies in which the arginine-citrulline NO pathway plays an essential role in the immune response, as initiator and therapeutic target. View Full-Text
Keywords: arginine; citrulline; nitric oxide; sepsis; immunity arginine; citrulline; nitric oxide; sepsis; immunity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wijnands, K.A.; Castermans, T.M.; Hommen, M.P.; Meesters, D.M.; Poeze, M. Arginine and Citrulline and the Immune Response in Sepsis. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1426-1463.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop