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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Supplementation with the Fat-Soluble Vitamins E and D on Fasting Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

1
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
2
Top Institute of Food and Nutrition (TIFN), Wageningen 6709 PA, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1728-1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031728
Received: 2 February 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and CVD)
The effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are not clear. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to quantify effects of fat-soluble vitamin supplements on fasting flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a validated marker to assess CVD risk. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by a systematic search till July 2014. Seven RCTs studying the effects of vitamin E supplements (range: 300 to 1800 IU per day) and nine RCTs examining the effects of vitamin D supplements, that involved, respectively, 303 and 658 adults, were included. No studies with carotenoid or vitamin K supplements were found. Vitamin E supplementation increased FMD vs. control by 2.42% (95% CI: 0.46% to 4.37%; p = 0.015). No effects of vitamin D supplementation were found (0.15%; 95% CI: −0.21% to 0.51%; p = 0.41). These effects did not depend on subject characteristics, treatment characteristics or technical aspects of the FMD measurement. However, no dose-response relationship was evident for vitamin E, statistical significance depended on one study, while the levels of supplement were far above recommended intakes. The current meta-analysis, therefore, does not provide unambiguous evidence to support the use of fat-soluble vitamin supplements to improve fasting FMD in adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow-mediated vasodilation; fat-soluble; vitamin D; vitamin E; meta-analysis flow-mediated vasodilation; fat-soluble; vitamin D; vitamin E; meta-analysis
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Joris, P.J.; Mensink, R.P. Effects of Supplementation with the Fat-Soluble Vitamins E and D on Fasting Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1728-1743.

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