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Nutrition and Respiratory Health—Feature Review
Open AccessArticle

Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

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Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil
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Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK
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Department of Pathology Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14049-900, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1644-1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031644
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 5 March 2015
Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish oil; omega-3; fructose; fasting; refeeding; liver fish oil; omega-3; fructose; fasting; refeeding; liver
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De Castro, G.S.; Cardoso, J.F.R.; Calder, P.C.; Jordão, A.A.; Vannucchi, H. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1644-1656.

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