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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1769-1786;

Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians

Department of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetic, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
Department of Health Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
Chief Gastroenterology Division, King Hussein Cancer Center, P.O. Box 35102, Amman 11180, Jordan
Faculty of Medicine, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan
Department of General and Pediatric Surgery, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan
Chief Gastroenterology Division, Prince Hamza Hospital, P.O. Box 86, Amman 11118, Jordan
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [710 KB, uploaded 10 March 2015]


Objective: Diet and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the association between total energy and nutrient intake and the risk of developing CRC has not been clearly explained. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between total energy intake and other nutrients and the development of CRC in the Jordanian population. Research Methods and Procedures: Dietary data was collected from 169 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 248 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). These control subjects were healthy and disease free. Data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between quartiles of total energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes with the risk of developing CRC in our study population. Results: Total energy intake was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC (OR = 2.60 for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake; 95% CI: 1.21–5.56, p-trend = 0.03). Intakes of protein (OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.63–8.05, p-trend = 0.002), carbohydrates (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.67–2.99, p-trend = 0.043), and percentage of energy from fat (OR = 2.10, 95% CI: 0.38–11.70, p-trend = 0.009) significantly increased the risk for the development of CRC. Saturated fat, dietary cholesterol and sodium intake showed a significant association with the risk of developing CRC (OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 2.33–11.76; OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18–5.21; and OR = 3.42, 95% CI: 1.59–7.38, respectively), while vitamin E and caffeine intake were indicative of a protective effect against the development of CRC, OR = 0.002 (95% CI: 0.0003–0.011) and 0.023 (95%CI: 0.008–0.067), respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest an increased risk for the development of CRC in subjects with high dietary intake of energy, protein, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium, and diets high in vitamin E and caffeine were suggestive of a protective effect against the risk of developing CRC. Impact: This is the first study in Jordan to suggest that it may be possible to reduce CRC risk by adjusting the intake of some macro-and micronutrients. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; total energy; macronutrient; micronutrients colorectal cancer; total energy; macronutrient; micronutrients
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tayyem, R.F.; Bawadi, H.A.; Shehadah, I.N.; Abu-Mweis, S.S.; Agraib, L.M.; Bani-Hani, K.E.; Al-Jaberi, T.; Al-Nusairr, M.; Heath, D.D. Macro- and Micronutrients Consumption and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer among Jordanians. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1769-1786.

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