Next Article in Journal
Structures of Phytosterols and Triterpenoids with Potential Anti-Cancer Activity in Bran of Black Non-Glutinous Rice
Next Article in Special Issue
Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten
Previous Article in Journal
Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity
Open AccessArticle

The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

1
Division of Microbiology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
2
Division of Veterinary Resources, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
3
Division of Comparative Pathology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
4
Arcadia Biosciences Inc., Seattle, WA 98119, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1657-1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7031657
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 6 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac; gluten; barley; gluten-free; NCGS; AGA; T cell; enteritis celiac; gluten; barley; gluten-free; NCGS; AGA; T cell; enteritis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sestak, K.; Thwin, H.; Dufour, J.; Aye, P.P.; Liu, D.X.; Moehs, C.P. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1657-1671.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop