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Curr. Oncol., Volume 28, Issue 2 (April 2021) – 48 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This overview of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published globally shows that Canada plays a meaningful role in the international cancer research community. Canadian RCTs are heavily dependent on funding from the pharmaceutical industry and primarily test new systemic therapies in the palliative context. Only one third of positive Canadian trials (and 13% of all trials) identify a new treatment that is associated with substantial clinical benefit; therefore, urgent efforts to improve on this are warranted. It is notable that only 14% of Canadian trials are conducted without industry funding. These data highlight the need for more investment in cancer clinical trials from the government and philanthropic sectors to ensure that Canadian RCTs address diseases and questions that are most likely to improve outcomes for patients in Canada and beyond. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
The Epidemiology of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in New Zealand between 2010 and 2017: Insights from the New Zealand Cancer Registry
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1544-1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020146 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Background: There is a paucity of data on ethnic disparities in patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Methods: This study analysed the demographic data for PV, ET and PMF collected [...] Read more.
Background: There is a paucity of data on ethnic disparities in patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Methods: This study analysed the demographic data for PV, ET and PMF collected by the New Zealand Cancer Registry (NZCR) between 2010 and 2017. Results: We found that the NZCR capture rates were lower than average international incidence rates for PV and ET, but higher for PMF (0.76, 0.99 and 0.82 per 100,000, respectively). PV patients were older and had worse outcomes than expected, which suggests these patients were reported to the registry at an advanced stage of their disease. Polynesian patients with all MPN subtypes, PV, ET and PMF, were younger than their European counterparts both at the time of diagnosis and death (p < 0.001). Male gender was an independent risk factor for mortality from PV and PMF (hazard ratios (HR) of 1.43 and 1.81, respectively; p < 0.05), and Māori ethnicity was an independent risk factor for mortality from PMF (HR: 2.94; p = 0.006). Conclusions: New Zealand Polynesian patients may have increased genetic predisposition to MPN, thus we advocate for modern genetic testing in this ethnic group to identify the cause. Further work is also required to identify modifiable risk factors for mortality in MPN, in particular those associated with male gender and Māori ethnicity; the results may benefit all patients with MPN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
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Open AccessCase Report
Regression of Intracranial Meningiomas Following Treatment with Cabozantinib
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1537-1543; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020145 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Recurrent meningiomas remain a substantial treatment challenge given the lack of effective therapeutic options aside from surgery and radiation therapy, which yield limited results in the retreatment situation. Systemic therapies have little effect, and responses are rare; the search for effective systemic therapeutics [...] Read more.
Recurrent meningiomas remain a substantial treatment challenge given the lack of effective therapeutic options aside from surgery and radiation therapy, which yield limited results in the retreatment situation. Systemic therapies have little effect, and responses are rare; the search for effective systemic therapeutics remains elusive. In this case report, we provide data regarding significant responses in two radiographically diagnosed intracranial meningiomas in a patient with concurrent thyroid carcinoma treated with cabozantinib, an oral multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against MET and VEGF receptor 2. Given the clinical experience supporting the role of VEGF agents as experimental therapeutics in meningioma and the current understanding of the biological pathways underlying meningioma growth, this may represent a new oral therapeutic alternative, warranting prospective evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tumor Biological Feature and Its Association with Positive Surgical Margins and Apical Margins after Radical Prostatectomy in Non-Metastasis Prostate Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1528-1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020144 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Purpose: We assessed clinical and tumor biological features and evaluated their association with positive surgical margins (PSMs) and positive apical margins (PAMs) variability after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with non-metastasis prostate cancer (nmPCa) in our institute. Patients and methods: During the period [...] Read more.
Purpose: We assessed clinical and tumor biological features and evaluated their association with positive surgical margins (PSMs) and positive apical margins (PAMs) variability after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with non-metastasis prostate cancer (nmPCa) in our institute. Patients and methods: During the period from January 2013 to December 2017, clinical and pathological data were collected in 200 patients with nmPCa undergoing RP in the Urological department of Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute. Surgical and apical margins were stated negative and positive, separately. A dichotomous logistic regression model was used to assess clinical and tumor biological features including age, total prostate volume (TPV), biopsy positive cores (BPC), D’Amico risk grade, tumor clinical stage, International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) grade, tPSA, f/t and pelvic lymph nodes (PLN) invasion, and their association with PSMs and PAMs was evaluated. Results: Overall, men with nmPCa in this study had a high ISUP grade (58.5% grade 3–5), high risk grade (89.4%) and high clinical T stage (56% cT3-4). PSMs were detected in 106 patients; the rate of PSMs was 53%. Among patients with PSMs, 83% were PAMs; the overall rate of PAMs was 44%. Among patients with PSMs, high risk (OR, 1.439; p = 0.023), cT3a (OR, 1.737; p = 0.045), cT3b (OR, 5.286; p < 0.001), cT4 (OR, 6.12; p < 0.001), ISUP Grade 4 (OR, 2; p = 0.034) and Grade 5 (OR, 6.167; p < 0.001) and PLN invasion (OR, 6; p = 0.019) were strongly associated with PSMs using a dichotomous logistic regression univariable model, and high risk (OR, 6; p = 0.019), cT3a (OR, 5.116; p = 0.048), cT3b (OR, 9.194; p = 0.008), cT4 (OR, 4.58; p = 0.01), ISUP Grade 4 (OR, 7.04; p = 0.035), Grade 5 (OR, 16.514; p = 0.002) and PLN invasion (OR, 5.516; p = 0.03) were independently associated with PSMs by using multivariable analysis. Among patients with PAMs, cT3b (OR, 2.667; p = 0.004), cT4 (OR, 3; p = 0.034) and proportion of BPC (OR, 4.594; p = 0.027) were strongly associated with PAMs by using a dichotomous logistic regression univariable model, and cT3b (OR, 3.899; p = 0.02), cT4 (OR, 2.8; p = 0.041) and proportion of BPC (OR, 5.247; p = 0.04) were independently associated with PSMs by using multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Patients with nmPCa in our institute had high risk, high ISUP grade and high clinical stage. Tumor biological factors were strongly associated with PSMs and PAMs, and PLN invasion was independently associated with PSMs. The risk factors influenced the status of surgical margins, and apical margins were different. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cancer, Clinical Trials, and Canada: Our Contribution to Worldwide Randomized Controlled Trials
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1518-1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020143 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 226
Abstract
Canada has a long tradition of leading practice-changing clinical trials in oncology. Here, we describe methodology, results, and interpretation of oncology RCTs with Canadian involvement compared to RCTs from other high-income countries (HICs). A literature search identified all RCTs evaluating anti-cancer therapies published [...] Read more.
Canada has a long tradition of leading practice-changing clinical trials in oncology. Here, we describe methodology, results, and interpretation of oncology RCTs with Canadian involvement compared to RCTs from other high-income countries (HICs). A literature search identified all RCTs evaluating anti-cancer therapies published 2014–2017. RCTs were classified based on the country affiliation of first authors. The study cohort included 636 HIC-led RCTs; 155 (24%) had Canadian authors. Three-quarters (112/155, 72%) of Canadian RCTs were conducted in the palliative setting, compared to two thirds (299/481, 62%) of RCTs from other HICs (p = 0.022). Canadian RCTs were more likely than those from other HICs to be supported by industry (85% vs. 69%, p < 0.001). The proportion of positive Canadian trials that met the ESMO-MCBS threshold for substantial clinical benefit was comparable to RCTs without Canadian authors (29% vs. 32%, p = 0.137). Thirteen percent (20/155) of all Canadian trials were affiliated with the Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG). Canada plays a meaningful role in the global cancer research ecosystem but is overly reliant on industry support. The very low proportion of trials that identify a new treatment with substantial clinical benefit is worrisome. A renewed investment in cancer clinical trials is needed in Canada. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Satisfaction among Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Institutional Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1507-1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020142 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has shifted oncology practices to prioritize patient safety while maintaining necessary treatment delivery. We obtained patient feedback on pandemic-based practices in our radiotherapy department to improve quality of patient care and amend policies as needed. We developed a piloted questionnaire [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has shifted oncology practices to prioritize patient safety while maintaining necessary treatment delivery. We obtained patient feedback on pandemic-based practices in our radiotherapy department to improve quality of patient care and amend policies as needed. We developed a piloted questionnaire which quantitatively and qualitatively assessed patients’ pandemic-related concerns and satisfaction with specific elements of their care. Adult patients who were treated at our Centre between 23 March and 31 May 2020, had initial consultation via telemedicine, and received at least five outpatient fractions of radiotherapy were invited to complete the survey by telephone or online. Relative frequencies of categorical and ordinal responses were then calculated. Fifty-three (48%) out of 110 eligible patients responded: 32 patients by phone and 21 patients online. Eighteen participants (34%) admitted to feeling anxious about hospital appointments, and only five (9%) reported treatment delays. Forty-eight patients (91%) reported satisfaction with their initial telemedicine appointment. The majority of patients indicated that healthcare workers took appropriate precautions, making them feel safe. Overall, all 53 patients (100%) reported being satisfied with their treatment experience during the pandemic. Patient feedback is needed to provide the highest quality of patient care as we adapt to the current reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Care during COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Quality of Life of Patients with Breast or Colon Cancer with an Arm Vein Port (TIVAD) Versus a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1495-1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020141 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Introduction: Venous access is a crucial element in chemotherapy delivery. It remains unclear whether cancer patients prefer a port to a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Our study aimed to assess cancer patients’ satisfaction with their venous access device and to compare the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Venous access is a crucial element in chemotherapy delivery. It remains unclear whether cancer patients prefer a port to a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Our study aimed to assess cancer patients’ satisfaction with their venous access device and to compare the quality of life (QoL) of subjects with a PICC to those with a port. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, EORTC QLQ-C30, and a locally developed quality of life survey (QLAVD), designed to assess satisfaction with venous access devices, were administered to breast or colorectal cancer patients over a one-year period following the device insertion. Mixed effects models were used to assess changes on mean scores at different time points. Results: A total of 101 patients were recruited over a three-year period, (PICC group, n = 50; port group, n = 51). Survey response rates for months one and three were 72% and 48%, respectively. Overall, no significant differences were noted between the two groups in relation to EORTC QOL. At three months, the mean pain scores were 3.5 ± 2.3 for the port and 1.3 ± 0.75 for PICC (<0.001). The mean score for a negative effect of the venous access device on psychosocial well-being was 6.0 ± 4.1 for PICC and 3.0 ± 2.7 for the port (p = 0.005). Complications related to PICCs occurred in 38% patients versus 41% with a port (p > 0.24). Conclusions: Although subjects with a port experienced more pain during the device insertion or access for chemotherapy, it had a smaller negative impact on psychosocial scores than the PICC. No significant differences in complications rates were observed between the two devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oncology Clinicians’ Challenges to Providing Palliative Cancer Care—A Theoretical Domains Framework, Pan-Cancer System Survey
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1483-1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020140 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Despite the known benefits, healthcare systems struggle to provide early, integrated palliative care (PC) for advanced cancer patients. Understanding the barriers to providing PC from the perspective of oncology clinicians is an important first step in improving care. A 33-item online survey was [...] Read more.
Despite the known benefits, healthcare systems struggle to provide early, integrated palliative care (PC) for advanced cancer patients. Understanding the barriers to providing PC from the perspective of oncology clinicians is an important first step in improving care. A 33-item online survey was emailed to all oncology clinicians working with all cancer types in Alberta, Canada, from November 2017 to January 2018. Questions were informed by Michie’s Theoretical Domains Framework and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and queried (a) PC provision in oncology clinics, (b) specialist PC consultation referrals, and (c) working with PC consultants and home care. Respondents (n = 263) were nurses (41%), physicians (25%), and allied healthcare professionals (18%). Barriers most frequently identified were “clinicians’ limited time/competing priorities” (64%), “patients’ negative perceptions of PC” (63%), and clinicians’ capability to manage patients’ social issues (63%). These factors mapped to all three BCW domains: motivation, opportunity, and capability. In contrast, the least frequently identified barriers were clinician motivation and perceived PC benefits. Oncology clinicians’ perceptions of barriers to early PC were comparable across tumour types and specialties but varied by professional role. The main challenges to early integrated PC include all three BCW domains. Notably, motivation is not a barrier for oncology clinicians; however, opportunity and capability barriers were identified. Multifaceted interventions using these findings have been developed, such as tip sheets to enhance capability, reframing PC with patients, and earlier specialist PC nursing access, to enhance clinicians’ use of and patients’ benefits from an early PC approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Healthcare Provider Perspectives on Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy after Breast Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1472-1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020139 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) for breast cancer is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of healthcare providers (HCPs) in providing care to breast cancer survivors prescribed AET, (2) identify how social and structural [...] Read more.
Adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) for breast cancer is suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to: (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of healthcare providers (HCPs) in providing care to breast cancer survivors prescribed AET, (2) identify how social and structural factors influence the provision of AET-related care, and (3) ascertain HCP recommendations for optimizing AET adherence and related care. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 HCPs using an interpretive descriptive approach to inquiry and the theoretical lens of relational autonomy. Data was analyzed using thematic and constant comparative techniques. Healthcare providers focused on four main components of AET-related care: (1) the importance of having careful conversations about AET, (2) difficulties in navigating transitions in care, (3) symptom management as a big part of their role, and (4) dealing with AET discontinuation. Recommendations to improve AET adherence focused on developing sustainable and efficient models of delivering high-quality care to women on AET. Healthcare providers play a pivotal role educating women about AET and supporting their adherence to therapy. Sustainable healthcare system innovations and new models of care that address current system gaps are needed to enhance survivorship care, AET adherence, and ultimately, reduce cancer recurrence and mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Research in Breast Cancer Patients)
Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Consent for Genetic Testing Using an Oncologist- or Genetic Counselor-Mediated Model of Care
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1459-1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020138 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 324
Abstract
This study compares knowledge, experience and understanding of genetic testing, and psychological outcomes among breast and ovarian cancer patients undergoing multi-gene panel testing via genetic counselor-mediated (GMT) or oncologist-mediated (OMT) testing models. A pragmatic, prospective survey of breast and ovarian cancer patients pursuing [...] Read more.
This study compares knowledge, experience and understanding of genetic testing, and psychological outcomes among breast and ovarian cancer patients undergoing multi-gene panel testing via genetic counselor-mediated (GMT) or oncologist-mediated (OMT) testing models. A pragmatic, prospective survey of breast and ovarian cancer patients pursuing genetic testing between January 2017 and August 2019 was conducted at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, Canada. A total of 120 (80 GMT; 40 OMT) individuals completed a survey administered one week following consent to genetic testing. Compared to OMT, the GMT cohort had higher median knowledge (8 vs. 9; p = 0.025) and experience/understanding scores (8.5 vs. 10; p < 0.001) at the time of genetic testing. Significant differences were noted in the potential psychological concerns experienced, with individuals in the GMT cohort more likely to screen positive in the hereditary predisposition domain of the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer tool (55% vs. 27.5%; p = 0.005), and individuals in the OMT cohort more likely to screen positive in the general emotions domain (65.0% vs. 38.8%; p = 0.007). The results of this study suggest that OMT can be implemented to streamline genetic testing; however, post-test genetic counseling should remain available to all individuals undergoing genetic testing, to ensure any psychologic concerns are addressed and that individuals have a clear understanding of relevant implications and limitations of their test results. Full article
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Open AccessGuidelines
Patient and Patient Group Engagement in Cancer Clinical Trials: A Stakeholder Charter
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1447-1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020137 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Background—to guide the implementation of patient centricity and engagement in cancer clinical trials (CTs) and to operationalize the Canadianized version of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (C-CTTI) model, the development of a charter was identified by cancer CT stakeholders. Methods—the Canadian Cancer Trial [...] Read more.
Background—to guide the implementation of patient centricity and engagement in cancer clinical trials (CTs) and to operationalize the Canadianized version of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (C-CTTI) model, the development of a charter was identified by cancer CT stakeholders. Methods—the Canadian Cancer Trial Stakeholder Charter (the Charter) was initiated by Colorectal Cancer Canada (CCC) and developed via the—1—formation of an inclusive working group (WG) that drafted the document using recommendations collected during the development of the C-CTTI model; 2—socialization of the draft Charter to solicit feedback from cancer CT stakeholders, including those who attended the 2019 CCC Conference; and 3—incorporation of stakeholders’ feedback and finalization of the Charter by the WG. Results—the Charter was built around five guiding principles—1—patient centricity; 2—commitment to education and training; 3—collaboration as equal and independent partners in research; 4—transparency and accountability; and 5—high standards in data collection integrity and honesty. These principles led to the Charter’s five tenets, which stipulate stakeholder commitments, aiming to make CTs accessible to all patients, improve the design and implementation of CTs to benefit patients, expand recruitment and retention of patients in CTs, and further advance cancer research and treatment. Conclusions—the Charter is intended to integrate the patient voice into the Canadian cancer CT continuum. The next phases of the C-CTTI model include the adoption and implementation of the Charter, the establishment of a patient group training program, and the development of real-world evidence/real-world data methodologies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Prognosis of Multifocal Glioblastoma: An Evaluation Incorporating Volumetric MRI
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1437-1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020136 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Primary glioblastoma (GBM), IDH-wildtype, especially with multifocal appearance/growth (mGBM), is associated with very poor prognosis. Several clinical parameters have been identified to provide prognostic value in both unifocal GBM (uGBM) and mGBM, but information about the influence of radiological parameters on survival for [...] Read more.
Primary glioblastoma (GBM), IDH-wildtype, especially with multifocal appearance/growth (mGBM), is associated with very poor prognosis. Several clinical parameters have been identified to provide prognostic value in both unifocal GBM (uGBM) and mGBM, but information about the influence of radiological parameters on survival for mGBM cohorts is scarce. This study evaluated the prognostic value of several volumetric parameters derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data from the Department of Neurosurgery, Leipzig University Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients treated between 2014 and 2019, aged older than 18 years and with adequate peri-operative MRI were included. Volumetric assessment was performed manually. One hundred and eighty-three patients were included. Survival of patients with mGBM was significantly shorter (p < 0.0001). Univariate analysis revealed extent of resection, adjuvant therapy regimen, residual tumor volume, tumor necrosis volume and ratio of tumor necrosis to initial volume as statistically significant for overall survival. In multivariate Cox regression, however, only EOR (for uGBM and the entire cohort) and adjuvant therapy were independently significant for survival. Decreased ratio of tumor necrosis to initial tumor volume and extent of resection were associated with prolonged survival in mGBM but failed to achieve statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Benefit from Adjuvant TKIs Versus TKIs Plus Chemotherapy in EGFR-Mutant Stage III-pN2 Lung Adenocarcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1424-1436; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020135 - 07 Apr 2021
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated benefits from adjuvant tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) compared with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. We launched a multi-center retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant TKIs with or without chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor [...] Read more.
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated benefits from adjuvant tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) compared with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. We launched a multi-center retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adjuvant TKIs with or without chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant stage III-pN2 lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-four consecutive cases with stage III-pN2 lung adenocarcinoma and complete resection have been investigated. Clinic-pathologic characteristics, adjuvant treatments, long-term survivals, and toxicities were documented. Risk factors of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: There were 52 (19.0%) patients treated with adjuvant TKIs alone, 199 (72.6%) with adjuvant chemotherapy alone, and 23 (8.4%) with both. After a median follow-up time of 29 months, the two-year DMFS, DFS, and OS was 61.2%, 54.1%, and 91.2%, respectively. According to univariable analyses, the risk factors were lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.001), extranodal extension (p = 0.005), and adjuvant systemic therapy (p = 0.006) for DMFS, EGFR mutation type (p = 0.025), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.013), extranodal extension (p = 0.004), and adjuvant systemic therapy (p < 0.001) for DFS, and EGFR mutation type (p < 0.001) for OS. Multivariable analyses indicated that the independent prognostic factors were adjuvant systemic therapy (TKIs vs. TKIs+chemotherapy, Harzard ratio (HR) = 0.40; p = 0.036; TKIs vs. chemotherapy, HR = 0.38; p = 0.004), lymphovascular invasion (yes vs. no, HR = 2.22; p = 0.001) for DMFS, and adjuvant systemic therapy (TKIs vs. TKIs+chemotherapy, HR = 0.42; p = 0.034; TKIs vs. chemotherapy, HR = 0.33; p < 0.001) for DFS. No significant difference was found in the incidence of Grade 3–4 toxicities between groups (p = 0.445). Conclusions: Adjuvant TKIs might be a beneficial choice compared with adjuvant chemotherapy or combination systemic treatments. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Impact of Metformin on Cancer Biomarkers in Non-Diabetic Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1412-1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020134 - 06 Apr 2021
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Introduction: Our aim was to investigate and evaluate the influence of metformin on cancer-related biomarkers in clinical trials. Methods: This systematic study was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases, including Scopus, Web of Sciences, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Our aim was to investigate and evaluate the influence of metformin on cancer-related biomarkers in clinical trials. Methods: This systematic study was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases, including Scopus, Web of Sciences, PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and Cochrane, were systematically reviewed by February 2020. Clinical trials investigating metformin effects on the evaluation of homeostatic models of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Ki-67, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and insulin were selected for further analysis. Quality assessment was performed with version 2 of the Cochrane tool for determining the bias risk for randomized trials (RoB 2). Heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using the Chi-square test. After quality assessment, a random effects model was performed to summarize the data related to insulin, HOMA-IR, Ki-67, and a fixed-effect model for FBS and BMI in a meta-analysis. Results: Nine clinical trials with 716 patients with operable breast and endometrial cancer and 331 with primary breast cancer were involved in the current systematic and meta-analysis study. Systematic findings on the nine publications indicated metformin decreased insulin levels in four studies, FBS in one, BMI in two, Ki-67 in three studies, and HOMA-IR in two study. The pooled analysis indicated that metformin had no significant effect on the following values: insulin (standardized mean differences (SMD) = −0.87, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (−1.93, 0.19), p = 0.11), FBS (SMD = −0.18, 95% CI (−0.30, −0.05), p = 0.004), HOMA-IR (SMD = −0.17, 95% CI (−0.52, 0.19), p = 0.36), and BMI (SMD = −0.13, 95% CI (−0.28, 0.02), p = 0.09). Metformin could decrease Ki-67 in patients with operable endometrial cancer versus healthy subjects (SMD = 0.47, 95% CI (−1.82, 2.75), p = 30.1). According to Egger’s test, no publication bias was observed for insulin, FBS, BMI, HOMA-IR, and Ki-67. Conclusions: Patients with operable breast and endometrial cancer under metformin therapy showed no significant changes in the investigated metabolic biomarkers in the most of included study. It was also found that metformin could decrease Ki-67 in patients with operable endometrial cancer. In comparison to the results obtained of our meta-analysis, due to the high heterogeneity and bias of the included clinical trials, the present findings could not confirm or reject the efficacy of metformin for patients with breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy and Safety of Nivolumab and Ipilimumab for Advanced or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1402-1411; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020133 - 03 Apr 2021
Viewed by 339
Abstract
We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab (NIVO+IPI) in 35 patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In this study, we focused on patients who received NIVO+IPI and were stratified into [...] Read more.
We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab (NIVO+IPI) in 35 patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In this study, we focused on patients who received NIVO+IPI and were stratified into intermediate- or poor-risk disease according to the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium model at five institutions in Japan. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were disease control rate (DCR), best overall response (BOR), objective response rate (ORR), and progression-free survival (PFS). In addition, we evaluated the role of inflammatory cell ratios, namely neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as predictive biomarkers in patients with mRCC. The median follow-up period was 1 year, and the 1-year OS rate was 95.8%. The ORR and DCR were 34.3% and 80.0%, respectively. According to BOR, four patients (11.4%) achieved complete response. According to NLR stratification, the 1-year PFS rates were 82.6% and 23.7% when the NLR was ≤4.6 and >4.6, respectively (p = 0.04). Based on PLR stratification, the 1-year PFS rates were 81.7% and 34.3% when the PLR was ≤188.1 and >188.1, respectively (p = 0.033). Although 71.4% of the patients experienced treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) with NIVO+IPI, only four patients discontinued NIVO+IPI due to grade 3/4 TRAEs. Patients treated with NIVO+IPI as a first-line therapy for advanced or mRCC achieved relatively better oncological outcomes. Therefore, NIVO+IPI may have potential advantages and may lead to a treatment effect compared to those receiving targeted therapies. In addition, PLR >188.1 may be a useful predictive marker for mRCC patients who received NIVO+IPI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
Current Treatment Approaches and Outcomes in the Management of Rectal Cancer Above the Age of 80
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1388-1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020132 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Background: The number of cases of rectal cancer in our older cohort is expected to rise with our ageing population. In this study, we analysed patterns in treatment and the long-term outcomes of patients older than 80 years with rectal cancer across a [...] Read more.
Background: The number of cases of rectal cancer in our older cohort is expected to rise with our ageing population. In this study, we analysed patterns in treatment and the long-term outcomes of patients older than 80 years with rectal cancer across a health district. Methods: All cases of rectal cancer managed at the Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Australia between 2006 and 2018 were analysed from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were stratified into three age groups: ≤65 years, 66–79 years and ≥80 years of age. The clinicopathological characteristics, operative and non-operative treatment approach and survival outcomes of the three groups were compared. Results: Six hundred and ninety-nine patients with rectal cancer were managed, of which 118 (17%) were aged 80 and above. Patients above 80 were less likely to undergo surgery (71% vs. 90%, p < 0.001) or receive adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Of those that underwent surgical resection, their tumours were on average larger (36.5 vs. 31.5 mm, p = 0.019) and 18 mm closer the anal verge (p = 0.001). On Kaplan–Meier analysis, those above 80 had poorer cancer-specific survival when compared to their younger counterparts (p = 0.032), but this difference was no longer apparent after the first year (p = 0.381). Conclusion: Patients above the age of 80 with rectal cancer exhibit poorer cancer-specific survival, which is accounted for in the first year after diagnosis. Priority should be made to optimise care during this period. There is a need for further research to establish the role of chemoradiotherapy in this population, which appears to be underutilised. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consensus Recommendations for MRD Testing in Adult B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Ontario
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1376-1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020131 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Measurable (minimal) residual disease (MRD) is an established, key prognostic factor in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and testing for MRD is known to be an important tool to help guide treatment decisions. The clinical value of MRD testing depends on the [...] Read more.
Measurable (minimal) residual disease (MRD) is an established, key prognostic factor in adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and testing for MRD is known to be an important tool to help guide treatment decisions. The clinical value of MRD testing depends on the accuracy and reliability of results. Currently, there are no Canadian provincial or national guidelines for MRD testing in adult B-ALL, and consistent with the absence of such guidelines, there is no uniform Ontario MRD testing consensus. Moreover, there is great variability in Ontario in MRD testing with respect to where, when, and by which technique, MRD testing is performed, as well as in how the results are interpreted. To address these deficiencies, an expert multidisciplinary working group was convened to define consensus recommendations for improving the provision of such testing. The expert panel recommends that MRD testing should be implemented in a centralized manner to ensure expertise and accuracy in testing for this low volume indication, thereby to provide accurate, reliable results to clinicians and patients. All adult patients with B-ALL should receive MRD testing after induction chemotherapy. Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive patients should have ongoing monitoring of MRD during treatment and thereafter, while samples from Ph-negative B-ALL patients should be tested at least once later during treatment, ideally at 12 to 16 weeks after treatment initiation. In Ph-negative adult B-ALL patients, standardized, ideally centralized, protocols must be used for MRD testing, including both flow cytometry and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement analysis. For Ph-positive B-ALL patients, MRD testing using a standardized protocol for reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for the BCR-ABL1 gene fusion transcript is recommended, with Ig/TCR gene rearrangement analysis done in parallel likely providing additional clinical information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
Open AccessArticle
National Variations in the Work-Up, Investigation, and Surgical Management of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast across Canadian Surgeons
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1366-1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020130 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Variation in the management of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast occur at both national and international levels. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of, and reasons behind, this variation in the workup and treatment of DCIS [...] Read more.
Variation in the management of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the breast occur at both national and international levels. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of, and reasons behind, this variation in the workup and treatment of DCIS among Canadian surgeons. We developed a 35-question survey involving the pre-, peri, and post-operative management of DCIS using SurveyMonkey®. The survey was sent out via email and responses were analyzed using SurveyMonkey® and Microsoft Excel. 51/119 (43%) of the Canadian General Surgeons contacted participated in this study. Some variation was observed in the utilization of pre-operative imaging with 29/48 (60%) surgeons routinely using ultrasound. Perceived contraindications to breast conserving therapy also varied with multicentricity (54%) and the presence of diffuse microcalcifications (13%). Nearly all respondent’s (98%) patients had access to immediate breast reconstruction following a mastectomy but 14/48 (29%) of respondents’ patients were required to travel a mean distance of 300 km to undergo the procedure. Substantial variation was also seen during follow-up with half (52%) of surgeons following up patients for >1 month in their surgical clinic. There is considerable variation in the management of DCIS among Canadian Surgeons. The present study indicates the need for pan-Canadian, evidence-based guidelines to ensure a standardized management strategy for patients with DCIS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Surgical Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Radiotherapy Dose in Patients with Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1354-1365; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020129 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
Objective: For patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by planned esophagectomy is used as a curative treatment modality. However, the impact of radiotherapy dose remains undefined. Method: A total of 141 patients with stage III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC; [...] Read more.
Objective: For patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by planned esophagectomy is used as a curative treatment modality. However, the impact of radiotherapy dose remains undefined. Method: A total of 141 patients with stage III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC; as defined by the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer), receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by esophagectomy between 2000 and 2015 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, were retrospectively reviewed. The radiotherapy dose of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (36 Gy before 2009 and 50–50.4 Gy after 2009) and other clinicopathological parameters were collected and correlated with the response to chemoradiotherapy and treatment outcome. Result: Of these 141 patients, the radiotherapy dose was 36 Gy in 59 (42%) patients and 50 Gy in 82 (58%) patients. A complete pathological response was noted in 12 (20%) of 59 patients receiving 36 Gy radiotherapy, and 37 (45%) of 82 patients receiving 50 Gy radiotherapy (p = 0.002). The three-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 31% and 25% in patients receiving 36 Gy radiotherapy, and 54% and 46% in patients receiving 50–50.4 Gy radiotherapy, respectively (p = 0.023 for overall survival; p = 0.047 for disease-free survival). Multivariate analysis showed that a higher radiotherapy dose was associated with increased pathological complete response (p = 0.003, hazard ratio: 3.215), better overall survival (p = 0.024, hazard ratio: 1.585), and superior disease-free survival (p = 0.049, hazard ratio: 1.493). However, higher radiotherapy doses revealed more surgical complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.048) and anastomosis leaks (p = 0.004). Conclusion: For patients with locally advanced ESCC, preoperative chemoradiotherapy with higher radiotherapy doses led to increased pathologic complete response rates and improved survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Open AccessCase Report
COVID-19 Pneumonia on Post-Operative Day 2 after Esophagectomy: Performing Esophago-Gastric Junction Cancer Surgery during the SARS-Cov-2 Second Wave
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1348-1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020128 - 27 Mar 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a substantial impact on the provision of medical healthcare. Due to an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) transmission, elective surgical treatment has been suspended in many centers. The effects of [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a substantial impact on the provision of medical healthcare. Due to an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) transmission, elective surgical treatment has been suspended in many centers. The effects of COVID-19 in the early post-operative period after esophagectomy remains unknown. In this report, we present three cases of patients diagnosed with esophago-gastric junction cancer who were scheduled for elective esophagectomy with a curative intention during second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in a single high-volume tertiary center. Despite all available safety measures, one of the patients developed COVID-19 pneumonia on post-operative day two, leading to an impaired respiratory function and increased pleural fluid collection from the chest tube, resulting in a prolonged time of hospital stay. Finding a good balance between the COVID-19-related perioperative risks and consequences of delaying surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with esophago-gastric cancer is a challenge. In order to achieve the best possible outcome, care must be taken to ensure availability of necessary treatment options and to reduce the risk of SARS-Cov-2 transmission perioperatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Open AccessReview
Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: Review of the Evidence and Conditions That Facilitated Its Use during the Global Pandemic
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1338-1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020127 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Practice and behaviour change in healthcare is complex, and requires a set of critical steps that would be needed to implement and sustain the change. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is traditionally used for locally advanced disease and is primarily advantageous for surgical [...] Read more.
Practice and behaviour change in healthcare is complex, and requires a set of critical steps that would be needed to implement and sustain the change. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is traditionally used for locally advanced disease and is primarily advantageous for surgical downstaging purposes. However, it does also offer patients with certain biologic subtypes such as the triple negative or Her2 positive breast cancers the opportunity to improve survival, even in early stage disease. During the height of the pandemic, an opportunity and motivation for the increased use of neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer was identified. This paper describes the conditions that have supported this practice change at the provider and institutional levels. We also include our own institutional algorithm based on tumor biology and extent of disease that have guided our decisions on breast cancer management during the pandemic. Our processes can be adapted by other institutions and breast oncology practices in accordance with local conditions and resources, during and beyond the pandemic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Body Composition as a Predictor of Toxicity and Prognosis in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Receiving R-CHOP Immunochemotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1325-1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020126 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Background: Our study measured the body composition of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients receiving rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen by computed tomographic (CT) and assessed their correlation with treatment-related toxicity and other adverse outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed [...] Read more.
Background: Our study measured the body composition of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients receiving rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen by computed tomographic (CT) and assessed their correlation with treatment-related toxicity and other adverse outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 201 DLBCL patients who underwent pre-treatment abdominal CT examination. CT images were used to assess body composition metrics at the third lumbar vertebrae including fat tissues and muscle. Based on the skeletal muscle area (SMA) and density (SMD), skeletal muscle index (SMI), skeletal muscle gauge (SMG = SMI × SMD) and lean body mass (LBM) were calculated. Also analyzed were the toxicity, adverse events and survival. Results: We found that SMG, SMD, SMI and LBM were correlated with any grade 3–4 toxicity, dose reduction, hospitalization or termination of the treatment due to immunochemotherapy and worse survival. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated SMG [progression-free survival (PFS): hazard ratio (HR), 2.889; 95% CI, 1.401–5.959; p = 0.004; overall survival (OS): HR, 2.655; 95% CI, 1.218–5.787; p = 0.014] was the best predictor of poor prognosis. Conclusions: SMG, SMD, SMI and LBM were identified as predictors of adverse reactions and poor survival. SMG was an innovative and valuable indicator of immunochemotherapy toxicity and other adverse outcomes. Additionally, it can be used to individualize antineoplastic drug dosing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinicopathological Significances of Tumor–Stroma Ratio (TSR) in Colorectal Cancers: Prognostic Implication of TSR Compared to Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression and Microvessel Density
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1314-1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020125 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic implications of tumor–stroma ratio (TSR) in colorectal cancers (CRCs). TSRs were investigated in 266 human CRC specimens. The correlations between TSR and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were evaluated. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and prognostic implications of tumor–stroma ratio (TSR) in colorectal cancers (CRCs). TSRs were investigated in 266 human CRC specimens. The correlations between TSR and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were evaluated. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) immunohistochemical expression of tumor cells and microvessel density (MVD) of stroma were compared between stroma-low and stroma-high subgroups. Results: Stroma-low was found in 185 of 266 CRCs (69.5%). Stroma-low was significantly correlated with less frequent vascular and perineural invasion and distant metastasis than stroma-high. HIF-1α of tumor cells was more highly expressed in the stroma-high subgroup than in the stroma-low subgroup. In addition, MVD was significantly higher in the stroma-high subgroup compared to the stroma-low subgroup. The stroma-low rate was increased considerably in CRCs with a mucinous component and decreased in CRCs with a micropapillary component. There were significant correlations between stroma-low and better overall and recurrence-free survivals. Similar to the literature, we observed that stroma-low was significantly correlated with favorable tumor behaviors and better survival. The microscopic examination of TSR can be useful for predicting the prognosis of CRC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Open AccessSystematic Review
The Role of Denosumab for Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Giant Cell Tumour of Bone: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1302-1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020124 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Background: The role of denosumab in patients with resectable giant cell tumour of bone remains unclear. We asked the following research question: for patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with resectable giant cell tumour of bone, what are the benefits and harms of denosumab [...] Read more.
Background: The role of denosumab in patients with resectable giant cell tumour of bone remains unclear. We asked the following research question: for patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with resectable giant cell tumour of bone, what are the benefits and harms of denosumab compared with no denosumab in terms of (1) facilitation of surgery (operative time, blood loss), (2) disease recurrence, (3) pain control, (4) disease stability, and (5) adverse effects (e.g., malignant transformation, osteonecrosis of jaw, atypical femur fracture)? One previous systematic review addressed only one outcome—disease recurrence. Therefore, we undertook this new systematic review to address the above five outcomes. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases were searched on June 30, 2020. Results: This systematic review included one previous systematic review and five comparative studies. Due to poor quality, non-randomized studies fraught with selection bias, it is difficult to determine if a significant difference exists in the outcomes for surgical giant cell tumour of bone with perioperative denosumab. There were no reported cases of adverse effects from denosumab. Conclusion: To date, there is insufficient evidence to understand the value of denosumab in the perioperative setting in patients with giant cell tumour of bone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Utility of Combined Target and Systematic Prostate Biopsies in the Diagnosis of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 Based on Biparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1294-1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020123 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the predictive value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) based on biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) with combined target biopsy (TBx) and systematic biopsy (SBx) in patients with suspicion of having clinically [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the predictive value of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) based on biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) with combined target biopsy (TBx) and systematic biopsy (SBx) in patients with suspicion of having clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical and pathological records of 184 consecutive patients who underwent bpMRI before prostate biopsy. We focused on patients with PI-RADS v2 scores ≥ 3. MRI was performed using a 3-Tesla clinical scanner with a 32-channel phased-array receiver coil. PI-RADS v2 was used to describe bpMRI findings based on T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging scores. The primary endpoint was the diagnostic accuracy rate of PI-RADS v2 based on bpMRI for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent combined TBx and SBx. A total of 104 patients were enrolled in this study. Combined TBx and SBx was significantly superior to either method alone for PCa detection in patients with suspicious lesions according to PI-RADS v2. TBx and SBx detected concordant csPCa in only 24.1% of the patients. In addition, the rate of increase in the Gleason score was similar between SBx (41.5%) and TBx (34.1%). The diagnostic accuracy of bpMRI is comparable to that of standard multiparametric MRI for the detection of csPCa. Moreover, combined TBx and SBx may be optimal for the accurate determination of csPCa diagnosis, the International Society of Urological Pathology grade, and risk classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Gene Aberrations on Survival in Resected IDH Wildtype Glioblastoma Patients: A Single-Institution Study
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1280-1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020122 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
This prospective population-based study on a group of 132 resected IDH-wildtype (IDH-wt) glioblastoma (GBM) patients assesses the prognostic and predictive value of selected genetic biomarkers and clinical factors for GBM as well as the dependence of these values on the applied therapeutic modalities. [...] Read more.
This prospective population-based study on a group of 132 resected IDH-wildtype (IDH-wt) glioblastoma (GBM) patients assesses the prognostic and predictive value of selected genetic biomarkers and clinical factors for GBM as well as the dependence of these values on the applied therapeutic modalities. The patients were treated in our hospital between June 2006 and June 2015. Clinical data and tumor samples were analyzed to determine the frequencies of TP53, MDM2, EGFR, RB1, BCR, and CCND1 gene aberrations and the duplication/deletion statuses of the 9p21.3, 1p36.3, 19q13.32, and 10p11.1 chromosome regions. Cut-off values distinguishing low (LCN) and high (HCN) copy number status for each marker were defined. Additionally, MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1/2 mutation status were investigated retrospectively. Young age, female gender, Karnofsky scores (KS) above 80, chemoradiotherapy, TP53 HCN, and CCND1 HCN were identified as positive prognostic factors, and smoking was identified as a negative prognostic factor. Cox proportional regression models of the chemoradiotherapy patient group revealed TP53 HCN and CCND1 HCN to be positive prognostic factors for both progression-free survival and overall survival. These results confirmed the influence of key clinical factors (age, KS, adjuvant oncotherapy, and smoking) on survival in GBM IDH-wt patients and demonstrated the prognostic and/or predictive importance of CCND1, MDM2, and 22q12.2 aberrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Open AccessCase Report
PTEN R130Q Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region (PTPR) with Chromosome 10 Loss Successfully Treated with Everolimus: A Case Report
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1274-1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020121 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) can be observed among adults with poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. Standards of therapy involve total surgical excision along with radiation therapy, with no promising prospects for primary adjuvant chemotherapy, as long-term treatment options have [...] Read more.
Papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) can be observed among adults with poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. Standards of therapy involve total surgical excision along with radiation therapy, with no promising prospects for primary adjuvant chemotherapy, as long-term treatment options have not been explored. Chromosome 10 loss is characteristic of PTPR, and PTEN gene alterations are frequently encountered in a wide range of human cancers and may be treated with mTORC1 inhibitors such as everolimus. In parallel, there are no reports of treating PTPR with everolimus alone as a monopharmacotherapy. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with PTPR (grade III) characterized by a PTEN R130Q alteration with chromosome 10 loss that was treated with everolimus pharmacotherapy alone, resulting in an asymptomatic course and tumor regression, a rare yet notable phenomenon not described in the literature so far with potential to alter the management approach to patients with PTPR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Perioperative Chemotherapy versus Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Operable Stomach Cancer: A Western Canadian Province Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1262-1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020120 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Background: The standard approaches for resectable stomach cancer are postoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCR) or perioperative chemotherapy (PC). Limited evidence is available regarding the superiority of one of the two approaches. We aimed to compare the survival of patients with operable stomach cancer who were [...] Read more.
Background: The standard approaches for resectable stomach cancer are postoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCR) or perioperative chemotherapy (PC). Limited evidence is available regarding the superiority of one of the two approaches. We aimed to compare the survival of patients with operable stomach cancer who were treated with PC or PCR. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients with operable stomach cancer diagnosed between 2005–2015 in the province of Saskatchewan were identified and, based on type of treatment, were placed into PCR and PC groups. A Cox proportional multivariate analysis was performed to assess independent prognostic variables, including survival advantage of PC over PCR. Results: A total of 88 eligible patients with a median age of 66 (56–71) and a male to female ratio of 1:0.44 were identified. Seventy-three (83%) patients had pathologically node positive disease. Sixty-seven (76%) patients received PCR, while 21 (24%) patients received PC. The median overall survival of the whole group was 34 months, with 38 months (95% CI 24.6–51.3) in the PCR group vs. 30 months (14.3–45.7) in the PC group (p = 0.29). Median relapse-free survival was 34 months (20.7–47.3) in the PCR group vs. 23 months (6.7–39.3) in the PC group (p = 0.20). Toxicities were comparable. On multivariate analysis, T ≥ 3 tumor (HR, 3.57 (1.39–8.56)), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (LNR) > 2.8 (HR, 1.85 (1.05–3.25)), and positive resection margins (HR, 1.89 (1.06–3.37)) were independently correlated with inferior survival. Conclusions: This well-designed population based cohort study suggests a lack of survival benefit of PC over PCR. Both treatment options remain viable approaches for resectable stomach cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Evaluating the Indirect Costs of Care Associated with Salvage Chemotherapy for Relapsed and Refractory Aggressive-Histology Lymphoma: A Subset Analysis of the Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG) LY.12 Clinical Trial
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1256-1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020119 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
We conducted an analysis of indirect costs alongside the LY.12 randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lost productivity data for Canadian patients and caregivers in the trial were collected at baseline and with each chemotherapy cycle [...] Read more.
We conducted an analysis of indirect costs alongside the LY.12 randomized trial in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lost productivity data for Canadian patients and caregivers in the trial were collected at baseline and with each chemotherapy cycle pre-transplant, using an adapted Lost Productivity questionnaire. Mean per patient indirect costs were CAD 2999 for patients in the GDP arm and CAD 3400 in the DHAP arm. A substantial majority was not working or had to reduce their workload during this treatment time. Salvage chemotherapy for R/R aggressive NHL is associated with significant indirect costs to patients and their caregivers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multicenter Study of the Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Covid-19 in Patients with Lymphoma: An Analysis of the Oncological Group for the Treatment and Study of Lymphomas (Gotel)
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1249-1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020118 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus has generated a pandemic, in which there are population groups at higher risk and who are potentially fatal victims of the disease. Cancer patients have been considered a group with special susceptibility, particularly [...] Read more.
The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus has generated a pandemic, in which there are population groups at higher risk and who are potentially fatal victims of the disease. Cancer patients have been considered a group with special susceptibility, particularly patients with lung tumour involvement and haematological neoplasms. The Spanish Lymphoma Oncology Group (GOTEL) carried out a multicenter study of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in patients with lymphoma. Results: A total of 150 patients were included between 22 May and 11 June 2020. The mean age was 65 years (range 17–89), 70 women (46.5%) and 80 men (53, 5%). At the time of diagnosis of lymphoma, 13 cases were stage I (9%), 27 (18%) stage II, 37 (24.5%) stage III, and 73 (48.5%) stage IV, while 6.6% had a primary extranodal origin. A total of 10 cases with positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 were identified, which is a prevalence of 6% in this population. None of the patients required intensive care unit management and all fully recovered from the infection. Conclusion: IgG antibody seroprevalence in lymphoma patients appears similar to that of the general population and does not show greater aggressiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hematology)
Open AccessSystematic Review
The Out-of-Pocket Cost Burden of Cancer Care—A Systematic Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2021, 28(2), 1216-1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28020117 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Background: Out-of-pocket costs pose a substantial economic burden to cancer patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature on out-of-pocket costs of cancer care. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies that estimated the [...] Read more.
Background: Out-of-pocket costs pose a substantial economic burden to cancer patients and their families. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the literature on out-of-pocket costs of cancer care. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies that estimated the out-of-pocket cost burden faced by cancer patients and their caregivers. The average monthly out-of-pocket costs per patient were reported/estimated and converted to 2018 USD. Costs were reported as medical and non-medical costs and were reported across countries or country income levels by cancer site, where possible, and category. The out-of-pocket burden was estimated as the average proportion of income spent as non-reimbursable costs. Results: Among all cancers, adult patients and caregivers in the U.S. spent between USD 180 and USD 2600 per month, compared to USD 15–400 in Canada, USD 4–609 in Western Europe, and USD 58–438 in Australia. Patients with breast or colorectal cancer spent around USD 200 per month, while pediatric cancer patients spent USD 800. Patients spent USD 288 per month on cancer medications in the U.S. and USD 40 in other high-income countries (HICs). The average costs for medical consultations and in-hospital care were estimated between USD 40–71 in HICs. Cancer patients and caregivers spent 42% and 16% of their annual income on out-of-pocket expenses in low- and middle-income countries and HICs, respectively. Conclusions: We found evidence that cancer is associated with high out-of-pocket costs. Healthcare systems have an opportunity to improve the coverage of medical and non-medical costs for cancer patients to help alleviate this burden and ensure equitable access to care. Full article
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