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Molecules, Volume 25, Issue 18 (September-2 2020) – 319 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This work forms part of the ‘Women in Physical Chemistry’ Special Issue of Molecules and was [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Activity of Quercetin 3-O-Arabinofuranoside and 2-Oxopomolic Acid Derived from Malus domestica on Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4352; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184352 - 22 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Flavonoids and triterpenoids were revealed to be the potential inhibitors on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The aim of this study is to reveal sEH inhibitors from Fuji apples. A flavonoid and three triterpenoids derived from the fruit of Malus domestica were identified as [...] Read more.
Flavonoids and triterpenoids were revealed to be the potential inhibitors on soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The aim of this study is to reveal sEH inhibitors from Fuji apples. A flavonoid and three triterpenoids derived from the fruit of Malus domestica were identified as quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (1), ursolic acid (2), corosolic acid (3), and 2-oxopomolic acid (4). They had half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the inhibitors (IC50) values of 39.3 ± 3.4, 84.5 ± 9.5, 51.3 ± 4.9, and 11.4 ± 2.7 μM, respectively, on sEH. The inhibitors bound to allosteric sites of enzymes in mixed (1) and noncompetitive modes (24). Molecular simulations were carried out for inhibitors 1 and 4 to calculate the binding force of ligands to receptors. The inhibitors bound to the left (1) and right (4) pockets next to the enzyme’s active site. Based on analyses of their molecular docking and dynamics, it was shown that inhibitors 1 and 4 can stably bind sEH at 1 bar and 300 K. Finally, inhibitors 1 and 4 are promising candidates for further studies using cell-based assays and in vivo cardiovascular tests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oxazolochlorins 21. Most Efficient Access to meso-Tetraphenyl- and meso-Tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porpholactones, and Their Zinc(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4351; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184351 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 242
Abstract
meso-Phenyl- and meso-pentafluorophenyl-porpholactones, their metal complexes, as well as porphyrinoids directly derived from them are useful in a number of technical and biomedical applications, and more uses are expected to be discovered. About a dozen competing and complementary pathways toward their [...] Read more.
meso-Phenyl- and meso-pentafluorophenyl-porpholactones, their metal complexes, as well as porphyrinoids directly derived from them are useful in a number of technical and biomedical applications, and more uses are expected to be discovered. About a dozen competing and complementary pathways toward their synthesis were reported. The suitability of the methods changes with the meso-aryl group and whether the free base or metal derivatives are sought. These circumstances make it hard for anyone outside of the field of synthetic porphyrin chemistry to ascertain which pathway is the best to produce which specific derivative. We report here on what we experimentally evaluated to be the most efficient pathways to generate the six key compounds from the commercially available porphyrins, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TFPP): free base meso-tetraphenylporpholactone (TPL) and meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porpholactone (TFPL), and their platinum(II) and zinc(II) complexes TPLPt, TFPLPt, TPLZn, and TFPLZn, respectively. Detailed procedures are provided to make these intriguing molecules more readily available for their further study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Evaluation of Metal Pollution in Urban Soils of a Post-Industrial City—A Case of Łódź, Poland
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4350; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184350 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 180
Abstract
The pollution of urban soils by metals is a global problem. Prolonged exposure of habitants who are in contact with metals retained in soil poses a health risk. This particularly applies to industrialized cities with developed transport networks. The aim of the study [...] Read more.
The pollution of urban soils by metals is a global problem. Prolonged exposure of habitants who are in contact with metals retained in soil poses a health risk. This particularly applies to industrialized cities with developed transport networks. The aim of the study was to determine the content and spatial distribution of mobile metal fractions in soils of the city of Łódź and to identify their load and sources. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA)), combined with GIS, were used to make a comprehensive evaluation of the soil contamination. Hot-spots and differences between urban and suburban areas were also investigated. Metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after soil extraction with 1 mol L−1 HCl. In most sites, the metal content changes in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. About one-third of the samples are considerably (or very highly) contaminated, (contamination factor, CF > 3) with Cu, Pb, or Zn. In almost 40% of the samples, contaminated soils were found (pollution load index, PLI > 1). All metals have a strong influence on the first principal component (PC1), whereas second principal component (PC2) is related to pH. Polluted soils are located in the downtown, in the south and east part of the city. The distribution of contamination coincides with the urban layout, low emission sources and former industrial areas of Łódź. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Profile Characterization of Croatian Commercial Sparkling Wines
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4349; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184349 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Commercial sparkling wine production represents a relatively low but important part of the Croatian wine production, especially in the Zagreb county. This study presents the results of volatile aroma compounds profile and organic acid composition of commercial sparkling wine samples from three vine-growing [...] Read more.
Commercial sparkling wine production represents a relatively low but important part of the Croatian wine production, especially in the Zagreb county. This study presents the results of volatile aroma compounds profile and organic acid composition of commercial sparkling wine samples from three vine-growing regions in Zagreb county. In total, 174 volatile aroma compounds were identified, separated between their chemical classes (aldehydes, higher alcohols, volatile phenols, terpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, esters, fatty acids, sulfur compounds, other compounds, other alcohols). Higher alcohols such as phenylethyl and isoamyl alcohol as well as 2-methyl-1-butanol, and esters such as diethyl succinate, ethyl hydrogensuccinate, and ethyl lactate had the strongest impact on the volatile compounds profile of Zagreb county sparkling wine. The presence of diethyl glutarate and diethyl malonate, compounds whose concentrations are influenced by yeast autolysis or caused by chemical esterification during the ageing process, was also noted. The influence of every single volatile aroma compound was evaluated by discriminant analysis using forward stepwise model. The volatile profiles of traditional sparkling wines from Croatia were presented for the first time. It is hoped the results will contribute to better understanding the quality potential and to evaluate possible differences on the bases of detected aroma concentrations and multivariate analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry: The Key behind Wine Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Thymol Encapsulated into HP-β-Cyclodextrin as an Alternative to Synthetic Fungicides to Induce Lemon Resistance against Sour Rot Decay
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4348; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184348 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Consumers demand the use of eco-friendly fungicides to treat fruit and vegetables and governmental authorities have unauthorized the application of chemical antifungals for the efficient control of sour rot. In the present research, the microwave irradiation (MW) method was used to encapsulate thymol [...] Read more.
Consumers demand the use of eco-friendly fungicides to treat fruit and vegetables and governmental authorities have unauthorized the application of chemical antifungals for the efficient control of sour rot. In the present research, the microwave irradiation (MW) method was used to encapsulate thymol into 2-hydroxylpropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and the effect of these HP-β-CD on controlling sour rot in citrus fruit, caused by Geotrichum citri-aurantii, was evaluated. Amounts of 25 and 50 mM of HP-β-CD-thymol were used, and compared with propiconazole, to control the decay of inoculated lemon fruit. The treatments were performed in curative and preventive experiments. The incidence and severity of Geotrichum citri-aurantii in 25 and 50 mM HP-β-CD-thymol-treated fruit were reduced in both experiments. The preventive 50 mM HP-β-CD-thymol treatment showed the best effect, reducing the sour rot, respiration rate and fruit weight loss during storage at 20 °C. HP-β-CD-thymol increased polyphenol concentration and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in lemon peel, and the highest effects were found with the 50-mM dose. In conclusion, the results show that the use of thymol encapsulated by MW into HP-β-CD could be an effective and sustainable tool, a substitute to the synthetic fungicides, for G. citri-auriantii control in citrus fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrins: Recent Advances in Chemistry and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Optimized MALDI-TOF-MS Method for High-Throughput Identification of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4347; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184347 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
Because high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are important contributors to wheat end-use quality, there is a need for high-throughput identification of HMW-GS in wheat genetic resources and breeding lines. We developed an optimized method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to distinguish [...] Read more.
Because high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are important contributors to wheat end-use quality, there is a need for high-throughput identification of HMW-GS in wheat genetic resources and breeding lines. We developed an optimized method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to distinguish individual HMW-GS by considering the effects of the alkylating reagent in protein extraction, solvent components, dissolving volume, and matrix II components. Using the optimized method, 18 of 22 HMW-GS were successfully identified in standard wheat cultivars by differences in molecular weights or by their associations with other tightly linked subunits. Interestingly, 1Bx7 subunits were divided into 1Bx7 group 1 and 1Bx7 group 2 proteins with molecular weights of about 82,400 and 83,000 Da, respectively. Cultivars containing the 1Bx7 group 2 proteins were distinguished from those containing 1Bx7OE using well-known DNA markers. HMW-GS 1Ax2* and 1Bx6 and 1By8 and 1By8*, which are difficult to distinguish due to very similar molecular weights, were easily identified using RP-HPLC. To validate the method, HMW-GS from 38 Korean wheat varieties previously evaluated by SDS-PAGE combined with RP-HPLC were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The optimized MALDI-TOF-MS method will be a rapid, high-throughput tool for selecting lines containing desirable HMW-GS for breeding efforts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structure and Performance of Benzoxazine Composites for Space Radiation Shielding
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4346; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184346 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 171
Abstract
Innovative multifunctional materials that combine structural functionality with other spacecraft subsystem functions have been identified as a key enabling technology for future deep space missions. In this work, we report the structure and performance of multifunctional polymer matrix composites developed for aerospace applications [...] Read more.
Innovative multifunctional materials that combine structural functionality with other spacecraft subsystem functions have been identified as a key enabling technology for future deep space missions. In this work, we report the structure and performance of multifunctional polymer matrix composites developed for aerospace applications that require both structural functionality and space radiation shielding. Composites comprised of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber reinforcement and a hydrogen-rich polybenzoxazine matrix are prepared using a low-pressure vacuum bagging process. The polybenzoxazine matrix is derived from a novel benzoxazine resin that possesses a unique combination of attributes: high hydrogen concentration for shielding against galactic cosmic rays (GCR), low polymerization temperature to prevent damage to UHMWPE fibers during composite fabrication, long shelf-life, and low viscosity to improve flow during molding. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to study rheological and thermomechanical properties. Composite mechanical properties, obtained using several standardized tests, are reported. Improvement in composite stiffness, through the addition of carbon fiber skin layers, is investigated. Radiation shielding performance is evaluated using computer-based simulations. The composites demonstrate clear advantages over benchmark materials in terms of combined structural and radiation shielding performance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Partial Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Chinese Truffles
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4345; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184345 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
Truffles are world-renowned premium commodities. Due to their unique aroma and rarity, the price of truffles has always been very high. In this study, Diethylaminoethyl anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration were employed for polysaccharide purification from two different species of Chinese truffles. [...] Read more.
Truffles are world-renowned premium commodities. Due to their unique aroma and rarity, the price of truffles has always been very high. In this study, Diethylaminoethyl anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration were employed for polysaccharide purification from two different species of Chinese truffles. Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained from Tuber panzhihuanense and referred to as TPZ-NP, TPZ-I, and TPZ-II. Additionally, two polysaccharide fractions were purified from T. pseudoexcavatum (TPD-NP and TPD-I). The results of structural elucidation indicated that the polysaccharide from different species showed different monosaccharide composition and linkage units, as well as molecular weight. Two of the polysaccharide fractions with the highest yield, TPZ-I and TPD-I, were chosen for biological testing. The results indicated that both fractions displayed antioxidant properties through mediation of the intestinal cellular antioxidant defense system, which could protect cultured intestinal cells from oxidative stress-induced damage and cell viability suppression. The TPD-I fraction showed stronger antioxidant effects, which may be due to the difference in structure. Further study on the structure-activity relationship is needed to be done. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biocatalytic Potential of Native Basidiomycetes from Colombia for Flavour/Aroma Production
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4344; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184344 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
Aromas and flavours can be produced from fungi by either de novo synthesis or biotransformation processes. Herein, the biocatalytic potential of seven basidiomycete species from Colombia fungal strains isolated as endophytes or basidioma was evaluated. Ganoderma webenarium, Ganoderma chocoense, and Ganoderma [...] Read more.
Aromas and flavours can be produced from fungi by either de novo synthesis or biotransformation processes. Herein, the biocatalytic potential of seven basidiomycete species from Colombia fungal strains isolated as endophytes or basidioma was evaluated. Ganoderma webenarium, Ganoderma chocoense, and Ganoderma stipitatum were the most potent strains capable of decolourizing β,β-carotene as evidence of their potential as biocatalysts for de novo aroma synthesis. Since a species’ biocatalytic potential cannot solely be determined via qualitative screening using β,β-carotene biotransformation processes, we focused on using α-pinene biotransformation with mycelium as a measure of catalytic potential. Here, two strains of Trametes elegans—namely, the endophytic (ET-06) and basidioma (EBB-046) strains—were screened. Herein, T. elegans is reported for the first time as a novel biocatalyst for the oxidation of α-pinene, with a product yield of 2.9 mg of cis-Verbenol per gram of dry weight mycelia used. The EBB-046 strain generated flavour compounds via the biotransformation of a Cape gooseberry medium and de novo synthesis in submerged cultures. Three aroma-producing compounds were identified via GC–MS—namely, methyl-3-methoxy-4H-pyran-4-one, hexahydro-3-(methylpropyl)-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, and hexahydro-3-(methylphenyl)-pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products from Fungi)
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Open AccessReview
The Lipidome Fingerprint of Longevity
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184343 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 186
Abstract
Lipids were determinants in the appearance and evolution of life. Recent studies disclose the existence of a link between lipids and animal longevity. Findings from both comparative studies and genetics and nutritional interventions in invertebrates, vertebrates, and exceptionally long-lived animal species—humans included—demonstrate that [...] Read more.
Lipids were determinants in the appearance and evolution of life. Recent studies disclose the existence of a link between lipids and animal longevity. Findings from both comparative studies and genetics and nutritional interventions in invertebrates, vertebrates, and exceptionally long-lived animal species—humans included—demonstrate that both the cell membrane fatty acid profile and lipidome are a species-specific optimized evolutionary adaptation and traits associated with longevity. All these emerging observations point to lipids as a key target to study the molecular mechanisms underlying differences in longevity and suggest the existence of a lipidome profile of long life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Design, Synthesis, In Vitro and In Silico Studies of New Thiazolylhydrazine-Piperazine Derivatives as Selective MAO-A Inhibitors
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4342; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184342 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 173
Abstract
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes are very important drug targets among neurological disorders. Herein, novel series of thiazolylhydrazine-piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their MAO-A and -B inhibitory activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned using different spectroscopic techniques such [...] Read more.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzymes are very important drug targets among neurological disorders. Herein, novel series of thiazolylhydrazine-piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their MAO-A and -B inhibitory activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned using different spectroscopic techniques such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS. Moreover, the prediction of ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination) parameters for all of the compounds were performed using in silico method. According to the enzyme inhibition results, the synthesized compounds showed the selectivity against MAO-A enzyme inhibition. Compounds 3c, 3d and 3e displayed significant MAO-A inhibition potencies. Among them, compound 3e was found to be the most effective derivative with an IC50 value of 0.057 ± 0.002 µM. Moreover, it was seen that this compound has a more potent inhibition profile than the reference inhibitors moclobemide (IC50 = 6.061 ± 0.262 µM) and clorgiline (IC50 = 0.062 ± 0.002 µM). In addition, the enzyme kinetics were performed for compound 3e and it was determined that this compound had a competitive and reversible inhibition type. Molecular modeling studies aided in the understanding of the interaction modes between this compound and MAO-A. It was found that compound 3e had significant and important binding property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in the Development of Enzyme Inhibitors)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Bis-Ammonium Salts of Pyridoxine: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Properties
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4341; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184341 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
A series of 108 novel quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives carrying various substituents at the quaternary nitrogen’s and acetal carbon was synthesized. Thirteen compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25–16 µg/mL) comparable or superior than miramistin, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. [...] Read more.
A series of 108 novel quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives carrying various substituents at the quaternary nitrogen’s and acetal carbon was synthesized. Thirteen compounds exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25–16 µg/mL) comparable or superior than miramistin, benzalkonium chloride, and chlorhexidine. A strong correlation between the lipophilicity and antibacterial activity was found. The most active compounds had logP values in the range of 1–3, while compounds with logP > 6 and logP < 0 were almost inactive. All active compounds demonstrated cytotoxicity comparable with miramistin and chlorhexidine on HEK-293 cells and were three-fold less toxic when compared to benzalkonium chloride. The antibacterial activity of leading compound 5c12 on biofilm-embedded Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparable or even higher than that of the benzalkonium chloride. In vivo 5c12 was considerably less toxic (LD50 1705 mg/kg) than benzalkonium chloride, miramistine, and chlorhexidine at oral administration on CD-1 mice. An aqueous solution of 5c12 (0.2%) was shown to be comparable to reference drugs efficiency on the rat’s skin model. The molecular target of 5c12 seems to be a cellular membrane as other quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results make the described quaternary bis-ammonium pyridoxine derivatives promising and lead molecules in the development of the new antiseptics with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiocides Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Urinary Resveratrol Metabolites Output: Differential Associations with Cardiometabolic Markers and Liver Enzymes in House-Dwelling Subjects Featuring Metabolic Syndrome
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4340; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184340 - 22 Sep 2020
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Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components are strongly associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Several studies have supported that resveratrol is associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on health status. The main objective of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components are strongly associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. Several studies have supported that resveratrol is associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on health status. The main objective of this study was to assess the putative associations between some urinary resveratrol phase II metabolites, cardiometabolic, and liver markers in individuals diagnosed with MetS. In this cross-sectional study, 266 participants from PREDIMED Plus study (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) were divided into tertiles of total urinary resveratrol phase II metabolites (sum of five resveratrol conjugation metabolites). Urinary resveratrol metabolites were analyzed by ultra- performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-q-Q MS), followed by micro-solid phase extraction (µ-SPE) method. Liver function markers were assessed using serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Moreover, lipid profile was measured by triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c), and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio (total cholesterol/HDL). Linear regression adjusted models showed that participants with higher total urine resveratrol concentrations exhibited improved lipid and liver markers compared to the lowest tertile. For lipid determinations: log triglycerides (βT3= −0.15, 95% CI; −0.28, −0.02, p-trend = 0.030), VLDL-c, (βT3= −4.21, 95% CI; −7.97, −0.46, p-trend = 0.039), total cholesterol/HDL ratio Moreover, (βT3= −0.35, 95% CI; −0.66, −0.03, p-trend = 0.241). For liver enzymes: log AST (βT3= −0.12, 95% CI; −0.22, −0.02, p-trend = 0.011, and log GGT (βT3= −0.24, 95% CI; −0.42, −0.06, p-trend = 0.002). However, there is no difference found on glucose variables between groups. To investigate the risk of elevated serum liver markers, flexible regression models indicated that total urine resveratrol metabolites were associated with a lower risk of higher ALT (169.2 to 1314.3 nmol/g creatinine), AST (599.9 to 893.8 nmol/g creatinine), and GGT levels (169.2 to 893.8 nmol/g creatinine). These results suggested that higher urinary concentrations of some resveratrol metabolites might be associated with better lipid profile and hepatic serum enzymes. Moreover, urinary resveratrol excreted showed a reduced odds ratio for higher liver enzymes, which are linked to NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Conformation of G-quadruplex Controlled by Click Reaction
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4339; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184339 - 22 Sep 2020
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Abstract
G-quadruplexes are non-canonical four stranded secondary structures possessing great biological importance. Controlling G-quadruplex conformation for further regulating biological processes is both exciting and challenging. In this study, we described a method for regulating G-quadruplex conformation by click chemistry for the first time. 8-ethynyl-2′-deoxyguanosine [...] Read more.
G-quadruplexes are non-canonical four stranded secondary structures possessing great biological importance. Controlling G-quadruplex conformation for further regulating biological processes is both exciting and challenging. In this study, we described a method for regulating G-quadruplex conformation by click chemistry for the first time. 8-ethynyl-2′-deoxyguanosine was synthesized and incorporated into a 12-nt telomere DNA sequence. Such a sequence, at first, formed mixed parallel/anti-parallel G-quadruplexes, while it changed to anti-parallel after reaction with azidobenzene. Meanwhile, the click reaction can give the sequence intense fluorescence. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Autophagy, One of the Main Steps in Periodontitis Pathogenesis and Evolution
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4338; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184338 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Periodontitis represents a complex inflammatory disease that compromises the integrity of the tooth-supporting tissue through the interaction of specific periodontal pathogens and the host’s immune system. Experimental data help to outline the idea that the molecular way towards periodontitis initiation and progression presents [...] Read more.
Periodontitis represents a complex inflammatory disease that compromises the integrity of the tooth-supporting tissue through the interaction of specific periodontal pathogens and the host’s immune system. Experimental data help to outline the idea that the molecular way towards periodontitis initiation and progression presents four key steps: bacterial infection, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy. The aim of this review is to outline the autophagy involvement in the pathogenesis and evolution of periodontitis from at least three points of view: periodontal pathogen invasion control, innate immune signaling pathways regulation and apoptosis inhibition in periodontal cells. The exact roles played by reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the molecular mechanisms for autophagy initiation in periodontitis still require further investigation. However, clarifying the role and the mechanism of redox regulation of autophagy in the periodontitis context may be particularly beneficial for the elaboration of new therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sulphamoylated Estradiol Analogue Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Generation to Exert Its Antiproliferative Activity in Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4337; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184337 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 167
Abstract
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a 17β-estradiol metabolite, exerts anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. To address 2ME’s low bioavailability, research led to the in silico design of sulphamoylated 2ME analogues. However, the role of oxidative stress induced in the activity exerted by sulphamoylated compounds [...] Read more.
2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), a 17β-estradiol metabolite, exerts anticancer properties in vitro and in vivo. To address 2ME’s low bioavailability, research led to the in silico design of sulphamoylated 2ME analogues. However, the role of oxidative stress induced in the activity exerted by sulphamoylated compounds remains elusive. In the current study, the influence of 2-Ethyl-17-oxoestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-3-yl sulphamate (ESE-one) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction and its effect on cell proliferation, as well as morphology, were assessed in breast tumorigenic cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Fluorescent microscopy showed that sulphamoylated estradiol analogues induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, correlating with decreased cell growth demonstrated by spectrophotometry data. ESE-one exposure resulted in antiproliferation which was repressed by tiron (superoxide inhibitor), trolox (peroxyl inhibitor) and N,N′-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) (hydrogen peroxide inhibitor). Morphological studies demonstrated that tiron, trolox and DMTU significantly decreased the number of rounded cells and shrunken cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells induced by ESE-one. This in vitro study suggests that ESE-one induces growth inhibition and cell rounding by production of superoxide anion, peroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. Identification of these biological changes in cancer cells caused by sulphamoylated compounds hugely contributes towards improvement of anticancer strategies and the ROS-dependent cell death pathways in tumorigenic breast cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Extracts of Three Russula Genus Species Express Diverse Biological Activity
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4336; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184336 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 197
Abstract
This study explored the biological properties of three wild growing Russula species (R. integra, R. rosea, R. nigricans) from Serbia. Compositional features and antioxidant, antibacterial, antibiofilm, and cytotoxic activities were analyzed. The studied mushroom species were identified as being [...] Read more.
This study explored the biological properties of three wild growing Russula species (R. integra, R. rosea, R. nigricans) from Serbia. Compositional features and antioxidant, antibacterial, antibiofilm, and cytotoxic activities were analyzed. The studied mushroom species were identified as being rich sources of carbohydrates and of low caloric value. Mannitol was the most abundant free sugar and quinic and malic acids the major organic acids detected. The four tocopherol isoforms were found, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the predominant fat constituents. Regarding phenolic compounds, P-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids were identified in the prepared methanolic and ethanolic extracts, which displayed antioxidant activity through the inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation and oxidative hemolysis; the highest activity was attributed to the R. nigricans ethanolic extract. This is the first report on the antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of the studied species, with the most promising activity observed towards Streptococcus spp. (0.20–0.78 mg/mL as the minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC). The most promising cytotoxic effect was caused by the R. integra methanolic extract on non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460). Therefore, due to the observed in vitro bioactive properties, the studied mushrooms arise as a source of functional ingredients with potential to be used in novel nutraceutical and drug formulations, which can be used in the treatment of various diseases and health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measurement of Antioxidant Activity: Advances and Perspectives)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation and FTIR-ATR and 1H NMR Characterization of Alginates from the Main Alginophyte Species of the Atlantic Coast of Morocco
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184335 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 237
Abstract
Alginates are widely used as gelling agents in textile print pastes, medical industries, impression material in dentistry, and anticoagulant material in toothpaste. In the present study, the content and spectroscopic characterization (1H NMR and FT-IR) of the sodium alginates were investigated [...] Read more.
Alginates are widely used as gelling agents in textile print pastes, medical industries, impression material in dentistry, and anticoagulant material in toothpaste. In the present study, the content and spectroscopic characterization (1H NMR and FT-IR) of the sodium alginates were investigated in the eight brown seaweeds Sargassum muticum, Fucus vesiculosus f. volubilis, Carpodesmia tamariscifolia, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Laminaria ochroleuca, Cystoseira humilis, Saccorhiza polyschides, and Fucus guiryi harvested from the NW Atlantic coast of Morocco. The results proved that the most studied algae depicted alginate yields higher than 18% dry weight. The FT-IR analysis showed that the spectra of the extracted alginates exhibited significant similarities to the commercial alginate from Sigma-Aldrich. The 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated that the extracted alginates have a high content of β-d-mannuronic (M) than α-l-guluronic acid (G) with M/G ratio values ranging from 1.04 to 4.41. The homopolymeric fractions FMM are remarkably high compared to the FGG and heteropolymeric fractions (FGM = FMG) especially for F. guiryi, C humilis, C. tamariscifolia, L. ochroleuca, and S. polyschides. Nevertheless, the heteropolymeric fractions (FGM/FMG) are quite abundant in the alginates of S. muticum, F. vesiculosus f. volubilis, and B. bifurcata accounting for more than 52% of the polymer diads. Based on these results, the investigated algal species (except Fucus guiryi and Bifurcaria bifurcata) could be regarded as potential sources of alginates for industrial uses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds with Applications in Health and Food)
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Open AccessArticle
N-Benzyl Residues as the P1′ Substituents in Phosphorus-Containing Extended Transition State Analog Inhibitors of Metalloaminopeptidases
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4334; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184334 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Peptidyl enzyme inhibitors containing an internal aminomethylphosphinic bond system (P(O)(OH)-CH2-NH) can be termed extended transition state analogs by similarity to the corresponding phosphonamidates (P(O)(OH)-NH). Phosphonamidate pseudopeptides are broadly recognized as competitive mechanism-based inhibitors of metalloenzymes, mainly hydrolases. Their practical use is, [...] Read more.
Peptidyl enzyme inhibitors containing an internal aminomethylphosphinic bond system (P(O)(OH)-CH2-NH) can be termed extended transition state analogs by similarity to the corresponding phosphonamidates (P(O)(OH)-NH). Phosphonamidate pseudopeptides are broadly recognized as competitive mechanism-based inhibitors of metalloenzymes, mainly hydrolases. Their practical use is, however, limited by hydrolytic instability, which is particularly restricting for dipeptide analogs. Extension of phosphonamidates by addition of the methylene group produces a P-C-N system fully resistant in water conditions. In the current work, we present a versatile synthetic approach to such modified dipeptides, based on the three-component phospha-Mannich condensation of phosphinic acids, formaldehyde, and N-benzylglycines. The last-mentioned component allowed for simple and versatile introduction of functionalized P1′ residues located on the tertiary amino group. The products demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity towards porcine and plant metalloaminopeptidases, while selected derivatives appeared very potent with human alanyl aminopeptidase (Ki = 102 nM for 6a). Analysis of ligand-protein complexes obtained by molecular modelling revealed canonical modes of interactions for mono-metallic alanyl aminopeptidases, and distorted modes for di-metallic leucine aminopeptidases (with C-terminal carboxylate, not phosphinate, involved in metal coordination). In general, the method can be dedicated to examine P1′-S1′ complementarity in searching for non-evident structures of specific residues as the key fragments of perspective ligands. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Clay Hydration and Swelling Inhibition Using Quaternary Ammonium Dicationic Surfactant with Phenyl Linker
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4333; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184333 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Water-based drilling fluids are extensively used for drilling oil and gas wells. However, water-based muds cause clay swelling, which severely affects the stability of wellbore. Due to two adsorption positions, it is expected that cationic gemini surfactants can reduce the clay swelling. In [...] Read more.
Water-based drilling fluids are extensively used for drilling oil and gas wells. However, water-based muds cause clay swelling, which severely affects the stability of wellbore. Due to two adsorption positions, it is expected that cationic gemini surfactants can reduce the clay swelling. In this work, quaternary ammonium dicationic gemini surfactants containing phenyl linkers and different counterions (Cl and Br) were synthesized, and the effect of variation in counterions on swelling and hydration properties of shales was studied. Numerous water-based drilling fluid formulations were prepared with different concentrations of surfactants to study the swelling inhibition capacity of surfactants. The performance of surfactant-containing drilling muds was evaluated by comparing them with base drilling mud, and sodium silicate drilling mud. Various experimental techniques were employed to study drilling mud characteristics such as rheology and filtration. The inhibition properties of drilling mud formulations were determined by linear swelling experiment, capillary suction time test, particle size distribution measurement, wettability measurements, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Experimental results showed that surfactant-based formulation containing bromide counterion exhibited superior rheological properties as compared to other investigated formulations. The filtration test showed that the gemini surfactant with chloride counterion had higher filtrate loss compared to all other formulations. The bentonite swelling was significantly reduced with increasing the concentration of dicationic surfactants as inhibitors, and maximum reduction in the linear swelling rate was observed by using a formulation containing surfactant with chloride counterion. The lowest capillary suction timer (CST) was obtained in the formulation containing surfactant with chloride counterion as less CST indicated the enhanced inhibition capacity. The particle size measurement showed that average bentonite particle size increased upon the addition of surfactants depicting the inhibition capacity. The increase in basal spacing obtained from XRD analysis showed the intercalation of gemini surfactants in interlayers of bentonite. The contact angle measurements were performed to study the wettability of the bentonite film surface, and the results showed that hydrophobicity increased by incorporating the surfactants to the drilling fluid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Bottom-Up Synthesis Approach to Silver Nanoparticles Induces Anti-Proliferative and Apoptotic Activities Against MCF-7, MCF-7/TAMR-1 and MCF-10A Human Breast Cell Lines
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4332; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184332 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
A bottom-up approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-GA) phytomediated by Garcinia atroviridis leaf extract is described. Under optimized conditions, the AgNPs-GA were synthesized at a concentration of 0.1 M silver salt and 10% (w/v) leaf extract, 1:4 mixing ratio [...] Read more.
A bottom-up approach for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-GA) phytomediated by Garcinia atroviridis leaf extract is described. Under optimized conditions, the AgNPs-GA were synthesized at a concentration of 0.1 M silver salt and 10% (w/v) leaf extract, 1:4 mixing ratio of reactants, pH 3, temperature 32 °C and 72 h reaction time. The AgNPs-GA were characterized by various analytical techniques and their size was determined to be 5–30 nm. FTIR spectroscopy indicates the role of phenolic functional groups in the reduction of silver ions into AgNPs-GA and in supporting their subsequent stability. The UV-Visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at 450 nm which reflects the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of AgNPs-GA and further supports the stability of these biosynthesized nanoparticles. SEM, TEM and XRD diffractogram analyses indicate that AgNPs-GA were spherical and face-centered-cubic in shape. This study also describes the efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs-GA as anti-proliferative agent against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1. Our findings indicate that AgNPs-GA possess significant anti-proliferative effects against both the MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 cell lines, with inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50 values) of 2.0 and 34.0 µg/mL, respectively, after 72 h of treatment. An induction of apoptosis was evidenced by flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Therefore, AgNPs-GA exhibited its anti-proliferative activity via apoptosis on MCF-7 and MCF-7/TAMR-1 breast cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, the leaf extract from Garcinia atroviridis was found to be highly capable of producing AgNPs-GA with favourable physicochemical and biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Their Biological and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview
Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxyalkanoates: A Sustainable Alternative in Circular Economy
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4331; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184331 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Conventional petrochemical plastics have become a serious environmental problem. Its unbridled use, especially in non-durable goods, has generated an accumulation of waste that is difficult to measure, threatening aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The replacement of these plastics with cleaner alternatives, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates [...] Read more.
Conventional petrochemical plastics have become a serious environmental problem. Its unbridled use, especially in non-durable goods, has generated an accumulation of waste that is difficult to measure, threatening aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The replacement of these plastics with cleaner alternatives, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), can only be achieved by cost reductions in the production of microbial bioplastics, in order to compete with the very low costs of fossil fuel plastics. The biggest costs are carbon sources and nutrients, which can be appeased with the use of photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, that have a minimum requirement for nutrients, and also using agro-industrial waste, such as the livestock industry, which in turn benefits from the by-products of PHA biotechnological production, for example pigments and nutrients. Circular economy can help solve the current problems in the search for a sustainable production of bioplastic: reducing production costs, reusing waste, mitigating CO2, promoting bioremediation and making better use of cyanobacteria metabolites in different industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Biodegradable Polymers)
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Open AccessReview
The Efficacy of Cholesterol-Based Carriers in Drug Delivery
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184330 - 22 Sep 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Several researchers have reported the use of cholesterol-based carriers in drug delivery. The presence of cholesterol in cell membranes and its wide distribution in the body has led to it being used in preparing carriers for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic [...] Read more.
Several researchers have reported the use of cholesterol-based carriers in drug delivery. The presence of cholesterol in cell membranes and its wide distribution in the body has led to it being used in preparing carriers for the delivery of a variety of therapeutic agents such as anticancer, antimalarials and antivirals. These cholesterol-based carriers were designed as micelles, nanoparticles, copolymers, liposomes, etc. and their routes of administration include oral, intravenous and transdermal. The biocompatibility, good bioavailability and biological activity of cholesterol-based carriers make them potent prodrugs. Several in vitro and in vivo studies revealed cholesterol-based carriers potentials in delivering bioactive agents. In this manuscript, a critical review of the efficacy of cholesterol-based carriers is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Macromolecules for Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Attempts to Target Staphylococcus aureus Induced Osteomyelitis Bone Lesions in a Juvenile Pig Model by Using Radiotracers
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184329 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Background [18F]FDG Positron Emission Tomography cannot differentiate between sterile inflammation and infection. Therefore, we, aimed to develop more specific radiotracers fitted for differentiation between sterile and septic infection to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Consequently, the clinicians can refine the treatment of, [...] Read more.
Background [18F]FDG Positron Emission Tomography cannot differentiate between sterile inflammation and infection. Therefore, we, aimed to develop more specific radiotracers fitted for differentiation between sterile and septic infection to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Consequently, the clinicians can refine the treatment of, for example, prosthesis-related infection. Methods: We examined different target points; Staphylococcus aureus biofilm (68Ga-labeled DOTA-K-A9 and DOTA-GSGK-A11), bone remodeling ([18F]NaF), bacterial cell membranes ([68Ga]Ga-Ubiquicidin), and leukocyte trafficking ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). We compared them to the well-known glucose metabolism marker [18F]FDG, in a well-established juvenile S. aureus induced osteomyelitis (OM) pig model. Results: [18F]FDG accumulated in the OM lesions seven days after bacterial inoculation, but disappointingly we were not able to identify any tracer accumulation in OM with any of the supposedly more specific tracers. Conclusion: These negative results are, however, relevant to report as they may save other research groups from conducting the same animal experiments and provide a platform for developing and evaluating other new potential tracers or protocol instead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Techno-Economic Analysis of Producing Glacial Acetic Acid from Poplar Biomass via Bioconversion
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4328; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184328 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Most of the current commercial production of glacial acetic acid (GAA) is by petrochemical routes, primarily methanol carbonylation. GAA is an intermediate in the production of plastics, textiles, dyes, and paints. GAA production from biomass might be an economically viable and sustainable alternative [...] Read more.
Most of the current commercial production of glacial acetic acid (GAA) is by petrochemical routes, primarily methanol carbonylation. GAA is an intermediate in the production of plastics, textiles, dyes, and paints. GAA production from biomass might be an economically viable and sustainable alternative to petroleum-derived routes. Separation of acetic acid from water is a major expense and requires considerable energy. This study evaluates and compares the technical and economic feasibility of GAA production via bioconversion using either ethyl acetate or alamine in diisobutylkerosene (DIBK) as organic solvents for purification. Models of a GAA biorefinery with a production of 120,650 tons/year were simulated in Aspen software. This biorefinery follows the path of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, acetogen fermentation, and acid purification. Estimated capital costs for different scenarios ranged from USD 186 to 245 million. Recovery of GGA using alamine/DIBK was a more economical process and consumed 64% less energy, due to lower steam demand in the recovery distillation columns. The estimated average minimum selling prices of GGA were USD 756 and 877/ton for alamine/DIBK and ethyl acetate scenarios, respectively. This work establishes a feasible and sustainable approach to produce GGA from poplar biomass via fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Biomass to Biofuels and Biochemicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Solubilization of Phenanthrene by Mixed Micelles Composed of Biosurfactants and a Conventional Non-Ionic Surfactant
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4327; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184327 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 195
Abstract
This study investigated the solubilization capabilities of rhamnolipids biosurfactant and synthetic surfactant mixtures for the application of a mixed surfactant in surfactant-enhanced remediation. The mass ratios between Triton X-100 and rhamnolipids were set at 1:0, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1. The ideal [...] Read more.
This study investigated the solubilization capabilities of rhamnolipids biosurfactant and synthetic surfactant mixtures for the application of a mixed surfactant in surfactant-enhanced remediation. The mass ratios between Triton X-100 and rhamnolipids were set at 1:0, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1. The ideal critical micelle concentration values of the Triton X-100/rhamnolipids mixture system were higher than that of the theoretical predicted value suggesting the existence of interactions between the two surfactants. Solubilization capabilities were quantified in term of weight solubilization ratio and micellar-water partition coefficient. The highest value of the weight solubilization ratio was detected in the treatment where only Triton X-100 was used. This ratio decreased with the increase in the mass of rhamnolipids in the mixed surfactant systems. The parameters of the interaction between surfactants and the micellar mole fraction in the mixed system have been determined. The factors that influence phenanthrene solubilization, such as pH, ionic strength, and acetic acid concentration have been discussed in the paper. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene increased linearly with the total surfactant concentration in all treatments. The mixed rhamnolipids and synthetic surfactants showed synergistic behavior and enhanced the solubilization capabilities of the mixture, which would extend the rhamnolipids application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Haemostatic Studies of Preparations from Selected Vegetables from Cucurbitaceae Family
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4326; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184326 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 215
Abstract
The aim of this study was to provide detailed insight into the chemical composition and activity of five cucurbit vegetable preparations (pumpkin, zucchini, cucumber, white and yellow pattypan squash), each containing various phytochemical compounds with potential use against oxidative stress induced by the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to provide detailed insight into the chemical composition and activity of five cucurbit vegetable preparations (pumpkin, zucchini, cucumber, white and yellow pattypan squash), each containing various phytochemical compounds with potential use against oxidative stress induced by the hydroxyl radical donors in human plasma in vitro. We studied the antiradical capacity of vegetable preparations using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. As oxidative stress may induce changes in hemostasis, our aim included the determination of their effect on three selected hemostatic parameters of plasma, which are three coagulation times: PT (prothrombin time), APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) and TT (thrombin time). However, none of used vegetable preparations changed APTT, PT or TT compared to the control. The phytochemical composition of the tested preparations was determined by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. In our in vitro experiments, while all five tested preparations had antioxidant potential, the preparation from yellow pattypan squash showed the strongest potential. All cucurbit vegetable preparations inhibited lipid peroxidation. Only zucchini did not have an effect on protein carbonylation and only yellow pattypan squash inhibited thiol oxidation. The antioxidant activity of cucurbits appears to have triggered significant interest in multiple applications, including CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) associated with oxidative stress, which can be treated by supplementation based on these vegetables. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Cultivation Method of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Honeoye on Structure and Degradation Dynamics of Pectin during Cold Storage
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4325; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184325 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 179
Abstract
The high quality and long shelf life of strawberry fruit are largely dependent on the cultivation method. The goal of this experiment was to study the effect of different cultivation methods on molecular structure and rheological properties of pectin extracted from strawberry quality [...] Read more.
The high quality and long shelf life of strawberry fruit are largely dependent on the cultivation method. The goal of this experiment was to study the effect of different cultivation methods on molecular structure and rheological properties of pectin extracted from strawberry quality parameters during cold storage. Three methods of cultivation of strawberry cv. Honeoye were tested: organic cultivation on raised beds, organic cultivation with the flat-planted method and conventional cultivation with the flat-planted method. The nanostructure of pectin (AFM), its chemical structure (FT-IR) and rheological properties were studied. The fruits were also tested by size, dry matter, firmness, acidity and the content of soluble solids, anthocyanin, phenolics, vitamin C and galacturonic acid. Pectin isolated from organic strawberries was more rapidly degraded than conventional strawberry pectin, which limits the possibilities for their processing and use as gelling or stabilizing agents at 20 °C. The differences in fruit quality were particularly noticeable with respect to the anthocyanin content, which was significantly higher for organic strawberry. The organic fruit also had better sensory properties because of its lower acidity and higher soluble solid content (SSC). These and other results from this experiment showed that strawberries produced by organic farming methods had better biochemical properties compared to conventional fruit; however, pectin transformation undergone faster limits their further technological applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Natural Product Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Skin Damages—Structure Activity Relationship of Benzimidazole Derivatives Bearing a 5-Membered Ring System
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4324; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184324 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
In the search for scaffolds for multifunctional compounds we investigated the structure activity relationship of a class of benzimidazole derivatives bearing 5-membered ring. The newly synthesized and the already known compounds were divided into three classes that present different substituent at 5 position [...] Read more.
In the search for scaffolds for multifunctional compounds we investigated the structure activity relationship of a class of benzimidazole derivatives bearing 5-membered ring. The newly synthesized and the already known compounds were divided into three classes that present different substituent at 5 position of the benzimidazole ring (-H, -COOH or –SO3H) and different heterocycle at position 2 (thiophene, furan or pyrrole). All the derivatives were synthesized and tested to determine their photoprotective profile against UV rays, in vitro antioxidant capacity against different radicals (DPPH and FRAP test), antifungal inhibitory activity (dermatophytes and Candida albicans), antiviral and antiproliferative activity. A Structure-Activity Relationship study indicated compound 10, bearing a pyrrole heterocycle on the benzimidazole ring, as the best multifunctional derivative of the series and as potential candidate for the development of drugs especially in case of melanoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Boronic Acids and Their Derivatives in Medicinal Chemistry: Synthesis and Biological Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4323; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184323 - 21 Sep 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Boron containing compounds have not been widely studied in Medicinal Chemistry, mainly due to the idea that this group could confer some toxicity. Nowadays, this concept has been demystified and, especially after the discovery of the drug bortezomib, the interest for these compounds, [...] Read more.
Boron containing compounds have not been widely studied in Medicinal Chemistry, mainly due to the idea that this group could confer some toxicity. Nowadays, this concept has been demystified and, especially after the discovery of the drug bortezomib, the interest for these compounds, mainly boronic acids, has been growing. In this review, several activities of boronic acids, such as anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral activity, and even their application as sensors and delivery systems are addressed. The synthetic processes used to obtain these active compounds are also referred. Noteworthy, the molecular modification by the introduction of boronic acid group to bioactive molecules has shown to modify selectivity, physicochemical, and pharmacokinetic characteristics, with the improvement of the already existing activities. Besides, the preparation of compounds with this chemical group is relatively simple and well known. Taking into consideration these findings, this review reinforces the relevance of extending the studies with boronic acids in Medicinal Chemistry, in order to obtain new promising drugs shortly. Full article
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