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Open AccessArticle

Comprehensive Evaluation of Metal Pollution in Urban Soils of a Post-Industrial City—A Case of Łódź, Poland

Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, 116 Żeromskiego Str., 90–924 Lodz, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Scarponi
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4350;
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 20 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
The pollution of urban soils by metals is a global problem. Prolonged exposure of habitants who are in contact with metals retained in soil poses a health risk. This particularly applies to industrialized cities with developed transport networks. The aim of the study was to determine the content and spatial distribution of mobile metal fractions in soils of the city of Łódź and to identify their load and sources. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA)), combined with GIS, were used to make a comprehensive evaluation of the soil contamination. Hot-spots and differences between urban and suburban areas were also investigated. Metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after soil extraction with 1 mol L−1 HCl. In most sites, the metal content changes in the following order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. About one-third of the samples are considerably (or very highly) contaminated, (contamination factor, CF > 3) with Cu, Pb, or Zn. In almost 40% of the samples, contaminated soils were found (pollution load index, PLI > 1). All metals have a strong influence on the first principal component (PC1), whereas second principal component (PC2) is related to pH. Polluted soils are located in the downtown, in the south and east part of the city. The distribution of contamination coincides with the urban layout, low emission sources and former industrial areas of Łódź. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban soil; metal pollution; hot-spots; GIS; multivariate analysis urban soil; metal pollution; hot-spots; GIS; multivariate analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wieczorek, K.; Turek, A.; Szczesio, M.; Wolf, W.M. Comprehensive Evaluation of Metal Pollution in Urban Soils of a Post-Industrial City—A Case of Łódź, Poland. Molecules 2020, 25, 4350.

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