Topic Editors

School of Engineering, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tasmania, TAS 7001, Australia
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Bojnord, Bojnord 945 3155111, Iran

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 June 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 August 2023)
Viewed by
92637

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an important role in many different fundamental studies and industrial problems today. The importance of CFD is increasing due to the improvement in computer systems and newly developed numerical approaches. In this Special Issue, we are looking to present new developments in various aspects of CFD, including basic numerical approaches and also practical applications of CFD in multifarious areas such as renewable energy, heat and mass transfer, marine industry, geothermal energy, HVAC, biomechanics, the polymer industry, aerospace, chemical industry, automotive industry, etc.

Dr. Gholamreza Kefayati
Dr. Hasan Sajjadi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • finite difference method
  • finite element method
  • finite volume method
  • lattice Boltzmann method
  • smoothed particle hydrodynamics
  • CFD in heat and mass transfer
  • CFD in rheology
  • CFD in multiphase flows
  • CFD in renewable energy
  • CFD in the marine industry
  • CFD in biomechanics
  • CFD in aerospace
  • CFD in the chemical industry
  • CFD in the automotive industry
  • CFD in the polymer industry

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 5.3 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Energies
energies
3.2 6.2 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Fluids
fluids
1.9 3.4 2016 20.7 Days CHF 1800
Mathematics
mathematics
2.4 4.0 2013 16.9 Days CHF 2600
Water
water
3.4 5.8 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600

Preprints.org is a multidiscipline platform providing preprint service that is dedicated to sharing your research from the start and empowering your research journey.

MDPI Topics is cooperating with Preprints.org and has built a direct connection between MDPI journals and Preprints.org. Authors are encouraged to enjoy the benefits by posting a preprint at Preprints.org prior to publication:

  1. Immediately share your ideas ahead of publication and establish your research priority;
  2. Protect your idea from being stolen with this time-stamped preprint article;
  3. Enhance the exposure and impact of your research;
  4. Receive feedback from your peers in advance;
  5. Have it indexed in Web of Science (Preprint Citation Index), Google Scholar, Crossref, SHARE, PrePubMed, Scilit and Europe PMC.

Published Papers (58 papers)

Order results
Result details
Journals
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
18 pages, 7167 KiB  
Article
CFD Investigation of the Hydraulic Short-Circuit Mode in the FMHL/FMHL+ Pumped Storage Power Plant
by Jean Decaix, Mathieu Mettille, Nicolas Hugo, Bernard Valluy and Cécile Münch-Alligné
Energies 2024, 17(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020473 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 825
Abstract
The flexibility of the FMHL+ pumped storage power plants can be improved by extending the hydraulic short-circuit operating mode. CFD simulations of the flow in three bifurcations are performed to calculate the head losses and to investigate the flow topology in the pipes. [...] Read more.
The flexibility of the FMHL+ pumped storage power plants can be improved by extending the hydraulic short-circuit operating mode. CFD simulations of the flow in three bifurcations are performed to calculate the head losses and to investigate the flow topology in the pipes. A specific attention is paid to the influence of the curvature correction that has been developed for two-equation RANS turbulence models. For the T-junction considered, the activation of the curvature correction influences the head losses whereas for the two Y-junctions computed, no effect is observed. By comparing with the Y-junctions, the T-junction leads to higher head losses and helicity in the pipes downstream of the bifurcation. Compared to the current the intragroup hydraulic short circuit operation permitted, the intergroup and interplant hydraulic short circuit mode should provide better performances with possible gains until of −55% in head losses and −94% in helicity upstream of the turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 8490 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Mean Heat Transfer Characteristics of Multiple Impinging Jets with Steady RANS Simulation Using a Coarse Mesh
by Martin Draksler and Matej Tekavčič
Energies 2024, 17(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010196 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The capability of the standard SST k-ω turbulence model for the prediction of jet impingement cooling characteristics using a coarse mesh is investigated. The discussion is based on a sensitivity study with five computational grids, differing from each other in topology [...] Read more.
The capability of the standard SST k-ω turbulence model for the prediction of jet impingement cooling characteristics using a coarse mesh is investigated. The discussion is based on a sensitivity study with five computational grids, differing from each other in topology and resolution. The analysis considers a hexagonal configuration of turbulent jets at the inlet Reynolds number equal to 20,000, with the distance between the nozzle and target plates equal to four nozzle diameters. The results of steady RANS simulations are validated against the time-averaged LES results and data from experiments. The mean heat transfer characteristics of turbulent impinging jets have been successfully reproduced with all tested grids, which indicates that for a rather accurate mean heat transfer prediction, it is not necessary to resolve all the small-scale flow features of impinging jets above the target plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 9898 KiB  
Article
Impact of Crustacean Morphology on Metachronal Propulsion: A Numerical Study
by Enbao Cao and Zbigniew J. Kabala
Fluids 2024, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9010002 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Metachrony is defined as coordinated asynchronous movement throughout multiple appendages, such as the cilia of cells and swimmerets of crustaceans. Used by species of crustaceans and microscopic cells to move through fluid, the process of metachronal propulsion was investigated. A rigid crustacean model [...] Read more.
Metachrony is defined as coordinated asynchronous movement throughout multiple appendages, such as the cilia of cells and swimmerets of crustaceans. Used by species of crustaceans and microscopic cells to move through fluid, the process of metachronal propulsion was investigated. A rigid crustacean model with paddles moving in symmetric strokes was created to simulate metachronal movement. Coupled with the surrounding fluid domain, the immersed boundary method was employed to analyze the fluid–structure interactions. To explore the effect of a nonlinear morphology on the efficiency of metachronal propulsion, a range of crustacean body shapes was generated and simulated, from upward curves to downward curves. The highest propulsion velocity was found to be achieved when the crustacean model morphology was a downward curve, specifically a parabola of leading coefficient k = −0.4. This curved morphology resulted in a 4.5% higher velocity when compared to the linear model. As k deviated from −0.4, the propulsion velocity decreased with increasing magnitude, forming a concave downward trend. The impact of body shape on propulsion velocity is shown by how the optimal velocity with k = −0.4 is 71.5% larger than the velocity at k = 1. Overall, this study suggests that morphology has a significant impact on metachronal propulsion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 9197 KiB  
Article
Tabulated Chemistry Combustion Model for Cost-Effective Numerical Simulation of Dual-Fuel Combustion Process
by Marija Stipic, Branislav Basara, Steffen J. Schmidt and Nikolaus A. Adams
Energies 2023, 16(24), 8040; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16248040 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
This study is dedicated to improving the efficiency of the flamelet-generated manifold (FGM) tabulated chemistry combustion modeling approach for predicting the combustion process in diesel-ignited internal combustion (IC) engines. The primary focus is on reducing table generation time and memory requirements. To accurately [...] Read more.
This study is dedicated to improving the efficiency of the flamelet-generated manifold (FGM) tabulated chemistry combustion modeling approach for predicting the combustion process in diesel-ignited internal combustion (IC) engines. The primary focus is on reducing table generation time and memory requirements. To accurately predict dual-fuel combustion processes, it is important to model both premixed and non-premixed combustion regimes. However, attempting to include both regimes in a single FGM lookup table leads to significant increases in the table size and generation time. In response, this work proposes a dual-table configuration, with each table dedicated to a specific regime. The solution is then interpolated from these tables based on the calculated combustion regime indicator during the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. This approach optimizes computational efficiency while ensuring an accurate representation of dual-fuel combustion. Additionally, to establish a cost-effective and accurate 3D CFD simulation workflow, the dual-table FGM methodology is coupled with the partially averaged Navier–Stokes (PANS) turbulence model. The feasibility of the proposed FGM methodology is tested utilizing six chemical kinetics mechanisms with different levels of detail. The results of this study demonstrated that the dual-table approach significantly accelerates table generation time and reduces memory requirements compared to a single table that includes both combustion regimes. Furthermore, 3D CFD simulation results of the dual-fuel combustion process are validated against available experimental data for three engine operating points. The in-cylinder pressure traces and rate of heat release obtained from the 3D CFD simulations employing the FGM PANS methodology show good agreement with experimental measurements, confirming the accuracy and reliability of this modeling approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 6156 KiB  
Article
A Computational Study of Hydrogen Dispersion and Explosion after Large-Scale Leakage of Liquid Hydrogen
by Seong Yong Choi, Chang Bo Oh, Kyu Hyung Do and Byung-Il Choi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12838; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312838 - 29 Nov 2023
Viewed by 836
Abstract
This study employs the FLACS code to analyze hydrogen leakage, vapor dispersion, and subsequent explosions. Utilizing pseudo-source models, a liquid pool model, and a hybrid model combining both, we investigate dispersion processes for varying leak mass flow rates (0.225 kg/s and 0.73 kg/s) [...] Read more.
This study employs the FLACS code to analyze hydrogen leakage, vapor dispersion, and subsequent explosions. Utilizing pseudo-source models, a liquid pool model, and a hybrid model combining both, we investigate dispersion processes for varying leak mass flow rates (0.225 kg/s and 0.73 kg/s) in a large open space. We also evaluate explosion hazards based on overpressure and impulse effects on humans. The computational results, compared with experimental data, demonstrated reasonable hydrogen vapor cloud concentration predictions, especially aligned with the wind direction. For higher mass flow rate of 0.73 kg/s, the pseudo-source model exhibited the most reasonable predictive performance for locations near the leak source despite the hybrid model yielded similar results to the pseudo-source model, while the liquid pool model was more suitable for lower mass flow rate of 0.225 kg/s. Regarding explosion analyses using overpressure-impulse diagram, higher mass flow rates leaded to potentially fatal overpressure and impulse effects on humans. However, lower mass flow rates may cause severe eardrum damage at the maximum overpressure point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4644 KiB  
Article
An Animated Visualization Method for Large-Scale Unstructured Unsteady Flow
by Xiaokun Tian, Chao Yang, Yadong Wu, Zhouqiao He and Yan Hu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(21), 12062; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132112062 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Animation visualization is one of the primary methods for analyzing unsteady flow fields. In this paper, we addressed the issue of data visualization for large-scale unsteady flow fields using animation. Loading and rendering individual time steps sequentially can result in substantial frame delay, [...] Read more.
Animation visualization is one of the primary methods for analyzing unsteady flow fields. In this paper, we addressed the issue of data visualization for large-scale unsteady flow fields using animation. Loading and rendering individual time steps sequentially can result in substantial frame delay, whereas loading and rendering all time steps simultaneously can result in excessive memory usage. To address these issues, the proposed method analyzes the variable description information in the data files to bypass redundant variables and read the flow field data as required. Second, a hash table is constructed to derive the two-dimensional surface mesh of the flow field and complex mesh cells are simplified into simple linear cells to reduce the mesh’s complexity. This paper presents a method for reducing the memory usage of complex data sets by more than 90%, compared with the ParaView data reading method. The proposed method is tested on four sets of unstructured unsteady flow field data with different data structures. The animation visualization method based on simplified data can achieve an average frame rate of less than 100ms and supports real-time user interaction on personal computers. It extends the ability of personal computers to analyze large-scale unstructured unsteady flow fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3338 KiB  
Article
An Improved WENO-Z Scheme for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws with New Global Smoothness Indicator
by Shuang Han and Mingjun Li
Mathematics 2023, 11(21), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11214449 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 862
Abstract
The fifth-order WENO-Z scheme proposed by Borges et al., using a linear combination of low-order smoothness indicators, is designed to provide a low numerical dissipation to solve hyperbolic conservation laws, while the power q in the framework of WENO-Z plays a key role [...] Read more.
The fifth-order WENO-Z scheme proposed by Borges et al., using a linear combination of low-order smoothness indicators, is designed to provide a low numerical dissipation to solve hyperbolic conservation laws, while the power q in the framework of WENO-Z plays a key role in its performance. In this paper, a novel global smoothness indicator with fifth-order accuracy, which is based on several lower-order smoothness indicators on two-point sub-stencils, is presented, and a new lower-dissipation WENO-Z scheme (WENO-NZ) is developed. The spectral properties of the WENO-NZ scheme are studied through the ADR method and show that this new scheme can exhibit better spectral results than WENO-Z no matter what the power value is. Accuracy tests confirm that the accuracy of WENO-Z with q = 1 would degrade to the fourth order at first-order critical points, while WENO-NZ can recover the optimal fifth-order convergence. Furthermore, numerical experiments with one- and two-dimensional benchmark problems demonstrate that the proposed WENO-NZ scheme can efficiently decrease the numerical dissipation and has a higher resolution compared to the WENO-Z scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 10008 KiB  
Article
Heat Transfer Enhancement by Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Crossflow in a Multi-Jet Impingement Cooling System in Hexagonal Configuration by Coaxial Cylindrical Protrusion—Guide Vane Pairs
by Ahmet Hikmet Untuç and Salih Ozen Unverdi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11260; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011260 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 816
Abstract
A novel compound multi-jet impingement system for enhanced cooling of a flat surface by augmenting its area with cylindrical protrusions (CPs) equipped with coaxial guide vanes (CGVs) and reducing deflection of jets by crossflow has been developed for high-heat removal applications. The cooling [...] Read more.
A novel compound multi-jet impingement system for enhanced cooling of a flat surface by augmenting its area with cylindrical protrusions (CPs) equipped with coaxial guide vanes (CGVs) and reducing deflection of jets by crossflow has been developed for high-heat removal applications. The cooling performance of coaxial circular jets impinging on the top faces of CPs placed in hexagonal configuration on a flat plate is evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Jets impinging on the top faces of the protrusions are directed to their lateral faces and then to the base plate by the CGVs around the protrusions, resulting in up to 62.8% improvement in heat transfer rate with a minor increase in pressure drop. Effects of protrusion height and diameter on the pressure drop and cooling performance are studied for jet Reynolds (Re number range of 5000–20,000. Due to both shortened jet impingement lengths as the height of protrusions is increased and directing the expended fluid away from the impinging jets by CGVs, adverse effects of jet–crossflow interactions on cooling performance and fluid pumping power are significantly reduced. Performance evaluation criterion (PEC) of the novel compound multi-jet impingement cooling system (CMJICS) can be as high as 1.52. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4874 KiB  
Article
A Heterogeneous Parallel Algorithm for Euler-Lagrange Simulations of Liquid in Supersonic Flow
by Xu Liu, Mingbo Sun, Hongbo Wang, Peibo Li, Chao Wang, Guoyan Zhao, Yixin Yang and Dapeng Xiong
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(20), 11202; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132011202 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 704
Abstract
In spite of its prevalent usage for simulating the full-field process of the two-phase flow, the Euler–Lagrange method suffers from a heavy computing burden. Graphics processing units (GPUs), with their massively parallel architecture and high floating-point performance, provide new possibilities for high-efficiency simulation [...] Read more.
In spite of its prevalent usage for simulating the full-field process of the two-phase flow, the Euler–Lagrange method suffers from a heavy computing burden. Graphics processing units (GPUs), with their massively parallel architecture and high floating-point performance, provide new possibilities for high-efficiency simulation of liquid-jet-related systems. In this paper, a central processing unit/graphics processing unit (CPU/GPU) parallel algorithm based on the Euler–Lagrange scheme is established, in which both the gas and liquid phase are executed on the GPUs. To realize parallel tracking of the Lagrange droplets, a droplet dynamic management method is proposed, and a droplet-locating method is developed to address the cell. Liquid-jet-related simulations are performed on one core of the CPU with a GPU. The numerical results are consistent with the experiment. Compared with a setup using 32 cores of CPUs, considerable speedup is obtained, which is as high as 32.7 though it decreases to 20.2 with increasing droplets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6319 KiB  
Article
Gust Modeling with State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Software and Its Influence on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
by Michał Frant, Stanisław Kachel and Wojciech Maślanka
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6847; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196847 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The aim of this article is to propose methods for obtaining the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying object in a turbulent atmosphere. This article presents static aerodynamic characteristics of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which have been obtained during experimental examinations and during [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to propose methods for obtaining the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying object in a turbulent atmosphere. This article presents static aerodynamic characteristics of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which have been obtained during experimental examinations and during numerical calculations. The results have been compared with each other in order to validate the numerical model and methods. The method for modeling gusts using state-of-the-art CFD software (i.e., ANSYS Fluent Release 16.2) has been proposed and applied to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of a UAV including during gusts. Two cases have been analyzed. In the first case, a downburst was modeled. In the second case, a single oblique gust was modeled (i.e., changing the angle of attack and the angle of sideslip), that had a complicated time course in regard to its velocity. Although this article is focused on the assessment of the vulnerability of a UAV model to gusts, the practical implications of the proposed methodology are applicable to a wide selection of objects, including wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6091 KiB  
Article
CFD Assessment of Car Park Ventilation System in Case of Fire Event
by Ramin Rahif and Shady Attia
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(18), 10190; https://doi.org/10.3390/app131810190 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1386
Abstract
This scientific article presents the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations conducted using OpenFOAM to evaluate the effectiveness of a jet fan ventilation system in managing the dispersion of smoke resulting from a car fire incident within an underground car park spanning [...] Read more.
This scientific article presents the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations conducted using OpenFOAM to evaluate the effectiveness of a jet fan ventilation system in managing the dispersion of smoke resulting from a car fire incident within an underground car park spanning a total area of 21,670 m2, situated in Tabriz, Iran. The primary objective of the study is to determine the velocity fields and evaluate visibility conditions within a 10 m radius to gauge the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. The study employs a smoke concentration production rate of 5.49 × 10−4 kg/m3s for simulations involving fire scenarios. A total of 17 fire scenarios are examined, each extending 30 m in all directions from the initial location. The research findings demonstrate that the placement of jet fan components plays a significant role in the system’s efficiency, with fans positioned near the ceiling leading to back-layering. To mitigate this issue, the recommended design solution involves the strategic installation of multiple jet fan arrays in specific zones with the addition of 10 extra jet fans, effectively curbing lateral smoke dispersion. Furthermore, the analysis of air flow rates shows that when jet fans direct an excessive airflow towards the exhaust shafts (which have a designated flow rate of 22.5 m3/s), recirculating flows occur, leading to the dispersion of smoke throughout the car park. Consequently, the utilization of low-velocity jet fans (11.2 m/s) proves to be more effective in clearing smoke compared to high-velocity jet fans (22.3 m/s). The study also emphasizes the importance of optimal positioning of supply and exhaust shafts to achieve effective smoke control, highlighting the need for placing them on opposite walls or minimizing airflow turns. Additionally, the research underscores the significance of fire resistance in jet fan units, as their failure during fire incidents can have severe consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1830 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in Compost-Bedded Pack Barns for Dairy Cows Using Computational Fluid Dynamics: A Review
by Carlos Eduardo Alves Oliveira, Ilda de Fátima Ferreira Tinôco, Fernanda Campos de Sousa, Flávio Alves Damasceno, Rafaella Resende Andrade, Fabiane de Fátima Maciel, Matteo Barbari and Márcio Arêdes Martins
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9331; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169331 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
To ensure a supply of dairy products, modern dairy farming has assumed an intensive nature, characterized by production in collective facilities with the presence of thermal conditioning, some automation level, and high-use inputs. Among the systems used for dairy cattle confinement, Compost-Bedded Pack [...] Read more.
To ensure a supply of dairy products, modern dairy farming has assumed an intensive nature, characterized by production in collective facilities with the presence of thermal conditioning, some automation level, and high-use inputs. Among the systems used for dairy cattle confinement, Compost-Bedded Pack Barns (CBPs) have been gaining importance and increasingly have been used in recent decades. CBPs must be designed and managed to ensure the best thermal comfort conditions throughout the year and, consequently, improve productivity, milk quality, and the health of the dairy herd. In this context, modeling via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) emerges as a tool with huge potential for studying the thermal environmental conditions in the beds of CBPs, making it possible to improve projects and/or management practices in this kind of facility. This document is organized as a review, and its objective is to present the state of the art of the applicability of the CFD technique in the study of heat and mass transfer in CBP systems. So far, only four studies have used CFD for modeling CBP systems and have shown that the use of this tool helps to better understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in this kind of facility. Therefore, it is important that more studies using this technique in CBP systems be conducted, including additional considerations on constructive elements, animals, and the presence of beds in composting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3867 KiB  
Article
Film Boiling around a Finite Size Cylindrical Specimen—A Transient Conjugate Heat Transfer Approach
by Alen Cukrov, Yohei Sato, Ivanka Boras and Bojan Ničeno
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9144; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169144 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The DNS of film boiling requires strong computational resources that are difficult to obtain for daily CFD use by expert practitioners of industrial R&D. On the other hand, film boiling experiments are associated with the usage of expensive and highly sophisticated apparatus, and [...] Read more.
The DNS of film boiling requires strong computational resources that are difficult to obtain for daily CFD use by expert practitioners of industrial R&D. On the other hand, film boiling experiments are associated with the usage of expensive and highly sophisticated apparatus, and research to this end is relatively difficult due to high heat flow rates that are present in the process itself. When combined with transient heat conduction in a solid, the problem becomes significantly difficult. Therefore, a novel method in computation of conjugate heat transfer during film boiling in a quiescent liquid is proposed in this paper. The method relies on the solution of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations in a two-fluid framework, supplemented with the appropriate closures. Furthermore, turbulent flow was determined as an important parameter in obtaining an accurate solution to temperature field evolution in a solid specimen, via the proper modeling of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) value, that was imposed as a constant value, i.e., the frozen turbulence approach. It was found, in addition, that the appropriate TKE value can be obtained by use of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability theory in conjunction with boundary layer theory. The obtained results show excellent agreement with the experimental data within the first 15 s of the experiment, i.e., the first ca. 10% of the total duration of the film boiling mode of heat transfer. Furthermore, the heat transfer coefficient matched the error bands prescribed by the authors of this paper, which presented the correlations, whilst the averaged values are far beyond this band, i.e., are slightly more than 30% higher. Further inspection revealed a measure of similarity between the computational result of the volume fraction field distribution and the experiment, thus confirming the capability of the method to obtain realistic interface evolution in time. The method shows full capability for further pursuing industrial-scale film boiling problems that involve turbulent flow and the conjugate heat transfer approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2430 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Interactive Parallel Visualization of Large-Scale Flow-Field Data
by Zhouqiao He, Cheng Chen, Yadong Wu, Xiaokun Tian, Qikai Chu, Zhengbin Huang and Weihan Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9092; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169092 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
With the increasing demand for high precision in numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the use of large-scale grids for discretized solutions has become a trend, resulting in an explosive growth of flow-field data size. To address the challenges posed by large-scale [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for high precision in numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the use of large-scale grids for discretized solutions has become a trend, resulting in an explosive growth of flow-field data size. To address the challenges posed by large-scale flow-field data for real-time interactive visualization, this paper proposes novel strategies for data partitioning and communication management. Firstly, we propose a data-partitioning strategy based on grid segmentation. This approach constructs metadata to create file viewports for each process and performs grid partitioning. Subsequently, it reconstructs sub-grids within each process and utilizes a coordinate-mapping algorithm to map global coordinates to local process coordinates, facilitating access to attribute variables through a lookup table. Secondly, we introduce a real-time interactive method for large-scale flow fields. This method leverages the system architecture of high-speed interconnection among compute nodes in a cluster environment and low-speed interconnection between service nodes and rendering nodes. It enables coordinated management of parallel rendering and synchronized rendering methods. The experimental results on typical flow-field data demonstrate that the proposed data-partitioning strategy improves the loading speed of millions of grid-level data by a factor of 7, surpassing ParaView’s performance by 1.5 times. Furthermore, it achieves system load balancing. Real-time interaction experiments with datasets containing 500 million and 800 million grid cells exhibit millisecond-level latencies, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed communication management method in meeting the real-time interactive visualization demands of large-scale flow-field data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6868 KiB  
Article
Mesh-Free Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Lattice Boltzmann Method and Various Turbulence Models
by Cinar Laloglu and Emre Alpman
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8800; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158800 - 30 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1043
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the aerodynamic analysis of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The objective is to assess the accuracy and performance of the meshless LBM approach in predicting torque coefficients, velocity, turbulence intensity, [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the aerodynamic analysis of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The objective is to assess the accuracy and performance of the meshless LBM approach in predicting torque coefficients, velocity, turbulence intensity, and vorticity distributions for VAWT aerodynamic analysis. Two turbulence modelling approaches, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), are employed to model the flow domain. The central problem revolves around comparing the performance of different turbulence models based on their agreement with experimental results for power and torque coefficients. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the WALE turbulence model in achieving the best agreement with experimental data. Overall, the study provides valuable insights into applying LBM in VAWT aerodynamic analysis and highlights the advantages of the meshless approach compared to traditional CFD methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 6967 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of CFD-DEM with Coarse Graining for Turbulent Particle-Laden Jet Flows
by Dustin Steven Weaver and Sanja Mišković
Fluids 2023, 8(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8070215 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This paper presents the results of simulations of particle-laden air–solid jet flow in long straight tubes using CFD-DEM, along with an analysis of coarse-graining. Although previous studies have used CFD-DEM for similar flows, these have typically been in a dilute flow regime where [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of simulations of particle-laden air–solid jet flow in long straight tubes using CFD-DEM, along with an analysis of coarse-graining. Although previous studies have used CFD-DEM for similar flows, these have typically been in a dilute flow regime where uncoupled simulations can be used effectively. However, fully coupled simulations can introduce issues, necessitating validation studies to ensure that all coupling parameters are effectively used and that the physics is accurately represented. This paper validated the simulations against two different experimental studies, with fluid Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 40,000 and Stokes numbers between 5.6 and 50. Interestingly, the profiles of the mean particle velocity exhibited fewer discrepancies as the Stokes number increased, but more discrepancies for the root-mean-squared velocity compared to the experiments. The particle number flux was consistent with the experiments after the nozzle exit. Coarse-graining was also applied to the same simulations, achieving relatively accurate results. However, as expected, the scaling of contact collision frequencies, forces, and stresses could not be achieved, meaning that coarse-graining may be useful for comparing designs or operating parameters on an industrial scale, but falls short when measuring the total energy dissipation of one experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 17947 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Design and Numerical Analysis of a New Front Wing for a Formula One Vehicle
by Aldo Saul Laguna-Canales, Guillermo Urriolagoitia-Sosa, Beatriz Romero-Ángeles, Miguel Martinez-Mondragon, Miguel Angel García-Laguna, Martin Ivan Correa-Corona, Daniel Maya-Anaya and Guillermo Manuel Urriolagoitia-Calderón
Fluids 2023, 8(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8070210 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1812
Abstract
In motorsports, the correct design of every device that constitutes a vehicle is a significant task for engineers because the car’s efficiency on the track depends on making it competitive. However, the physical integrity of the pilot is also at stake, since a [...] Read more.
In motorsports, the correct design of every device that constitutes a vehicle is a significant task for engineers because the car’s efficiency on the track depends on making it competitive. However, the physical integrity of the pilot is also at stake, since a bad vehicle design can cause serious mishaps. To achieve the correct development of a front wing for a single-seater vehicle, it is necessary to adequately simulate the forces that are generated on a car to evaluate its performance, which depends on the aerodynamic forces of the front wing that are present due to its geometry. This work provided a new design and evaluation through the numerical analysis of three new front wings for single-seater vehicles that comply with the regulations issued by the International Automobile Federation (FIA) for the 2022 season. Additionally, a 3D-printed front wing prototype was developed to be evaluated in an experimental study to corroborate the results obtained through computer simulations. A wind tunnel experiment test was performed to validate the numerically simulated data. Also, we developed a numerical simulation and characterization of three front wings already used in Formula One from a previous season (the end of the 2021 season). This work defined how these devices perform, and in the same way, it identified how their evolution over time has provided them with substantial benefits and greater efficiency. All the numerical simulations were carried out by applying the Finite Volume Method, allowing us to obtain the values of the aerodynamic forces that act on the front wing. Also, it was possible to establish a comparison between the three newly designed proposals from the most aerodynamic advantages to produce a prototype and perform an experimental test. The results of the experimental test showed similarity to those of the numerical analyses, making it clear that the methodology followed during the development of the work was correct. In addition, the mechanical designs carried out to develop the front wing can be considered ideal, because the results showed that the front wing could be competitive, and applying it caused a downforce to be favored that prevented the car from being thrown off the track. Additionally, the results indicate this is an effective proposal for use in a single-seater vehicle and that the design methodology delivers optimal results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 11491 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Simplified Dual Fluid Reactor
by Hisham Elgendy and Konrad Czerski
Energies 2023, 16(13), 4989; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16134989 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
This study presents the design and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a mini demonstrator for a dual fluid reactor (DFR). The DFR is a novel concept currently under investigation. The DFR is characterized by the implementation of two distinct liquid loops dedicated [...] Read more.
This study presents the design and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a mini demonstrator for a dual fluid reactor (DFR). The DFR is a novel concept currently under investigation. The DFR is characterized by the implementation of two distinct liquid loops dedicated to fuel and coolant. It integrates the principles of molten salt reactors and liquid metal cooled reactors; thus, it operates in a high temperature and fast neutron spectrum, presenting a distinct approach in the field of advanced nuclear reactor design. The mini demonstrator serves as a scaled-down version of the actual reactor, primarily aimed at gaining insights into the CFD analysis intricacies of the reactor while minimizing computational costs. The CFD modeling of the MD intends to add valuable data for the purpose of modeling validation against experiments to be conducted on the MD. These experiments can be used for DFR licensing and design optimization. The coolant and fuel utilized in the mini demonstrator are of low Prandtl number (Pr = 0.01) liquid lead, operating at two distinct inlet temperatures, namely 873 K and 1473 K. The study showed a rapid increase in turbulence due to intense mixing and abrupt changes in flow areas and directions, despite the relatively low inlet velocities. Hot spots characterized by elevated temperatures were identified, analyzed, and justified based on their spatial distribution and flow conditions. Flow swirling within pipes was identified and a remedy approach was suggested. Inconsistent mass flow rates were observed among the fuel pipes, with higher rates observed in the lateral pipes. Although lower fuel temperatures were observed in the lateral pipes, they consistently exhibited higher heat exchange characteristics. The study concludes by giving physical insights into the heat transfer and flow behavior, and proposing design considerations for the dual fluid reactor to enhance structural safety and durability, based on the preliminary analysis conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 6008 KiB  
Article
Numerical Modeling of Cross-Transmission of Airborne Pollutants in a High-Rise Building Induced by Elevator Car Movement
by Tengfei (Tim) Zhang, Guangxing Wei and Sumei Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(13), 7400; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13137400 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
An elevator shaft provides passage for air exchange across floors and thus imposes infectious disease transmission risk. The moving elevator car generates positive air pressure in the shaft section to which the car approaches, while negative air pressure is generated in the section [...] Read more.
An elevator shaft provides passage for air exchange across floors and thus imposes infectious disease transmission risk. The moving elevator car generates positive air pressure in the shaft section to which the car approaches, while negative air pressure is generated in the section where the car leaves away. This investigation adopted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model the exchange airflow between the lobbies of each floor and the shaft accompanying the car movement. Dynamic distributions of the air pressure, velocity, and airborne pollutant concentration inside both the shaft and the lobbies were solved. The modeling results were verified with some experimental test data. The results revealed that the alternatively changed air pressures inside the shaft while the car was moving caused significant airflow exchange via the clearances of the protecting doors and, thus, the transmission of airborne pollutants across floors. The sudden changes in the airflow rates could be due to the elevator car passing by the protecting door’s opening on the concerned floor or the generated water hammer when the car was parked. To minimize the transmission of airborne pollutants across floors, the pressures inside the shaft must be better controlled, and the clearance of the elevator’s protecting doors shall be further minimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1153 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Near-Wake Velocity in Laminar Flow over a Circular Cylinder Using Neural Networks with Instantaneous Wall Pressure Input
by Jinhyeok Yun and Jungil Lee
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(12), 6891; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13126891 - 7 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1095
Abstract
In the present study, to predict the transverse velocity field in the near-wake of laminar flow over a circular cylinder at the Reynolds numbers of 60 and 300, we construct neural networks with instantaneous wall pressures on the cylinder surface as the input [...] Read more.
In the present study, to predict the transverse velocity field in the near-wake of laminar flow over a circular cylinder at the Reynolds numbers of 60 and 300, we construct neural networks with instantaneous wall pressures on the cylinder surface as the input variables. For the two-dimensional unsteady flow at Re=60, a fully connected neural network (FCNN) is considered. On the other hand, for a three-dimensional unsteady flow at Re=300 having spanwise variations, we employ two different convolutional neural networks based on an encoder–FCNN (CNN-F) or an encoder–decoder (CNN-D) structure. Numerical simulations are carried out for both Reynolds numbers to obtain instantaneous flow fields, from which the input and output datasets are generated for training these neural networks. At the Reynolds numbers considered, the neural networks constructed accurately predict the transverse velocity fields in the near-wake over the cylinder using the information of instantaneous wall pressures as the input variables. In addition, at Re=300, it is observed that CNN-D shows a better prediction ability than CNN-F. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 11555 KiB  
Article
CFD Methodology for an Underhood Analysis towards the Optimum Fan Position in a Compact Off-Road Machine
by Cristian Ferrari, Nicolò Beccati and Francesca Pedrielli
Energies 2023, 16(11), 4369; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16114369 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
A compact off-road machine tends to have a compact engine structure, which may result in small clearances between the main engine, the cooling system, and the radiator. In the design of its cooling system, the heat exchanger, fan, and conveyor are normally chosen [...] Read more.
A compact off-road machine tends to have a compact engine structure, which may result in small clearances between the main engine, the cooling system, and the radiator. In the design of its cooling system, the heat exchanger, fan, and conveyor are normally chosen based on their fixed operating point. Unfortunately, these machines work in variable conditions and the performance of each component is different when they are working as a whole under the hood. The aim of this work is to optimize the position of these components through a parametric analysis of some variables, using the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique. The air flows are analyzed in order to show the pressure waves created by the air moved by the fan blades, showing how the fluid interacts with the engine. The results show that optimizing this installation can increase the efficiency of the fan by 10% and reduce the noise emitted by 13 dB. These results should sensitize designers to use CFD analyses, not for a single component, but for the entire system. The methodology shown can be applied for the better design of cooling systems, mainly in off-road vehicles that have noise emission problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7243 KiB  
Article
Research on the Structure Optimization Design of Automobile Intake Pipe
by Jingsong Li, Zehan Deng and Chao Ran
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6505; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116505 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
As the front end of the intake system, the intake dirty pipe is responsible for delivering sufficient and stable air to the air filter. Therefore, in order to meet the requirements of low intake resistance, it is necessary to correspondingly improve the flow [...] Read more.
As the front end of the intake system, the intake dirty pipe is responsible for delivering sufficient and stable air to the air filter. Therefore, in order to meet the requirements of low intake resistance, it is necessary to correspondingly improve the flow resistance performance of the intake dirty pipe. In this study, the main research object was the intake pipe in the intake system of gasoline engine vehicles, and the internal gas flow field was simulated and analyzed. The results show that there are clear discrete velocity regions at the inlet and elbow, which affect the uniformity of the overall fluid flow and cause a certain pressure loss. After structural optimization, the total pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline was reduced by 22.67% compared to the original model, and the total pressure loss was significantly reduced. A simplified model was used to make samples of the intake dirty pipes before and after performance improvement, and flow resistance tests were conducted respectively. The difference between test data and simulation data is within a reasonable range, and the simulation results are relatively reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Application of Machine Learning to Predict the Acoustic Cavitation Threshold of Fluids
by Bulat Yakupov and Ivan Smirnov
Fluids 2023, 8(6), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8060168 - 26 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
The acoustic cavitation of fluids, as well as related physical and chemical phenomena, causes a variety of effects that are highly important in technological processes and medicine. Therefore, it is important to be able to control the conditions that allow cavitation to begin [...] Read more.
The acoustic cavitation of fluids, as well as related physical and chemical phenomena, causes a variety of effects that are highly important in technological processes and medicine. Therefore, it is important to be able to control the conditions that allow cavitation to begin and progress. However, the accurate prediction of acoustic cavitation is dependent on a complex relationship between external influence parameters and fluid characteristics. The multiparameter problem restricts the development of successful theoretical models. As a result, it is critical to identify the most important parameters influencing the onset of the cavitation process. In this paper, the ultrasonic frequency, hydrostatic pressure, temperature, degassing, density, viscosity, volume, and surface tension of a fluid were investigated using machine learning to determine their significance in predicting acoustic cavitation strength. Three machine learning models based on support vector regression (SVR), ridge regression (RR), and random forest (RF) algorithms with different input parameters were trained. The results showed that the SVM algorithm performed better than the other two algorithms. The parameters affecting the active cavitation nuclei, namely hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound frequency, and outgassing degree, were found to be the most important input parameters influencing the prediction of the cavitation threshold. Other parameters have a minor impact when compared to the first three, and their role can be compensated for by alternative variables. The further development of the obtained results provides a new way to optimize and improve existing theoretical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 8967 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation and Numerical CFD Assessment of a Thermodynamic Breakup Model for Superheated Sprays with Injection Pressure up to 700 Bar
by Francesco Duronio, Angelo De Vita, Alessandro Montanaro and Luigi Allocca
Fluids 2023, 8(5), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8050155 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Among the most relevant fields of research recently investigated for improving the performance of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, there are ultrahigh injection pressures and the flash-boiling phenomenon. Both perform relevant roles in improving the air/fuel mixing process, reducing tailpipe emissions and implementing [...] Read more.
Among the most relevant fields of research recently investigated for improving the performance of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, there are ultrahigh injection pressures and the flash-boiling phenomenon. Both perform relevant roles in improving the air/fuel mixing process, reducing tailpipe emissions and implementing new combustion methods. When a high-temperature fuel is released into an environment with a pressure lower than the fuel’s saturation pressure, flash boiling occurs. Due to complex two-phase flow dynamics and quick droplet vaporization, flash boiling can significantly modify spray formation. Specifically, if properly controlled, flash boiling produces important benefits for the fuel–air mixture formation, the combustion quality and, in general, for overall engine operation. Flash boiling was broadly investigated for classical injection pressure, but few works concern ultrahigh injection pressure. Here, the investigation of the spray produced by a multihole injector was performed using both experimental imaging techniques and CFD simulations aiming to highlight the combined impact of the injection pressure and the flash boiling occurrence on the spray morphology. The shadowgraph method was employed to observe the spray experimentally. The information gathered allows for assessing the performances of an Eulerian–Lagrangian algorithm purposely developed. Breakup and evaporation models, appropriate for flashing sprays, were implemented in a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code. The experimental results and the CFD simulations demonstrate a good agreement, demonstrating that through adoption of a flash-boiling breakup model, it is possible to reproduce non-evaporating and superheated sprays while changing few simulation parameters. Finally, the results also show the significance of injection pressure in preventing spray collapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1527 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Conjugate Heat Transfer and Natural Convection Using the Lattice-Boltzmann Method for Realistic Thermophysical Properties
by Michael Landl, René Prieler, Ernesto Monaco and Christoph Hochenauer
Fluids 2023, 8(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8050144 - 29 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
To enable the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for temporally constant but spatially varying thermophysical properties, modifications must be made. Recently, many methods have emerged that can account for conjugate heat transfer (CHT). However, there still is a lack of information on the [...] Read more.
To enable the lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for temporally constant but spatially varying thermophysical properties, modifications must be made. Recently, many methods have emerged that can account for conjugate heat transfer (CHT). However, there still is a lack of information on the possible physical property range regarding realistic properties. Therefore, two test cases were investigated to gain further insight. First, a differentially heated cavity filled with blocks was used to investigate the influence of CHT on the error and stability of the LBM simulations. Reference finite volume method (FVM) simulations were carried out to estimate the error. It was found that a range between 0.5 to 1.5 is recommended for the fluid relaxation time to balance computational effort, stability, and accuracy. In addition, realistic thermophysical properties of fluids and solids were selected to test whether the lattice-Boltzmann method is suitable for simulating relevant industry-related applications. For a stable simulation, a mesh with 64 times more lattices was needed for the most extreme test case. The second test case was an insulated cavity with a heating pad as the local heat source, which was investigated in terms of the accuracy of a transient simulation and compared to a FVM simulation. It was found that the fluid-phase relaxation time mainly determines the error and that large thermal relaxation times for the solid improve accuracy. Observed deviations from the FVM reference simulations ranged from approximately 20% to below 1%, depending on collision operator and combination of relaxation times. For processes with a large temperature spread, the temporally constant thermophysical properties of the LBM are the primary constraint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6838 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Different Factors on Pneumatic Conveying in Horizontal Pipe
by Chengming Wang, Wenqi Li, Baojun Li, Zezhong Jia, Shihui Jiao and Hao Ma
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5483; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095483 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Aiming at the problems of high energy consumption and particle breakage in the pneumatic conveying process of large-scale breeding enterprises, in this paper, based on the theoretical calculated value of particle suspension velocity, a computational fluid model and a discrete element model are [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problems of high energy consumption and particle breakage in the pneumatic conveying process of large-scale breeding enterprises, in this paper, based on the theoretical calculated value of particle suspension velocity, a computational fluid model and a discrete element model are established based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM). Then, through the numerical simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow, the influence of four factors of conveying wind speed, particle mass flow rate, pipe diameter, and particle size on the velocity distribution of particles in a horizontal pipe, dynamic pressure change in the pipe, pressure drop in the pipe, and solid mass concentration are studied. The results show that the k-ε turbulence model can better simulate the movement of gas-solid two-phase flow, and through the analysis of the simulation, the influence of four different factors on the conveying characteristics is obtained, which provides a scientific basis for the construction of the conveying line. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3333 KiB  
Article
Determination of Thermocline Heat Transfer Coefficient by Using CFD Simulation
by Arkadiusz Szczęśniak, Jarosław Milewski, Olaf Dybiński, Kamil Futyma, Jakub Skibiński, Aliaksandr Martsinchyk and Łukasz Szabłowski
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073150 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
This article deals with a thermal energy storage system in the form of a water tank with a thermocline. The well-known thermocline phenomenon is modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the reservoir model proposed in this article is zero-dimensional. This is due [...] Read more.
This article deals with a thermal energy storage system in the form of a water tank with a thermocline. The well-known thermocline phenomenon is modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the reservoir model proposed in this article is zero-dimensional. This is due to the fact that the aim of this article is to build a mathematical model that will be more useful in mathematical models of complex energy systems in which a hot water tank is one of many elements of the system. In such a zero-dimensional mathematical model, the hot water tank will be modeled using equations describing heat transfer, and the thermocline itself will be treated as a heat transfer surface with known dimensions and heat transfer coefficient. A novelty of this paper is that it addresses heat loss across the thermocline as defined in this manner. A CFD model of a thermal storage tank is created, validated with available experimental data, and used to obtain the heat transfer coefficient U. The resulting value is then analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and the changes in the thickness of the thermocline are accounted for in the equation. The results from this groundbreaking work can be used to analyze heat storage in the form of thermocline water tanks at the level of system modeling, e.g., for the purpose of configuring the structure of other devices and control systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 6678 KiB  
Article
Investigation on High-Viscosity Chemical Waste Liquid Atomizer Based on VOF-DPM
by Haoyu Ou, Lei Su, Yang Shi and Shijie Ruan
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3109; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073109 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1428
Abstract
The viscosity of adiponitrile waste liquid is as high as 1000 cp. It is challenging to spray and atomize the waste liquid normally. Based on the coaxial three-channel pneumatic atomizer, a two-stage supersonic steam atomizer is proposed in this paper, and the atomization [...] Read more.
The viscosity of adiponitrile waste liquid is as high as 1000 cp. It is challenging to spray and atomize the waste liquid normally. Based on the coaxial three-channel pneumatic atomizer, a two-stage supersonic steam atomizer is proposed in this paper, and the atomization process is simulated by Fluent software. Compared with the traditional atomization simulation method, the Volume-of-Fluid to Discrete-Phase-Model (VOF-DPM) bi-directional coupling model and Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technology can save mesh and improve the computational efficiency. The atomization processes of primary breakup and secondary breakup are entirely captured and analyzed. The results show that the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) is about 116–180 μm, the SMD decreases with the increase of steam inlet absolute pressure, and the atomization quality can meet the combustion requirements. This study can be used for the performance optimization of the high-viscosity liquid atomizers in the chemical and aerospace industry and shorten the time engineers spend in the simulation calculation to verify the rationality of the structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 15998 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Fluid Flow in a Large Ball Valve Designed for Natural Gas Pipelines
by Laurențiu-Ioan Ivancu and Daniela Popescu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(7), 4247; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13074247 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Natural gas pipeline networks used for long-distance transportation are expanding quickly, and the construction of special valves with large diameters has especially increased since 2022. The design and manufacturing of the flow control equipment is carried out on a case-by-case basis, in accordance [...] Read more.
Natural gas pipeline networks used for long-distance transportation are expanding quickly, and the construction of special valves with large diameters has especially increased since 2022. The design and manufacturing of the flow control equipment is carried out on a case-by-case basis, in accordance with the parameters required by the beneficiary. In this paper, results obtained by fluid flow simulation with SolidWorks2023 software for a 500 mm diameter trunnion ball valve lead to important information regarding how the fluid flow develops in the intermediary and fully closed positions. The large inner space of the ball allows the development of high-amplitude vortices; thus, the simulation demonstrates that the shut-on/off operation of large-diameter ball valves is mandatory to avoid fast destruction following partial opening. This paper also demonstrates why the metal–metal (MM) sealing with a double-piston effect (DPE) design for seats produces low leakage rates, including for the shut-off position; the pressure field reveals that few gas particles succeed in crossing the upstream sealing zone, and even fewer cross the downstream sealing zone. Additionally, the interpretation of the results explains and highlights the importance of using seats with a DPE design to achieve fire safety, which is required for natural gas pipeline applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 12929 KiB  
Article
A GPU-Accelerated Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Unstructured Grids
by Feng Peng, Xiaoli Hao and Fuxin Chai
Water 2023, 15(7), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071300 - 25 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2093
Abstract
The precision of numerical overland flow models is limited by their computational cost. A GPU-accelerated 2D shallow flow model is developed to overcome this challenge in this study. The model employs a Godunov-type finite volume method (FVM) to solve shallow water equations (SWEs) [...] Read more.
The precision of numerical overland flow models is limited by their computational cost. A GPU-accelerated 2D shallow flow model is developed to overcome this challenge in this study. The model employs a Godunov-type finite volume method (FVM) to solve shallow water equations (SWEs) with unstructured grids, while also considering rainfall, infiltration, bottom slope, and friction source terms. The numerical simulation demonstrates that this model has well-balanced and robust properties. In an experiment of urban rain-runoff and flood, the accuracy and stability of the model are further demonstrated. The model is programmed with CUDA, and each numerical computation term is processed in parallel to adopt multi-thread GPU acceleration technology. With the GPU computation framework, this model can achieve a speeding up ration around 75 to single-thread CPU in the dam-break flow for a large-scale application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4252 KiB  
Article
Determination of Effective Flow and Force Areas for Reed Type Compressor Valve Systems: Part 1—Model Derivation Using CFD Analysis Results
by Jeong Deok Park, Seong Jin Lee, Jun-young Ahn, Jinkook Kim and Jong Bong Kim
Energies 2023, 16(7), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16072951 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
The dynamic behavior of reed valves during suction and discharge is very important in predicting compressor performance and valve fatigue fracture. For an accurate dynamic analysis of reed valves, mass flow rate and effective force area should be accurately modeled. In this study, [...] Read more.
The dynamic behavior of reed valves during suction and discharge is very important in predicting compressor performance and valve fatigue fracture. For an accurate dynamic analysis of reed valves, mass flow rate and effective force area should be accurately modeled. In this study, mass flow rate and effective force area models were developed based on CFD analysis results using the well-known commercial software ANSYS Fluent. CFD analyses were carried out for various values of port radius, valve radius, valve lift, and pressure difference. The mass flow rate and pressure force on valve were obtained from the analysis. Then, effective flow and force area models were proposed and the model coefficients were determined using the CFD results. The average prediction error of the effective flow area and the effective force area were 1.90% and 2.9%, respectively. It was shown that the effective flow area is dependent only on the port radii and valve lift; it is not dependent on the valve radii. The proposed effective force area model can accurately describe the decrease and increase in pressure force with valve lift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

40 pages, 802 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Hierarchical Grid Refinement Techniques for the Lattice Boltzmann Method by Numerical Experiments
by Alexander Schukmann, Andreas Schneider, Viktor Haas and Martin Böhle
Fluids 2023, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8030103 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Over the last few decades, several grid coupling techniques for hierarchically refined Cartesian grids have been developed to provide the possibility of varying mesh resolution in lattice Boltzmann methods. The proposed schemes can be roughly categorized based on the individual grid transition interface [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, several grid coupling techniques for hierarchically refined Cartesian grids have been developed to provide the possibility of varying mesh resolution in lattice Boltzmann methods. The proposed schemes can be roughly categorized based on the individual grid transition interface layout they are adapted to, namely cell-vertex or cell-centered approaches, as well as a combination of both. It stands to reason that the specific properties of each of these grid-coupling algorithms influence the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme. Consequently, this naturally leads to a curiosity regarding the extent to which this is the case. The present study compares three established grid-coupling techniques regarding their stability ranges by conducting a series of numerical experiments for a square duct flow, including various collision models. Furthermore the hybrid-recursive regularized collision model, originally introduced for cell-vertex algorithms with co-located coarse and fine grid nodes, has been adapted to cell-centered and combined methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4367 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Operation Mode of the Air-Conditioning and Oxygen Supply System on Energy Consumption of Plateau Train
by Xingjie Zhao, Xueqin Chen and Ye Wang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3914; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063914 - 19 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Problems of low temperature, low pressure, low oxygen, and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air-conditioning (AC) trains of the Qinghai-Tibet railway can affect the health and comfort of passengers and cause altitude sickness. When the Qinghai-Tibet railway train runs [...] Read more.
Problems of low temperature, low pressure, low oxygen, and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air-conditioning (AC) trains of the Qinghai-Tibet railway can affect the health and comfort of passengers and cause altitude sickness. When the Qinghai-Tibet railway train runs in high-altitude areas, it is necessary to supply oxygen and introduce fresh air to meet the limited oxygen (O2) and CO2 partial pressures (PPs) in the carriage. In this study, a numerical analysis of the correlation between the CO2 PP and O2 PP in AC trains and the air supply parameters (ASPs), fresh air volume (FAV), and oxygen supply volume (OSV) along the Qinghai-Tibet line in summer was conducted. The results show that the influence of the FAV on the energy consumption of the air-conditioning system (ACS) in different running areas is inconsistent, whereas the influence of the oxygen supply system (OSS) on energy consumption is significant. During the oxygen supply period, the FAV had the opposite effect on energy consumption of ACS and OSS. The energy consumption of the OSS was approximately five times that of the ACS. By studying the correlation between the internal environment and ASP of trains running in different regions, the operation modes of ACS and OSS can be reasonably set, which can effectively reduce energy consumption by 20–50%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 6569 KiB  
Article
Comparison of an Explicit and Implicit Time Integration Method on GPUs for Shallow Water Flows on Structured Grids
by Floris J. L. Buwalda, Erik De Goede, Maxim Knepflé and Cornelis Vuik
Water 2023, 15(6), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061165 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2373
Abstract
The accuracy, stability and computational efficiency of numerical methods on central processing units (CPUs) for the depth-averaged shallow water equations were well covered in the literature. A large number of these methods were already developed and compared. However, on graphics processing units (GPUs), [...] Read more.
The accuracy, stability and computational efficiency of numerical methods on central processing units (CPUs) for the depth-averaged shallow water equations were well covered in the literature. A large number of these methods were already developed and compared. However, on graphics processing units (GPUs), such comparisons are relatively scarce. In this paper, we present the results of comparing two time-integration methods for the shallow water equations on structured grids. An explicit and a semi-implicit time integration method were considered. For the semi-implicit method, the performance of several iterative solvers was compared. The implementation of the semi-implicit method on a GPU in this study was a novel approach for the shallow water equations. This also holds for the repeated red black (RRB) solver that was found to be very efficient on a GPU. Additionally, the results of both methods were compared with several CPU-based software systems for the shallow water flows on structured grids. On a GPU, the simulations were 25 to 75 times faster than on a CPU. Theory predicts an explicit method to be best suited for a GPU due to the higher level of inherent parallelism. It was found that both the explicit and the semi-implicit methods ran efficiently on a GPU. For very shallow applications, the explicit method was preferred because the stability condition on the time step was not very restrictive. However, for deep water applications, we expect the semi-implicit method to be preferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 22721 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Parameter Optimization of Pulse Tube Refrigerator Based on Kriging Metamodel and Non-Dominated Ranking Genetic Algorithms
by Hongxiang Zhao, Wei Shao, Zheng Cui and Chen Zheng
Energies 2023, 16(6), 2736; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16062736 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Structure parameters have an important influence on the refrigeration performance of pulse tube refrigerators. In this paper, a method combining the Kriging metamodel and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) is proposed to optimize the structure of regenerators and pulse tubes to [...] Read more.
Structure parameters have an important influence on the refrigeration performance of pulse tube refrigerators. In this paper, a method combining the Kriging metamodel and Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) is proposed to optimize the structure of regenerators and pulse tubes to obtain better cooling capacity. Firstly, the Kriging metamodel of the original pulse tube refrigerator CFD model is established to improve the iterative solution efficiency. On this basis, NSGA II was applied to the optimization iteration process to obtain the optimal and worst Pareto front solutions for cooling performance, the heat and mass transfer characteristics of which were further analyzed comparatively to reveal the influence mechanism of the structural parameters. The results show that the Kriging metamodel presents a prediction error of about 2.5%. A 31.24% drop in the minimum cooling temperature and a 31.7% increase in cooling capacity at 120 K are achieved after optimization, and the pressure drop loss at the regenerator and the vortex in the pulse tube caused by the structure parameter changes are the main factors influencing the whole cooling performance of the pulse tube refrigerators. The current study provides a scientific and efficient design method for miniature cryogenic refrigerators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6589 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Drilling Fluid Flow in Centrifugal Pumps
by Jianxin Hu, Ke Li, Wenfeng Su and Xinyi Zhao
Water 2023, 15(5), 992; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050992 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the oil and mining industries. In contrast to water pumps, the centrifugal pumps in the oil and mining industries are used for the transportation of drilling fluid, which is typically non-Newtonian fluid. Drilling fluids are usually modeled [...] Read more.
Centrifugal pumps are widely used in the oil and mining industries. In contrast to water pumps, the centrifugal pumps in the oil and mining industries are used for the transportation of drilling fluid, which is typically non-Newtonian fluid. Drilling fluids are usually modeled as power-law fluids with varying shear viscosity and imposed shear rates. In this paper, a numerical simulation of power-law fluid flow in a centrifugal pump was simulated, varying only in the flow-rate magnitude, using water flow as a comparison. The simulation results show that the pump used for drilling fluid presents a lower head and efficiency but a higher shaft power than that used for water. The flow patterns of both the water pump and the drilling fluid pump were investigated in terms of pressure fluctuation, turbulent kinetic energy, and radial force on the impeller. In contrast to the literature, this paper also analyzes the pressure pulsations in the individual blades of the impeller, as well as those in the volute path. In the case of drilling fluid, it was found that the viscous effect made the flow at the end of the blades highly irregular, and this could be attributed to the pressure generated by them. At the same time, the fluid flow at the small cross-section of the volute was more sensitive to the rotation of the impeller. In addition, the effects of the shear collision exerted on the outlet fluid of the impeller and the fluid in the volute, as well as the dynamic and static interferences, made the non-Newtonian power-law fluid consume more mechanical energy than the water. The results of this paper can be used as a reference for improving the design of centrifugal pumps using non-Newtonian fluids as media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3811 KiB  
Article
Deep Neural Network Modeling for CFD Simulations: Benchmarking the Fourier Neural Operator on the Lid-Driven Cavity Case
by Paulo Alexandre Costa Rocha, Samuel Joseph Johnston, Victor Oliveira Santos, Amir A. Aliabadi, Jesse Van Griensven Thé and Bahram Gharabaghi
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053165 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4320
Abstract
In this work we present the development, testing and comparison of three different physics-informed deep learning paradigms, namely the ConvLSTM, CNN-LSTM and a novel Fourier Neural Operator (FNO), for solving the partial differential equations of the RANS turbulence model. The 2D lid-driven cavity [...] Read more.
In this work we present the development, testing and comparison of three different physics-informed deep learning paradigms, namely the ConvLSTM, CNN-LSTM and a novel Fourier Neural Operator (FNO), for solving the partial differential equations of the RANS turbulence model. The 2D lid-driven cavity flow was chosen as our system of interest, and a dataset was generated using OpenFOAM. For this task, the models underwent hyperparameter optimization, prior to testing the effects of embedding physical information on performance. We used the mass conservation of the model solution, embedded as a term in our loss penalty, as our physical information. This approach has been shown to give physical coherence to the model results. Based on the performance, the ConvLSTM and FNO models were assessed in forecasting the flow for various combinations of input and output timestep sizes. The FNO model trained to forecast one timestep from one input timestep performed the best, with an RMSE for the overall x and y velocity components of 0.0060743 m·s−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 3640 KiB  
Article
Computationally Inexpensive CFD Approach for the Combustion of Sewage Sludge Powder, Including the Consideration of Water Content and Limestone Additive Variations
by Benjamin Ortner, Christian Schmidberger, Hannes Gerhardter, René Prieler, Hartmuth Schröttner and Christoph Hochenauer
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041798 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
As a result of growing interest in the thermal treatment of sewage sludge with methods such as combustion, gasification or pyrolysis, and also in processes that aim to recover precious components such as phosphorus from this waste, a growing demand has been observed [...] Read more.
As a result of growing interest in the thermal treatment of sewage sludge with methods such as combustion, gasification or pyrolysis, and also in processes that aim to recover precious components such as phosphorus from this waste, a growing demand has been observed for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that provide solutions rapidly and accurately for efficient application in research and development. This study was carried out to develop a computationally inexpensive modelling approach for the combustion of pulverized sewage sludge in entrained flow furnaces. Sewage sludge is a very volatile-rich fuel. Therefore, the Steady Diffusion Flamelet model (SFM), in combination with a validated skeletal reaction mechanism, was applied to consider the pulverized firing of sewage sludge. It was possible to represent the complex composition of volatiles emitted from the sludge particles by releasing surrogate fuels. In addition, the influence of limestone additive (calcination reaction) and varying water content (water–gas shift reaction) was investigated experimentally and modelled via CFD. The simulation results confirm that the surrogate fuel approach is valid and can be used to describe pulverized sewage sludge effectively. The temperature and species concentration results, including the influence of the additive and different levels of water content, were confirmed by experimental data, which is usually hard to obtain due to the tendency of PSS to form agglomerates in entrained flow combustion furnaces. The model yields plausible and experimentally validated results for the combustion of sewage sludge powder across a wide range of operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7754 KiB  
Article
Morphological Analysis of a Collapsing Cavitation Bubble near a Solid Wall with Complex Geometry
by Minglei Shan, Fangyong Shu, Yu Yang, Yu Shang, Cheng Yin and Qingbang Han
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031832 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1425
Abstract
The interaction mechanism between the cavitation bubble and a solid wall is a basic problem in bubble collapse prevention and application. In particular, when bubble collapse occurs near solid walls with arbitrarily complex geometries, it is difficult to efficiently establish a model and [...] Read more.
The interaction mechanism between the cavitation bubble and a solid wall is a basic problem in bubble collapse prevention and application. In particular, when bubble collapse occurs near solid walls with arbitrarily complex geometries, it is difficult to efficiently establish a model and quantitatively explore the interaction mechanism between bubbles and solid walls. Based on the advantages of the lattice Boltzmann method, a model for cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall was established using the pseudopotential multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model. Solid walls with arbitrarily complex geometries were introduced in the computational domain, and the fractal dimension was used to quantify the complexity of the solid wall. Furthermore, owing to the lack of periodicity, symmetry, spatial uniformity and obvious correlation in this process, the Minkowski functionals-based morphological analysis method was introduced to quantitatively describe the temporal evolution of collapsing bubble profiles and acquire effective information from the process. The interaction mechanism between the bubble and solid wall was investigated using evolutions of physical fields. In addition, the influences of the solid walls’ surface conditions and the position parameter on collapsing bubbles were discussed. These achievements provide an efficient tool for quantifying the morphological changes of the collapsing bubble. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4594 KiB  
Article
CFD Study of MHD and Elastic Wall Effects on the Nanofluid Convection Inside a Ventilated Cavity Including Perforated Porous Object
by Lioua Kolsi, Fatih Selimefendigil, Mohamed Omri, Hatem Rmili, Badreddine Ayadi, Chemseddine Maatki and Badr M. Alshammari
Mathematics 2023, 11(3), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11030695 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
Cost-effective, lightweight design alternatives for the thermal management of heat transfer equipment are required. In this study, porous plate and perforated-porous plates are used for nanoliquid convection control in a flexible-walled vented cavity system under uniform magnetic field effects. The finite element technique [...] Read more.
Cost-effective, lightweight design alternatives for the thermal management of heat transfer equipment are required. In this study, porous plate and perforated-porous plates are used for nanoliquid convection control in a flexible-walled vented cavity system under uniform magnetic field effects. The finite element technique is employed with the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) method. The numerical study is performed for different values of Reynolds number (200Re1000), Hartmann number (0Ha50), Cauchy number (108Ca104) and Darcy number (106Da0.1). At Re = 600, the average Nusselt number (Nu) is 6.3% higher by using a perforated porous plate in a cavity when compared to a cavity without a plate, and it is 11.2% lower at Re = 1000. At the highest magnetic field strength, increment amounts of Nu are in the range of 25.4–29.6% by considering the usage of plates. An elastic inclined wall provides higher Nu, while thermal performance improvements in the range of 3.6–6% are achieved when varying the elastic modulus of the wall. When using a perforated porous plate and increasing its permeability, 22.8% increments of average Nu are obtained. A vented cavity without a plate and elastic wall provides the highest thermal performance in the absence of a magnetic field, while using a porous plate with an elastic wall results in higher Nu when a magnetic field is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 6378 KiB  
Article
Development of a Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model Based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Method
by Guoquan Ran, Qinghe Zhang and Zereng Chen
Water 2023, 15(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15010156 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Though the discontinuous Galerkin method is attracting more and more applications in many fields due to its local conservation, high-order accuracy, and flexibility for resolving complex geometries, only a few three-dimensional hydrodynamic models based on the discontinuous Galerkin method are present. In this [...] Read more.
Though the discontinuous Galerkin method is attracting more and more applications in many fields due to its local conservation, high-order accuracy, and flexibility for resolving complex geometries, only a few three-dimensional hydrodynamic models based on the discontinuous Galerkin method are present. In this study, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with a σ-coordinate system in the vertical direction is developed. This model is discretized in space using the discontinuous Galerkin method and advanced in time with the implicit-explicit Runge–Kutta method. Numerical tests indicate that the developed model is convergent and can obtain better results with a smaller computational time when a higher approximation order is adopted. Other tests with exact solutions also indicate that the developed model can well simulate the vertical circulation under the effect of surface wind stress and the flow under the combined effect of wind stress and Coriolis acceleration terms. The simulation results of tidal flow in part of Bohai Bay, China, indicate that the model can be used for the simulation of tidal wave motion in realistic situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
MHD Micropolar Fluid in a Porous Channel Provoked by Viscous Dissipation and Non-Linear Thermal Radiation: An Analytical Approach
by M. Saraswathy, D. Prakash and Putta Durgaprasad
Mathematics 2023, 11(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/math11010183 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
The present exploration discusses the combined effect of non-linear thermal radiation along with viscous dissipation and magnetic field through a porous medium. A distinctive aspect of our work is the simultaneous use of porous wall and a porous material. The impact of thermal [...] Read more.
The present exploration discusses the combined effect of non-linear thermal radiation along with viscous dissipation and magnetic field through a porous medium. A distinctive aspect of our work is the simultaneous use of porous wall and a porous material. The impact of thermal rays is essential in space technology and high temperature processes. At the point when the temperature variation is very high, the linear thermal radiation causes a noticeable error. To overcome such errors, nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The coupled system of ordinary differential equations are derived from the partial differential equation. The dimensional model equations are transformed into non-dimensional forms using some appropriate non-dimensional transformation and the resulting nonlinear equations are solved numerically by executing persuasive numerical technique R-K integration procedure with the shooting method. Graphical analysis were used to assess the consequences of engineering factors for the momentum, angular velocity, concentration and temperature profiles. The skin friction values, local Sherwood and Nusselt number are the fascinating physical quantities whose numerical data are computed and validated against different parametric values. The vortex viscosity parameter and spin gradient viscosity parameter shows the reverse phenomenon on micro-rotation profile. The thermal radiation phenomena flattens the temperature and speeds up the heat transfer rate in the lower wall and a peak in the concentration is observed for the Pem>>1 due to the inertial force. The Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) are the two analytical approach which have been incorporated here to decipher the non linear equations for showing better approximity. Comparisons with existing studies are scrutinized very closely and they are determined to be in good accord. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5735 KiB  
Article
Research on Rigid–Elastic Coupling Flight Dynamics of Hybrid Wing Body Based on a Multidiscipline Co-Simulation
by Yucheng Wang and Gang Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010410 - 28 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
Due to the special aerodynamic layout and mass distribution, the natural frequency differences between the hybrid wing body (HWB)’s rigid-body motion modes and the fuselage structure elastic modes are smaller compared to conventional aircraft, resulting in the disappearance of the decoupling relationship between [...] Read more.
Due to the special aerodynamic layout and mass distribution, the natural frequency differences between the hybrid wing body (HWB)’s rigid-body motion modes and the fuselage structure elastic modes are smaller compared to conventional aircraft, resulting in the disappearance of the decoupling relationship between the HWB’s rigid-body motion and the elastic motion of the airframe structure. For the above reason, the traditional analysis approach based on the rigid-body assumption is no longer applicable when analyzing the flight dynamics of an HWB aircraft, and a shift must be made to an analysis method that takes into account aeroelastic effects. Therefore, in this paper, a time-domain co-simulation program combining the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with computational structure dynamics (CSD) and rigid-body dynamics (RBD) is developed to investigate the effect of a rigid–elastic coupling effect on the flight dynamics of the HWB and this co-simulation method is more advantageous in the calculation of unsteady aerodynamics compared to existing methods of rigid–elastic coupling dynamics analysis. By means of the co-simulation technology, this paper completed a series of simulations, based on which the influence of rigid–elastic coupling effect on the short-period dynamic characteristics of aircraft was studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4964 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Design Parameters of the Combustion Chamber on the Efficiency of a Thermal Oxidizer
by Quang Hat Cao and Sang-Wook Lee
Energies 2023, 16(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010170 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Carbon monoxide is often produced during the incomplete combustion of volatile organic carbon compounds in industry. In the combustion chamber for oxidizing carbon monoxide emissions, a penta-coaxial port device can be used to improve the process of mixing the fuel and oxidizer. In [...] Read more.
Carbon monoxide is often produced during the incomplete combustion of volatile organic carbon compounds in industry. In the combustion chamber for oxidizing carbon monoxide emissions, a penta-coaxial port device can be used to improve the process of mixing the fuel and oxidizer. In this study, the conjugate heat transfer analysis was conducted by solving both Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the eddy dissipation model and solid heat conduction equation in the wall using Fluent 2019R2 to simulate the reaction flow of a volatile organic carbon compound burner and heat transfer of the stack insulation layer. The mass fractions of the O2, CO2, and CO gases; the temperature; and the velocity distribution in a combustion chamber were computed to investigate how various design parameters of the combustor, including air inlet size and stack height, and air inflow conditions affected the combustion performance. Results show that the size of the air inlet had only a minor effect on combustion efficiency and that the airstream forced by a fan significantly enhanced the combustion performance. In particular, increasing the height of the stack from 2 m to 4 m greatly increased combustion efficiency from 63% to 94%, with a 50% increase in the incoming air flow rate by natural convection, which demonstrates the importance of stack height in combustor design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Its Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1