10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 352900

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Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: plant microbiome; microbe-induced plant tolerance to stresses; endophyte; sustainable agriculture
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Department of Enviromental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli” Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Interests: role of compatible osmolytes in stress responses; plant metabolic profiling; regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism; effects of biostimulants on plant metabolism
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Published for the first time in 2012, Plants will celebrate its 10th anniversary. When the inaugural issue was launched, Plants had already published nearly 3500 papers and reflected the diversity and richness of research in the field of Plant science. To mark this significant milestone and celebrate the achievements made throughout the years, we intend to publish a Special Issue entitled "10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives”. In the past decade, the continuous support of the authors, editors, reviewers, as well as the readers, has resulted in noteworthy success and the achievement of a common goal, as well as the sustained reputation of the Plants in the world of science. In parallel with the development of our journal, great success, too, has been recorded across the field of Plant science itself, from the molecular to the ecosystem level, and many new findings are based on new methodological approaches. For these reasons, we want to realize a Special Issue to honor the collective efforts of all those who have contributed so far to the the success of the journal and the gathering of scientific aspects in Plant sciences related to current challenges and future innovation. Apart from the fact that this Special Issue will remain as a celebration of the anniversary, it should also serve as a guide for new discoveries in Plant science and thus for the development of the Journal. Based on all the above, I am honored to announce that top experts in this field will be encouraged to contribute papers to this Special Issue.

Dr. Milan Stankovic
Prof. Dr. Paula Baptista
Prof. Dr. Petronia Carillo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (102 papers)

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Editorial

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6 pages, 259 KiB  
Editorial
10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Further Perspectives
by Milan Stanković
Plants 2023, 12(8), 1696; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12081696 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Published for the first time in 2012, Plants will celebrate its 10th anniversary [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

14 pages, 3346 KiB  
Article
Ecological Features and Conservation of Urtica rupestris Guss. (Urticaceae): A Narrow Endemic Species of Sicily
by Saverio Sciandrello, Salvatore Cambria, Gianpietro Giusso del Galdo, Pietro Minissale, Marta Puglisi, Gianmarco Tavilla and Valeria Tomaselli
Plants 2023, 12(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12010164 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
The conservation actions of endangered plant species require a clear knowledge of their habitats. Urtica rupestris Guss. (Urticaceae) is a rare endemic plant species occurring on shady cliffs in the southern-eastern part of Sicily. In the last century, the extreme anthropogenic alterations of [...] Read more.
The conservation actions of endangered plant species require a clear knowledge of their habitats. Urtica rupestris Guss. (Urticaceae) is a rare endemic plant species occurring on shady cliffs in the southern-eastern part of Sicily. In the last century, the extreme anthropogenic alterations of Hyblaean plateau have caused the continuous and unrestrained fragmentation of natural habitats and consequently the reduction and disappearance of some plant species. A total of 52 vegetation plots, of which 34 are unpublished, were analyzed in order to characterize the floristic composition of the U. rupestris community. All the relevés were classified using classification and ordination methods. The species is mainly linked to shady and wet rock habitats, and only secondarily colonizes the undergrowth shrubs. According to IUCN criteria, we propose a new risk status for this species and the establishment of a new habitat (92/43CEE) for correct long-term conservation. Finally, a new association, Urtico rupestris-Adiantetum capilli-veneris, which falls within the Polysticho setiferi-Phyllitidion scolopendrii alliance (Adiantetea capilli-veneris class), was described. This study can provide useful information for the management and conservation of U. rupestris. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
Cucumber mosaic virus Is Unable to Self-Assemble in Tobacco Plants When Transmitted by Seed
by Antonella Vitti, Israel Pagán, Brigida Bochicchio, Angelo De Stradis, Pasquale Piazzolla, Antonio Scopa and Maria Nuzzaci
Plants 2022, 11(23), 3217; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11233217 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which has great impact on agronomic production worldwide, is both aphid and seed transmitted. Although the mechanisms of aphid transmission have been widely studied, those underlying the ability of CMV to survive and remain infectious during the passage from [...] Read more.
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), which has great impact on agronomic production worldwide, is both aphid and seed transmitted. Although the mechanisms of aphid transmission have been widely studied, those underlying the ability of CMV to survive and remain infectious during the passage from one generation to the next through the seeds are still to be clarified. Moreover, the viral determinants of seed transmission rate are poorly understood. Three viral genotypes produced from same RNA 1 and 2 components of CMV-Fny but differing in RNA 3 (the wild type CMV-Fny, a pseudorecombinant CMV-Fny/CMV-S and a chimeric CMV previously obtained by our group, named F, FS and CS, respectively) were propagated in Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi plants in order to assess differences in tobacco seed transmission rate and persistence through plant generations in the absence of aphid transmission. Seed-growth tests revealed CMV infection in the embryos, but not in the integuments. Seedlings from seed-growth tests showed the presence of all considered viruses but at different rates: from 4% (F, FS) to 16% (CS). Electron microscopy revealed absence (CS) of viral particles or virions without the typical central hole (F and FS). In agreement, structural characteristics of purified CMV particles, assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, showed anomalous spectra of nucleic acids rather than the expected nucleoproteins. These alterations resulted in no seed transmission beyond the first plant generation. Altogether, the results show for the first time that correct virion assembly is needed for seed infection from the mother plant but not to seedling invasion from the seed. We propose that incorrect virion formation, self-assembly and architecture stability might be explained if during the first stages of germination and seedling development some tobacco seed factors target viral regions responsible for protein-RNA interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 6637 KiB  
Article
Cuscuta australis Parasitism-Induced Changes in the Proteome and Photosynthetic Parameters of Arabidopsis thaliana
by Lyuben Zagorchev, Zhaokui Du, Yongbin Shi, Denitsa Teofanova and Junmin Li
Plants 2022, 11(21), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11212904 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2181
Abstract
Cuscuta australis is a widely distributed stem parasitic plant, infecting a variety of host plants. Its parasitism has a negative effect on the hosts, mainly due to the exhaustion of nutrients, thus negatively affecting the growth and development. However, recent studies indicated that [...] Read more.
Cuscuta australis is a widely distributed stem parasitic plant, infecting a variety of host plants. Its parasitism has a negative effect on the hosts, mainly due to the exhaustion of nutrients, thus negatively affecting the growth and development. However, recent studies indicated that the effect of parasitism may extend beyond the simple extraction of organic compounds, water, and minerals. In the present study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a host for Cuscuta australis, to study the effect of the parasite on the photosynthetic parameters and the proteome after short-term infection. To test this, a highly sensitive portable photosynthesis system and gel-based MS/MS proteomics were employed. It was found that the parasite has a dramatic negative effect on the photosynthetic ability of the host, as well as causing the up-regulation of stress-related proteins. Simultaneously, proteins involved in both decreased permeability and loosening of the cell wall of the host were found to be up-regulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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11 pages, 2719 KiB  
Article
The C-Terminal Region of SLIM1 Transcription Factor Is Required for Sulfur Deficiency Response
by Justyna Piotrowska, Yuki Jodoi, Nguyen Ha Trang, Anna Wawrzynska, Hideki Takahashi, Agnieszka Sirko and Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita
Plants 2022, 11(19), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11192595 - 2 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Sulfur LIMitation1 (SLIM1) transcription factor coordinates gene expression in plants in response to sulfur deficiency (−S). SLIM1 belongs to the family of plant-specific EIL transcription factors with EIN3 and EIL1, which regulate the ethylene-responsive gene expression. The EIL domains consist of DNA binding [...] Read more.
Sulfur LIMitation1 (SLIM1) transcription factor coordinates gene expression in plants in response to sulfur deficiency (−S). SLIM1 belongs to the family of plant-specific EIL transcription factors with EIN3 and EIL1, which regulate the ethylene-responsive gene expression. The EIL domains consist of DNA binding and dimerization domains highly conserved among EIL family members, while the N- and C-terminal regions are structurally variable and postulated to have regulatory roles in this protein family, such that the EIN3 C-terminal region is essential for its ethylene-responsive activation. In this study, we focused on the roles of the SLIM1 C-terminal region. We examined the transactivation activity of the full-length and the truncated SLIM1 in yeast and Arabidopsis. The full-length SLIM1 and the truncated form of SLIM1 with a deletion of C-terminal 106 amino acids (ΔC105) transactivated the reporter gene expression in yeast when they were fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain, whereas the deletion of additional 15 amino acids to remove the C-terminal 120 amino acids (ΔC120) eliminated such an activity, identifying the necessity of that 15-amino-acid segment for transactivation. In the Arabidopsis slim1-2 mutant, the transcript levels of SULTR1;2 sulfate transporter and the GFP expression derived from the SULTR1;2 promoter-GFP (PSULTR1;2-GFP) transgene construct were restored under −S by introducing the full-length SLIM1, but not with the C-terminal truncated forms ΔC105 and ΔC57. Furthermore, the transcript levels of −S-responsive genes were restored concomitantly with an increase in glutathione accumulation in the complementing lines with the full-length SLIM1 but not with ΔC57. The C-terminal 57 amino acids of SLIM1 were also shown to be necessary for transactivation of a −S-inducible gene, SHM7/MSA1, in a transient expression system using the SHM7/MSA1 promoter-GUS as a reporter. These findings suggest that the C-terminal region is essential for the SLIM1 activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 1638 KiB  
Article
β-Cyclocitral Does Not Contribute to Singlet Oxygen-Signalling in Algae, but May Down-Regulate Chlorophyll Synthesis
by Thomas Roach, Theresa Baur and Ilse Kranner
Plants 2022, 11(16), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11162155 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Light stress signalling in algae and plants is partially orchestrated by singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes significant damage within the chloroplast, such as lipid peroxidation. In the vicinity of the photosystem II reaction centre, [...] Read more.
Light stress signalling in algae and plants is partially orchestrated by singlet oxygen (1O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes significant damage within the chloroplast, such as lipid peroxidation. In the vicinity of the photosystem II reaction centre, a major source of 1O2, are two β-carotene molecules that quench 1O2 to ground-state oxygen. 1O2 can oxidise β-carotene to release β-cyclocitral, which has emerged as a 1O2-mediated stress signal in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We investigated if β-cyclocitral can have similar retrograde signalling properties in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using RNA-Seq, we show that genes up-regulated in response to exogenous β-cyclocitral included CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 8 (CCD8), while down-regulated genes included those associated with porphyrin and chlorophyll anabolism, such as tetrapyrrole-binding protein (GUN4), magnesium chelatases (CHLI1, CHLI2, CHLD, CHLH1), light-dependent protochlorophyllide reductase (POR1), copper target 1 protein (CTH1), and coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPX1). Down-regulation of this pathway has also been shown in β-cyclocitral-treated A. thaliana, indicating conservation of this signalling mechanism in plants. However, in contrast to A. thaliana, a very limited overlap in differential gene expression was found in β-cyclocitral-treated and 1O2-treated C. reinhardtii. Furthermore, exogenous treatment with β-cyclocitral did not induce tolerance to 1O2. We conclude that while β-cyclocitral may down-regulate chlorophyll synthesis, it does not seem to contribute to 1O2-mediated high light stress signalling in algae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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19 pages, 5870 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Spatial Expression Analysis of Histone Modification Gene Families in the Rubber Dandelion Taraxacum kok-saghyz
by Francesco Panara, Carlo Fasano, Loredana Lopez, Andrea Porceddu, Paolo Facella, Elio Fantini, Loretta Daddiego and Giorgio Perrella
Plants 2022, 11(16), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11162077 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2307
Abstract
Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Tks), also known as the Russian dandelion, is a recognized alternative source of natural rubber quite comparable, for quality and use, to the one obtained from the so-called rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. In addition to that, Tks roots [...] Read more.
Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Tks), also known as the Russian dandelion, is a recognized alternative source of natural rubber quite comparable, for quality and use, to the one obtained from the so-called rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis. In addition to that, Tks roots produce several other compounds, including inulin, whose use in pharmaceutical and dietary products is quite extensive. Histone-modifying genes (HMGs) catalyze a series of post-translational modifications that affect chromatin organization and conformation, which, in turn, regulate many downstream processes, including gene expression. In this study, we present the first analysis of HMGs in Tks. Altogether, we identified 154 putative Tks homologs: 60 HMTs, 34 HDMs, 42 HATs, and 18 HDACs. Interestingly, whilst most of the classes showed similar numbers in other plant species, including M. truncatula and A. thaliana, HATs and HMT-PRMTs were indeed more abundant in Tks. Composition and structure analysis of Tks HMG proteins showed, for some classes, the presence of novel domains, suggesting a divergence from the canonical HMG model. The analysis of publicly available transcriptome datasets, combined with spatial expression of different developmental tissues, allowed us to identify several HMGs with a putative role in metabolite biosynthesis. Overall, our work describes HMG genomic organization and sets the premises for the functional characterization of epigenetic modifications in rubber-producing plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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11 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Xylem Sap Acidification Is Governed by Tree Phenology, Temperature and Elevation of Growing Site
by Manuel Pramsohler, Edith Lichtenberger and Gilbert Neuner
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152058 - 6 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
pH of xylem sap (pHx) was determined in three trees (Malus domestica (apple tree), Picea abies and Pinus cembra) in response to seasonal changes. Conifer trees from lowland (600 m) were compared to trees growing at the alpine timberline [...] Read more.
pH of xylem sap (pHx) was determined in three trees (Malus domestica (apple tree), Picea abies and Pinus cembra) in response to seasonal changes. Conifer trees from lowland (600 m) were compared to trees growing at the alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.). Xylem sap was extracted with a Scholander pressure bomb and pHx was measured with a pH microsensor. In all species, pHx changed markedly with season. In spring, pHx was acidic; during winter, the pHx was more alkaline. In apple trees, the pHx did not show a significant correlation with temperature but was rather affected by developmental stage. During flushing in spring, xylem sap acidification took place concomitant to the developmental stage “tight cluster”, when foliar development enables a significant transpiration and a consequent movement of water in the xylem. The xylem sap of the two studied conifers showed a significantly larger seasonal alkalinisation (+2.1) than found in apple trees (+1.2) and was significantly more pronounced at the timberline. Xylem sap acidification took place before bud break. pHx had a significant negative correlation with soil temperatures and corresponded to already reported pHx of angiosperms. Overall, pHx appears to be a sensitive stress marker and indicator of activity status in tree xylem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 6590 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Analyses of Hexokinase Family in Poplar (Populus trichocarpa)
by Mei Han, Xianglei Xu, Yuan Xiong, Haikun Wei, Kejun Yao, Tingting Huang, Yingle Long and Tao Su
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2025; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152025 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Hexokinase (HXK) family proteins exert critical roles in catalyzing hexose phosphorylation, sugar sensing, and modulation of plant growth and stress adaptation. Nevertheless, a large amount remains unknown about the molecular profile of HXK enzymes in Populus trichocarpa, a woody model tree species. [...] Read more.
Hexokinase (HXK) family proteins exert critical roles in catalyzing hexose phosphorylation, sugar sensing, and modulation of plant growth and stress adaptation. Nevertheless, a large amount remains unknown about the molecular profile of HXK enzymes in Populus trichocarpa, a woody model tree species. A genome-wide survey of HXK-encoding genes, including phylogenies, genomic structures, exon/intron organization, chromosomal distribution, and conserved features, was conducted, identifying six putative HXK isogenes (PtHXK1-6) in the Populus genome. The evolutionary tree demonstrated that 135 homologous HXKs between 17 plant species were categorized into four major subfamilies (type A, B, C, and D), clustering one plastidic (PtHXK3) and five mitochondrial PtHXKs grouped into type A and B, respectively. The in silico deduction prompted the presence of the conserved sugar-binding core (motif 4), phosphorylation sites (motif 2 and 3), and adenosine-binding domains (motif 7). The transcriptomic sequencing (RNA-seq) and the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays revealed that three isogenes (PtHXK2, 3, and 6) were abundantly expressed in leaves, stems, and roots, while others appeared to be dominantly expressed in the reproductive tissues. Under the stress exposure, PtHXK2 and 6 displayed a significant induction upon the pathogenic fungi (Fusarium solani) infection and marked promotions by glucose feeding in roots. In contrast, the PtHXK3 and 6 are ABA-responsive genes, following a dose-dependent manner. The comprehensive analyses of the genomic patterns and expression profiling provide theoretical clues and lay a foundation for unraveling the physiological and signaling roles underlying the fine-tuned PtHXKs responding to diverse stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Self-Incompatibility in Apricot: Identifying Pollination Requirements to Optimize Fruit Production
by Sara Herrera, Jorge Lora, José I. Hormaza and Javier Rodrigo
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152019 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2255
Abstract
In recent years, an important renewal of apricot cultivars is taking place worldwide, with the introduction of many new releases. Self-incompatible genotypes tolerant to the sharka disease caused by the plum pox virus (PPV), which can severely reduce fruit production and quality, are [...] Read more.
In recent years, an important renewal of apricot cultivars is taking place worldwide, with the introduction of many new releases. Self-incompatible genotypes tolerant to the sharka disease caused by the plum pox virus (PPV), which can severely reduce fruit production and quality, are being used as parents in most breeding programs. As a result, the self-incompatibility trait present in most of those accessions can be transmitted to the offspring, leading to the release of new self-incompatible cultivars. This situation can considerably affect apricot management, since pollination requirements were traditionally not considered in this crop and information is lacking for many cultivars. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the pollination requirements of a group of new apricot cultivars by molecular identification of the S-alleles through PCR amplification of RNase and SFB regions with different primer combinations. The S-genotype of 66 apricot cultivars is reported, 41 for the first time. Forty-nine cultivars were considered self-compatible and 12 self-incompatible, which were allocated in their corresponding incompatibility groups. Additionally, the available information was reviewed and added to the new results obtained, resulting in a compilation of the pollination requirements of 235 apricot cultivars. This information will allow an efficient selection of parents in apricot breeding programs, the proper design of new orchards, and the identification and solution of production problems associated with a lack of fruit set in established orchards. The diversity at the S-locus observed in the cultivars developed in breeding programs indicates a possible genetic bottleneck due to the use of a reduced number of parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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15 pages, 3172 KiB  
Article
Effect of Melatonin in Broccoli Postharvest and Possible Melatonin Ingestion Level
by Antonio Cano, Manuela Giraldo-Acosta, Sara García-Sánchez, Josefa Hernández-Ruiz and Marino B. Arnao
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152000 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
The post-harvest stage of broccoli production requires cold storage to obtain enough days of shelf life. It has been proved that melatonin is useful as a post-harvest agent in fruits and vegetables, including broccoli. In this study, the broccoli heads treated with melatonin [...] Read more.
The post-harvest stage of broccoli production requires cold storage to obtain enough days of shelf life. It has been proved that melatonin is useful as a post-harvest agent in fruits and vegetables, including broccoli. In this study, the broccoli heads treated with melatonin have a longer shelf life than the control samples, which was reflected in parameters such as fresh weight, hue angle (expresses color quality), and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Treatments with 100 μM melatonin for 15 or 30 min seem to be the most appropriate, extending the broccoli’s shelf life to almost 42 days, when it is normally around 4 weeks. In addition, a study on the possible impact that melatonin treatments in broccoli could have on melatonin intake in humans is presented. The levels of superficial melatonin, called washing or residual melatonin, are measured, showing the possible incidence in estimated blood melatonin levels. Our results suggest that post-harvest treatments with melatonin do not have to be a handicap from a nutritional point of view, but more research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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21 pages, 1790 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Water Shortage Effects on Potato Tuber Tissues during Growth Using MRI Relaxometry and Biochemical Parameters
by Ghina Hajjar, Stéphane Quellec, Sylvain Challois, Lydia Bousset-Vaslin, Gisèle Joly, Christophe Langrume, Carole Deleu, Laurent Leport and Maja Musse
Plants 2022, 11(15), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11151918 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1986
Abstract
The potato is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide, providing an important source of food. The quality of potato tubers relates to their size and dry matter composition and to the absence of physiological defects. It depends on the spatial and temporal [...] Read more.
The potato is one of the most cultivated crops worldwide, providing an important source of food. The quality of potato tubers relates to their size and dry matter composition and to the absence of physiological defects. It depends on the spatial and temporal coordination of growth and metabolic processes in the major tuber tissues: the cortex, flesh and pith. In the present study, variations in the biochemical traits of each of these tissues were investigated during tuber growth under optimal and water-deficit conditions. MRI relaxometry was used as a non-invasive and quantitative method to access information on cellular water status. The presence of slight but significant variations in organic compound contents quantified in the cortex and flesh revealed a tissue-dependent metabolic pattern. The T2 and relative I0 of the bi-exponential relaxation signal allowed a distinction to be made between the pith and the cortex, whereas the flesh could be differentiated from these tissues only through its relative I0. T2 values did not vary significantly during tuber development, in accordance with the typical growth pattern of tubers, but were shown to be sensitive to water stress. The interpretation of the multi-exponential transverse relaxation times is discussed and could be further developed via microscopic analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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24 pages, 7108 KiB  
Article
Gene Losses and Plastome Degradation in the Hemiparasitic Species Plicosepalus acaciae and Plicosepalus curviflorus: Comparative Analyses and Phylogenetic Relationships among Santalales Members
by Widad AL-Juhani, Noha T. Al Thagafi and Rahmah N. Al-Qthanin
Plants 2022, 11(14), 1869; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141869 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
The Plicosepalus genus includes hemiparasitic mistletoe and belongs to the Loranthaceae family, and it has several medicinal uses. In the present study, we sequenced the complete plastomes of two species, Plicosepalus acaciae and Plicosepalus curviflorus, and compared them with the plastomes of [...] Read more.
The Plicosepalus genus includes hemiparasitic mistletoe and belongs to the Loranthaceae family, and it has several medicinal uses. In the present study, we sequenced the complete plastomes of two species, Plicosepalus acaciae and Plicosepalus curviflorus, and compared them with the plastomes of photosynthetic species (hemiparasites) and nonphotosynthetic species (holoparasites) in the order Santalales. The complete chloroplast genomes of P. acaciae and P. curviflorus are circular molecules with lengths of 120,181 bp and 121,086 bp, respectively, containing 106 and 108 genes and 63 protein-coding genes, including 25 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes for each species. We observed a reduction in the genome size of P. acaciae and P. curviflorus and the loss of certain genes, although this reduction was less than that in the hemiparasite and holoparasitic cp genomes of the Santalales order. Phylogenetic analysis supported the taxonomic state of P. acaciae and P. curviflorus as members of the family Loranthaceae and tribe Lorantheae; however, the taxonomic status of certain tribes of Loranthaceae must be reconsidered and the species that belong to it must be verified. Furthermore, available chloroplast genome data of parasitic plants could help to strengthen efforts in weed management and encourage biotechnology research to improve host resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Constituents, Bioactive Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Properties of Service Tree (Sorbus domestica L.) Fruits
by Manol Ognyanov, Petko Denev, Nadezhda Petkova, Zhana Petkova, Magdalena Stoyanova, Peter Zhelev, Georgi Matev, Desislava Teneva and Yordan Georgiev
Plants 2022, 11(14), 1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141832 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The current study aimed to determine the major and minor nutritional constituents of Sorbus domestica L. fruits. It was revealed that palmitic acid was the most commonly occurring saturated fatty acid, while linoleic acid represented the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. The sterol fraction [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to determine the major and minor nutritional constituents of Sorbus domestica L. fruits. It was revealed that palmitic acid was the most commonly occurring saturated fatty acid, while linoleic acid represented the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. The sterol fraction consisted mainly of β-sitosterol. Small amounts of lipophilic pigments were quantified. Potassium, iron, and boron were the most abundant macro-, micro-, and ultra-trace elements. The amino acid composition analysis suggested that the non-essential amino acids predominated over the essential ones. Soluble sugars (fructose and glucose) represented a large part of the total carbohydrate content, but pectin formed the major part of polysaccharides. Malic acid was the most abundant organic acid whereas quercetin-3-β-glucoside, neochlorogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids were the major phenolic constituents. Fruits exhibited free-radical scavenging and protecting ability against peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Service tree fruits provided valuable bioactive constituents having a high nutritional value and potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
Different Cell Types Affect the Transition from Juvenile to Mature Phase in Citrus Plants Regenerated through Somatic Embryogenesis
by Caterina Catalano, Loredana Abbate, Sergio Fatta Del Bosco, Antonio Motisi, Francesco Carimi, Roberto De Michele, Francesco Mercati, Anna Maria D’Onghia and Angela Carra
Plants 2022, 11(14), 1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11141811 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Robust protocols for the regeneration of somatic embryos in vitro are essential for the efficient use of the most modern biotechnologies. Unfortunately, in perennial trees such as Citrus, plants regenerated from juvenile tissues usually exhibit strong, undesirable juvenile characters such as thorny [...] Read more.
Robust protocols for the regeneration of somatic embryos in vitro are essential for the efficient use of the most modern biotechnologies. Unfortunately, in perennial trees such as Citrus, plants regenerated from juvenile tissues usually exhibit strong, undesirable juvenile characters such as thorny habit and delayed flowering and fruit production. In this work, we tested whether the cell types (nucellar and stigma/style) used to regenerate Citrus plants through somatic embryogenesis affected the transition from the juvenile to mature phase. The results show that regenerants from nucellar cells presented persistent juvenile characters, whereas plants originating from stigma/style explants transited to the mature phase more rapidly. Our observations support the hypothesis that the totipotent cells originated from different cell types are not equivalent, possibly by maintaining memory of their previously differentiated state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 2190 KiB  
Article
Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis Virulence Factors Are Involved in Resistance to Plant-Derived Antimicrobials during Infection
by Nanami Sakata, Takumi Haraguchi, Shunsuke Masuo, Takako Ishiga and Yasuhiro Ishiga
Plants 2022, 11(13), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11131742 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1756
Abstract
Bacteria are exposed to and tolerate diverse and potentially toxic compounds in the natural environment. While efflux transporters are generally thought to involve bacterial antibiotic resistance in vitro, their contributions to plant bacterial virulence have so far been poorly understood. Pseudomonas cannabina pv. [...] Read more.
Bacteria are exposed to and tolerate diverse and potentially toxic compounds in the natural environment. While efflux transporters are generally thought to involve bacterial antibiotic resistance in vitro, their contributions to plant bacterial virulence have so far been poorly understood. Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pcal) is a causal agent of bacterial blight of Brassicaceae. We here demonstrated that NU19, which is mutated in the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) transporter encoded gene, showed reduced virulence on cabbage compared to WT, indicating that the RND transporter contributes to Pcal virulence on cabbage. We also demonstrated that brassinin biosynthesis was induced after Pcal infection. Additionally, the RND transporter was involved in resistance to plant-derived antimicrobials and antibiotics, including the cabbage phytoalexin brassinin. These results suggest that the RND transporter extrudes plant-derived antimicrobials and contributes to Pcal virulence. We also found that the RND transporter contributes to Pcal virulence on Brassicaceae and tomato, but not on oat. These results suggest that the RND transporter contributes to Pcal virulence differentially depending on the host-plant species. Lastly, our expression-profile analysis indicated that the type-three secretion system (TTSS), which is essential for pathogenesis, is also involved in suppressing brassinin biosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that several Pcal virulence factors are involved in resistance to plant-derived antimicrobials and bacterial survival during infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 2212 KiB  
Article
Uptake and Presence Evaluation of Nanoparticles in Cicer arietinum L. by Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Techniques
by Feyza Candan, Yuriy Markushin and Gulnihal Ozbay
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121569 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2152
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the applicability of infrared spectroscopy combined with machine learning techniques to evaluate the uptake and distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea). Obtained spectral data revealed that [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the applicability of infrared spectroscopy combined with machine learning techniques to evaluate the uptake and distribution of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea). Obtained spectral data revealed that the uptake of AuNPs and CNTs by the C. arietinum seedlings’ root resulted in the accumulation of AuNPs and CNTs at stem and leaf parts, which consequently led to the heterogeneous distribution of nanoparticles. principal component analysis and support vector machine classification were applied to assess its usefulness for evaluating the results obtained using the attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method of C. arietinum plant grown at different conditions. Specific wavenumbers that could classify the different nanoparticle constituents of C. arietinum plant extracts according to their ATR-FTIR spectra were identified within three specific regions: 450–503 cm−1, 750–870 cm−1, and 1022–1218 cm−1, based on larger PCA loadings of C. arietinum ATR-FTIR spectra with distinct spectral differences between samples of interest. The current work paves a path to the future fabrication strategies for AuNPs and single-walled CNTs via plant-based routes and highlights the diversity of the applications of these materials in bio-nanotechnology. These results indicate the importance of family-plant selection, choice of methods, and pathways for the efficient biomolecule delivery, drug cargo, and optimal conditions in the wide spectrum of bioapplications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 8299 KiB  
Article
Genetic Variation and Genotype by Environment Interaction for Agronomic Traits in Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids
by Mohammad Ashraful Alam, Marufur Rahman, Salahuddin Ahmed, Nasrin Jahan, Mohammad Al-Amin Khan, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Amnah Mohammed Alsuhaibani, Ahmed Gaber and Akbar Hossain
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111522 - 6 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3093
Abstract
In order to develop high-yielding genotypes of adapted maize, multilocation trials of maize were performed including forty-five maize hybrids exploiting genetic variability, trait associations, and diversity. The experiments were laid out in an RCB design and data were recorded on eight yield and [...] Read more.
In order to develop high-yielding genotypes of adapted maize, multilocation trials of maize were performed including forty-five maize hybrids exploiting genetic variability, trait associations, and diversity. The experiments were laid out in an RCB design and data were recorded on eight yield and yield-contributing traits, viz., days to anthesis (AD), days to silking (SD), anthesis–silking interval (ASI), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), kernels per ear (KPE), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and grain yield (GY). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant variation present among the different traits under study. The phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) showed a higher value than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV), indicating the environmental influence on the expression of the traits. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was found for these traits, indicative of additive gene action. The trait associations showed that genotypic correlation was higher than phenotypic correlation. Based on genetic diversity, the total genotypes were divided into four clusters, and the maximum number of 16 genotypes was found in cluster IV. Among the eight yield and yield-contributing traits, PH, ASI, EH, and TKW were the important traits for variability creation and were mostly responsible for yield. Genotypes G5, G8, G27, G29, and G42 were in the top ranks based on grain yield over locations, while a few others showed region-centric performances; all these genotypes can be recommended upon validation for commercial release. The present findings show the existence of proper genetic variability and divergence among traits, and the identified traits can be used in a maize improvement program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Chemical Investigation and Dose-Response Phytotoxic Effect of Essential Oils from Two Gymnosperm Species (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pall. and Larix decidua Mill.)
by Sara Vitalini, Marcello Iriti, Valentina Vaglia and Stefania Garzoli
Plants 2022, 11(11), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11111510 - 4 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
The chemical composition of the liquid and vapor phases of leaf essential oils (EOs) obtained from two species of Gymnosperms (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Willd. and Larix decidua Mill.) was investigated using the SPME-GC-MS technique. The results highlighted a composition characterized by [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of the liquid and vapor phases of leaf essential oils (EOs) obtained from two species of Gymnosperms (Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Willd. and Larix decidua Mill.) was investigated using the SPME-GC-MS technique. The results highlighted a composition characterized by 51 identified volatile compounds (34 in J. communis and 39 in L. decidua). In both bloils, monoterpenes prevailed over the sesquiterpenes, albeit with qualitative and quantitative differences. Sabinene (37.5% and 34.5%, respectively) represented the two most abundant components in the liquid and vapor phases of J. communis, and α-pinene (51.0% and 63.3%) was the main constituent in L. decidua. The phytotoxic activity of the two EOs was assessed in pre-emergence conditions using three concentrations in contact (2, 5, 10 µL/mL) and non-contact (2, 20, 50 µL) tests against Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae) and Sinapis alba L. (Brassicaceae). Treatments were effective in a dose-dependent manner by significantly reducing the germination (up to 100% and 45–60%, respectively, with filter paper and soil as a substrate) and the seedling development (1.3 to 8 times) of both target species. Moreover, an exploratory survey on the residual presence of volatile compounds in the soil at the end of the tests was carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
19 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
Productiveness and Berry Quality of New Wine Grape Genotypes Grown under Drought Conditions in a Semi-Arid Wine-Producing Mediterranean Region
by Diego José Fernández-López, José Ignacio Fernández-Fernández, Celia Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio Bleda-Sánchez and Leonor Ruiz-García
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101363 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
One alternative for adapting viticulture to high temperatures and the scarcity of water is the development of new varieties adapted to such conditions. This work describes six new genotypes, derived from “Monastrell” × “Cabernet Sauvignon” (MC16, MC19, MC72, MC80) and “Monastrell” × “Syrah” [...] Read more.
One alternative for adapting viticulture to high temperatures and the scarcity of water is the development of new varieties adapted to such conditions. This work describes six new genotypes, derived from “Monastrell” × “Cabernet Sauvignon” (MC16, MC19, MC72, MC80) and “Monastrell” × “Syrah” (MS104, MS49) crosses, grown under deficit irrigation and rainfed conditions in a semi-arid wine-producing area (Murcia, southeastern Spain). The effect of genotype, year, and irrigation treatment on the phenological, productiveness, morphological, and grape quality data was evaluated. The study material was obtained and selected as part of a breeding program run by the Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarollo Agrario y Medioambiental (IMIDA). The results obtained show that under rainfed conditions, the values for productive variables decreased, while those referring to the phenolic content increased. Notable variation in the parameters evaluated was also seen for the different genotypes studied. The behavior of the genotypes MC80 and MS104 under rainfed conditions was noteworthy. In addition to maintaining very adequate yields, phenolic contents, must pH, and total acidity values, MC80 fell into the best ‘phenolic quality group’ and MS104 returned a low º°Baumé value, ideal for the production of low-alcohol-content wines. These genotypes could favor the development of sustainable quality viticulture in dry and hot areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Induction of Somatic Embryogenesis in Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) Involves Increases in the Endogenous Auxin Indole-3-Acetic Acid
by André Caeiro, Sandra Caeiro, Sandra Correia and Jorge Canhoto
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101347 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process regulated by several factors, such as the action of plant growth regulators, namely auxins, of which the most physiologically relevant is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In tamarillo, an optimized system for induction of SE creates, after [...] Read more.
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a complex biological process regulated by several factors, such as the action of plant growth regulators, namely auxins, of which the most physiologically relevant is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In tamarillo, an optimized system for induction of SE creates, after an induction process, embryogenic (EC) and non-embryogenic callus (NEC). In this work the endogenous levels of auxin along the induction phase and in the calli samples were investigated using chemical quantifications by colorimetric reactions and HPLC as well as immunohistochemistry approaches. Differential gene expression (IAA 11, IAA 14, IAA 17, TIR 1, and AFB3) analysis during the induction phase was also carried out. The results showed that the endogenous IAA content is considerably higher in embryogenic than in non-embryogenic calli, with a tendency to increase as the dedifferentiation of the original explant (leaf segments) evolves. Furthermore, the degradation rates of IAA seem to be related to these levels, as non-embryogenic tissue presents a higher degradation rate. The immunohistochemical results support the quantifications made, with higher observable labeling on embryogenic tissue that tends to increase along the induction phase. Differential gene expression also suggests a distinct molecular response between EC and NEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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22 pages, 57509 KiB  
Article
Molecular Systematics of Valerianella Mill. (Caprifoliaceae): Challenging the Taxonomic Value of Genetically Controlled Carpological Traits
by Itziar Arnelas, Ernesto Pérez-Collazos, Josefa López-Martínez, Juan Antonio Devesa and Pilar Catalán
Plants 2022, 11(10), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11101276 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Valerianella (cornsalad) is a taxonomically complex genus formed by 50–65 annual Holarctic species classified into at least four main sections. Carpological traits (sizes and shapes of achenes and calyx teeth) have been used to characterize its sections and species. However, the potential systematic [...] Read more.
Valerianella (cornsalad) is a taxonomically complex genus formed by 50–65 annual Holarctic species classified into at least four main sections. Carpological traits (sizes and shapes of achenes and calyx teeth) have been used to characterize its sections and species. However, the potential systematic value of these traits at different taxonomic ranks (from sections to species (and infraspecific taxa)) has not been tested phylogenetically yet. Here, we have assessed the evolutionary systematic value of Valerianella diagnostic carpological traits at different hierarchical ranks and have demonstrated their ability to separate taxa at the sectional level but not at species level for species of several species pairs. A total of 426 individuals (17 species, 4 sections) of Valerianella were analyzed using AFLP and plastid data. Genetic clusters, phylogenetic trees, and haplotype networks support the taxonomic classification of Valerianella at the four studied sectional levels (V. sects. Valerianella, Cornigerae, Coronatae, Platycoelae) but show admixture for ten taxa from five species pairs (V. locusta—V. carinata, V. coronata—V. pumila, V. multidentata—V. discoidea, V. dentata—V. rimosa, V. eriocarpa—V. microcarpa), which are not reciprocally monophyletic. Dating analyses indicate that the Valerianella sections are relatively old (mid-Miocene), while most species diverged in the Pliocene–Pleistocene. A new section Valerianella sect. Stipitae is described to accommodate the highly divergent and taxonomically distinct V. fusiformis type species. Taxonomic treatments that recognize the sectional ranks and that subsume the separate species of each species pair into single species represent a natural classification for Valerianella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analyses of MADS-Box Genes in Humulus lupulus L. Reveal Potential Participation in Plant Development, Floral Architecture, and Lupulin Gland Metabolism
by Robert Márquez Gutiérrez, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Vagner Augusto Benedito and Antonio Chalfun-Junior
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1237; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091237 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are involved in multiple plant development processes and are most known during the reproductive transition and floral organ development. Very few genes have been characterized in the genome of Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), an important crop for the pharmaceutical [...] Read more.
MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are involved in multiple plant development processes and are most known during the reproductive transition and floral organ development. Very few genes have been characterized in the genome of Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), an important crop for the pharmaceutical and beverage industries. The MADS-box family has not been studied in this species yet. We identified 65 MADS-box genes in the hop genome, of which 29 encode type-II TFs (27 of subgroup MIKCC and 2 MIKC*) and 36 type-I proteins (26 α, 9 β, and 1 γ). Type-II MADS-box genes evolved more complex architectures than type-I genes. Interestingly, we did not find FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) homologs, a transcription factor that acts as a floral repressor and is negatively regulated by cold. This result provides a molecular explanation for a previous work showing that vernalization is not a requirement for hop flowering, which has implications for its cultivation in the tropics. Analysis of gene ontology and expression profiling revealed genes potentially involved in the development of male and female floral structures based on the differential expression of ABC homeotic genes in each whorl of the flower. We identified a gene exclusively expressed in lupulin glands, suggesting a role in specialized metabolism in these structures. In toto, this work contributes to understanding the evolutionary history of MADS-box genes in hop, and provides perspectives on functional genetic studies, biotechnology, and crop breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 1582 KiB  
Article
Biological Activities of Some Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Fumaria schleicheri Soy. Will.
by Ramona Păltinean, Irina Ielciu, Daniela Hanganu, Mihaela Niculae, Emoke Pall, Luc Angenot, Monique Tits, Andrei Mocan, Mihai Babotă, Oleg Frumuzachi, Mircea Tămaş, Gianina Crişan and Michel Frederich
Plants 2022, 11(9), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11091202 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Fumaria schleicheri Soy. Will. is a species belonging to the Papaveraceae family, being widespread in East-Central and Southern Europe. As with numerous other species of the genus, it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatobiliary and digestive disorders. The aim [...] Read more.
Fumaria schleicheri Soy. Will. is a species belonging to the Papaveraceae family, being widespread in East-Central and Southern Europe. As with numerous other species of the genus, it is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatobiliary and digestive disorders. The aim of the present study consisted of the evaluation of its alkaloid content and the assessment of its in vitro antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic potential. Total alkaloid content in the composition of the species was quantified by a spectrophotometrical method and they were individually identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant capacity was investigated by the DPPH and FRAP methods, while the anti-cholinesterase activity was assessed by an adapted Ellman’s method. The in vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated on BJ human fibroblasts and DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Results showed the presence of bicuculline, protopine, chelidonine, stylopine and sanguinarine, among which bicuculline, protopine, stylopine and sanguinarine were quantified, while the antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase assays showed valuable potentials. No cytotoxic effect was observed on BJ cell lines and selective cytotoxicity was expressed towards tumoral cells. In this context, F. schleicheri appears as an important medicinal species with significant potential of substitution with the officinal species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 4084 KiB  
Article
Adnate Leaf-Base and the Origin of Ribs in Succulent Stems of Euphorbia L.
by Gustavo Arévalo-Rodrigues, Fernanda Hurbath, Erika Prado, Isabella Galvão, Inês Cordeiro and Diego Demarco
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081076 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
Stem succulence evolved independently in many plant lineages as an adaptation to arid environments. One of the most interesting cases is the convergence between Cactaceae and Euphorbia, which have anatomical adaptations mostly to increase photosynthetic capability and water storage. Our goal was [...] Read more.
Stem succulence evolved independently in many plant lineages as an adaptation to arid environments. One of the most interesting cases is the convergence between Cactaceae and Euphorbia, which have anatomical adaptations mostly to increase photosynthetic capability and water storage. Our goal was to describe the shoot development in two succulent species of Euphorbia using light microscopy coupled with high-resolution X-ray-computed tomography. Collateral cortical bundles were observed associated with the stem ribs in both species. The analysis of vasculature demonstrated that these bundles are, in fact, leaf traces that run axially along a portion of the internode. That structural pattern is due to an ontogenetic alteration. During shoot development, the leaf-bases remain adnate to the stem near the SAM, forming an axial component. When the internode elongates, the leaf bundles stretch as cortical bundles. The meristematic activity associated with the bundles forms the stem ribs, as leaf veins near the node, and induce rib formation along the entire internode even in the portion where the leaf traces join the stele. In addition, heterochronic shifts are also involved in the evolution of the shoot system in these Euphorbia, being related to early deciduous reduced leaves and the transference of the main photosynthetic function to the stem. This study demonstrates for the first time the influence of leaf developmental shifts and stem rib formation in Euphorbia and sheds new light on the evolution of stem succulence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 3847 KiB  
Article
Striga hermonthica Suicidal Germination Activity of Potent Strigolactone Analogs: Evaluation from Laboratory Bioassays to Field Trials
by Muhammad Jamil, Jian You Wang, Djibril Yonli, Tsuyoshi Ota, Lamis Berqdar, Hamidou Traore, Ouedraogo Margueritte, Binne Zwanenburg, Tadao Asami and Salim Al-Babili
Plants 2022, 11(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11081045 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2979
Abstract
The obligate hemiparasite Striga hermonthica is one of the major global biotic threats to agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, causing severe yield losses of cereals. The germination of Striga seeds relies on host-released signaling molecules, mainly strigolactones (SLs). This dependency opens up the possibility [...] Read more.
The obligate hemiparasite Striga hermonthica is one of the major global biotic threats to agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, causing severe yield losses of cereals. The germination of Striga seeds relies on host-released signaling molecules, mainly strigolactones (SLs). This dependency opens up the possibility of deploying SL analogs as “suicidal germination agents” to reduce the accumulated seed bank of Striga in infested soils. Although several synthetic SL analogs have been developed for this purpose, the utility of these compounds in realizing the suicidal germination strategy for combating Striga is still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of three potent SL analogs (MP3, MP16, and Nijmegen-1) under laboratory, greenhouse, and farmer’s field conditions. All investigated analogs showed around a 50% Striga germination rate, equivalent to a 50% reduction in infestation, which was comparable to the standard SL analog GR24. Importantly, MP16 had the maximum reduction of Striga emergence (97%) in the greenhouse experiment, while Nijmegen-1 appeared to be a promising candidate under field conditions, with a 43% and 60% reduction of Striga emergence in pearl millet and sorghum fields, respectively. These findings confirm that the selected SL analogs appear to make promising candidates as simple suicidal agents both under laboratory and real African field conditions, which may support us to improve suicidal germination technology to deplete the Striga seed bank in African agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 14710 KiB  
Article
Design of Experiments-Based Optimization of Flavonoids Extraction from Daphne genkwa Flower Buds and Flavonoids Contents at Different Blooming Stages
by Min-Kyoung Kim, Geonha Park, Yura Ji, Yun-Gyo Lee, Minsik Choi, Seung-Hyeon Go, Miwon Son and Young-Pyo Jang
Plants 2022, 11(7), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070925 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
The flower buds of Daphne genkwa have been reported as a potent resource associated with anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, anti-rheumatoid arthritis activities, as well as immunoregulation. This paper aimed to establish an optimal extraction method for flavonoids, as active phytochemicals, and to conduct a comparative [...] Read more.
The flower buds of Daphne genkwa have been reported as a potent resource associated with anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, anti-rheumatoid arthritis activities, as well as immunoregulation. This paper aimed to establish an optimal extraction method for flavonoids, as active phytochemicals, and to conduct a comparative analysis by profiling the different blooming stages. Optimized shaking extraction conditions from the design of experiments (DoE), such as minutely mixture design, 23 full factorial design, and polynomial regression analysis, involved an agitation speed of 150 rpm and temperature of 65 °C for 12 h in 56% (v/v) acetone solvent. After, a comparative analysis was performed on three blooming stages, juvenile bud, mature purple bud, and complete flowering, by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS). Most flavonoids increased during bud growth and then decreased when the bud opened for blooming. In particular, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, genkwanin 5-O-primeveroside, and genkwanin strikingly showcased this pattern. Furthermore, the raw spectrometric dataset was subjected to orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to find significant differences in the flavonoids from the juvenile bud, mature purple bud, and complete flowering. In conclusion, the present study facilitates an understanding of flavonoid change at different blooming stages and provides a momentous reference in the research of D. genkwa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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19 pages, 3200 KiB  
Article
Mycorrhized Wheat Plants and Nitrogen Assimilation in Coexistence and Antagonism with Spontaneous Colonization of Pathogenic and Saprophytic Fungi in a Soil of Low Fertility
by Catello Di Martino, Valentina Torino, Pasqualino Minotti, Laura Pietrantonio, Carmine Del Grosso, Davide Palmieri, Giuseppe Palumbo, Thomas W. Crawford, Jr. and Simona Carfagna
Plants 2022, 11(7), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070924 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
The aim of the work was to study the biological interference of the spontaneous colonization of pathogenic and saprophytic endophytes on the nitrogen assimilation of mycorrhized wheat plants cultivated in soils deficient in N and P. The nitrogen assimilation efficiency of mycorrhized plants [...] Read more.
The aim of the work was to study the biological interference of the spontaneous colonization of pathogenic and saprophytic endophytes on the nitrogen assimilation of mycorrhized wheat plants cultivated in soils deficient in N and P. The nitrogen assimilation efficiency of mycorrhized plants was determined by measuring the activities of nitrate reductase assimilatory and glutamine synthetase enzymes and free amino acid patterns. Mycorrhizal plants at two different sites showed an assimilative activity of nitrate and ammonium approximately 30% greater than control plants. This activity was associated with significant increases in the amino acids Arg, Glu Gln and Orn in the roots where those amino acids are part of the inorganic nitrogen assimilation of mycorrhizal fungi. The nutrient supply of mycorrhizal fungi at the root guaranteed the increased growth of the plant that was about 40% greater in fresh weight and 25% greater in productive yield than the controls. To better understand the biological interaction between plant and fungus, microbiological screening was carried out to identify colonies of radicular endophytic fungi. Fourteen fungal strains belonging to nine different species were classified. Among pathogenic fungi, the genus Fusarium was present in all the examined roots with different frequencies, depending on the site and the fungal population present in the roots, providing useful clues regarding the principle of spatial conflict and fungal spread within the root system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 1536 KiB  
Article
Antioxidants and Phytohormones Act in Coordination to Regulate Sage Response to Long Term Ozone Exposure
by Alessandra Marchica, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali and Elisa Pellegrini
Plants 2022, 11(7), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070904 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Antioxidants and phytohormones are hallmarks of abiotic stress responses in plants. Although it is known that they can offer cell protection or accelerate programmed cell death (PCD) depending on the level of stress, the involvement of these metabolites in stress acclimation is still [...] Read more.
Antioxidants and phytohormones are hallmarks of abiotic stress responses in plants. Although it is known that they can offer cell protection or accelerate programmed cell death (PCD) depending on the level of stress, the involvement of these metabolites in stress acclimation is still not fully elucidated. Here, we showed the role of antioxidants and phytohormones in Salvia officinalis tolerance to long-term ozone (O3) exposure (120 ppb for 36 days, 5 h day−1). Salicylic acid (SA) content was increased under O3 throughout the whole experiment (+150%, as average compared with control), being required to maintain the cellular redox state and potentiate defense responses. This accumulation was induced before the production of ethylene (ET), suggesting that ET was controlled by SA during O3 exposure to modulate the magnitude of chlorosis formation and the cell redox balance (by regulating ascorbate and glutathione levels). The synthesis and/or regeneration of these antioxidants did not protect membranes from lipid peroxidation, as demonstrated by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (+23% as average). However, these processes of lipid oxidation did not include the synthesis of the membrane breakdown products, as confirmed by the unchanged values of jasmonic acid, thus indicating that this compound was not involved in the regulation of PCD strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 3981 KiB  
Article
Seed Morphology in Species from the Silene mollissima Aggregate (Caryophyllaceae) by Comparison with Geometric Models
by José Javier Martín-Gómez, Marco Porceddu, Gianluigi Bacchetta and Emilio Cervantes
Plants 2022, 11(7), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070901 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
The description of seed shape by comparison with geometric models allows shape quantification, providing the means for an accurate comparison between different species or populations. Geometric models described for the lateral and dorsal views of the seeds of Silene species are applied to [...] Read more.
The description of seed shape by comparison with geometric models allows shape quantification, providing the means for an accurate comparison between different species or populations. Geometric models described for the lateral and dorsal views of the seeds of Silene species are applied to the quantification of the shape in the seeds belonging to twenty populations of the eleven taxa of S. mollissima aggregate. Cardioid models LM1, LM5 and LM6 adjust differentially to the lateral views of the seeds, while models DM1, DM5 and DM6 are applied to the dorsal views of the seeds. Quantification of the lateral view of seeds with LM5 results in two groups of species of different geographic origin. The seeds more resembling DM5 include S. andryalifolia, S. badaroi, S. gazulensis, S. hifacensis and S. tomentosa, i.e., the taxa with a continental distribution from southern Spain to northern Italy; in contrast, the group of seeds with lower similarity to DM5 includes those from species in northern Africa and the Mediterranean Tyrrhenian islands: S. auricolifolia, S. hicesiae, S. ichnusae, S. mollissima, S. oenotriae and S. velutina. The description of the seed shape based on geometric models contributes to investigating the relationships between related species and constitutes a promising technique for taxonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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32 pages, 4928 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Phytochemical Analysis of Terpenes, Polyphenols and Cannabinoids, and Micromorphological Characterization of 9 Commercial Varieties of Cannabis sativa L.
by Eugenia Mazzara, Jacopo Torresi, Gelsomina Fico, Alessio Papini, Nicola Kulbaka, Stefano Dall’Acqua, Stefania Sut, Stefania Garzoli, Ahmed M. Mustafa, Loredana Cappellacci, Dennis Fiorini, Filippo Maggi, Claudia Giuliani and Riccardo Petrelli
Plants 2022, 11(7), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11070891 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6718
Abstract
New hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) strains developed by crossbreeding selected varieties represent a novel research topic worthy of attention and investigation. This study focused on the phytochemical characterization of nine hemp commercial cultivars. Hydrodistillation was performed in order to collect the essential [...] Read more.
New hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) strains developed by crossbreeding selected varieties represent a novel research topic worthy of attention and investigation. This study focused on the phytochemical characterization of nine hemp commercial cultivars. Hydrodistillation was performed in order to collect the essential oils (EO), and also the residual water and deterpenated biomass. The volatile fraction was analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and SPME-GC-MS, revealing three main chemotypes. The polyphenolic profile was studied in the residual water and deterpenated biomass by spectrophotometric assays, and HPLC-DAD-MSn and 1H-NMR analyses. The latter were employed for quali–quantitative determination of cannabinoids in the deterpenated material in comparison with the one not subjected to hydrodistillation. In addition, the glandular and non-glandular indumentum of the nine commercial varieties was studied by means of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in the attempt to find a possible correlation with the phytochemical and morphological traits. The EO and residual water were found to be rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, and flavonol glycosides, respectively, while the deterpenated material was found to be a source of neutral cannabinoids. The micromorphological survey allowed us to partly associate the phytochemistry of these varieties with the hair morphotypes. This research sheds light on the valorization of different products from the hydrodistillation of hemp varieties, namely, essential oil, residual water, and deterpenated biomass, which proved to be worthy of exploitation in industrial and health applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
Identification of Genes in Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. rosa That Are Host Limiting in Tomato
by Qiurong Fan, Shaheen Bibi, Gary E. Vallad, Erica M. Goss, Jason C. Hurlbert, Matthews L. Paret, Jeffrey B. Jones and Sujan Timilsina
Plants 2022, 11(6), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060796 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2431
Abstract
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. rosa strain Xer07 causes a leaf spot on a Rosa sp. and is closely related to X. euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (Xee) and X. perforans (Xp), causal agents of bacterial spot of tomato. However, Xer07 is not [...] Read more.
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. rosa strain Xer07 causes a leaf spot on a Rosa sp. and is closely related to X. euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria (Xee) and X. perforans (Xp), causal agents of bacterial spot of tomato. However, Xer07 is not pathogenic on tomato and elicits a hypersensitive reaction (HR). We compared the genomes of the three bacterial species to identify the factors that limit Xer07 on tomato. Comparison of pathogenicity associated factors including the type III secretion systems identified two genes, xopA and xer3856, in Xer07 that have lower sequence homology in tomato pathogens. xer3856 is a homolog of genes in X. citri (xac3856) and X. fuscans pv. aurantifolii, both of which have been reported to elicit HRs in tomato. When xer3856 was expressed in X. perforans and infiltrated in tomato leaflets, the transconjugant elicited an HR and significantly reduced bacterial populations compared to the wildtype X. perforans strain. When xer3856 was mutated in Xer07, the mutant strain still triggered an HR in tomato leaflets. The second gene identified codes for type III secreted effector XopA, which contains a harpin domain that is distinct from the xopA homologs in Xee and Xp. The Xer07-xopA, when expressed in X. perforans, did not elicit an HR in tomato leaflets, but significantly reduced bacterial populations. This indicates that xopA and xer3856 genes in combination with an additional factor(s) limit Xer07 in tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 2432 KiB  
Article
Conserved and Diverse Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by the Establishment of Symbioses in Tomato Roots Forming Arum-Type and Paris-Type Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
by Takaya Tominaga, Luxi Yao, Hikaru Saito and Hironori Kaminaka
Plants 2022, 11(6), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060747 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3193
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi allocate mineral nutrients to their host plants, and the hosts supply carbohydrates and lipids to the fungal symbionts in return. The morphotypes of intraradical hyphae are primarily determined on the plant side into Arum- and Paris-type AMs. [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi allocate mineral nutrients to their host plants, and the hosts supply carbohydrates and lipids to the fungal symbionts in return. The morphotypes of intraradical hyphae are primarily determined on the plant side into Arum- and Paris-type AMs. As an exception, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) forms both types of AMs depending on the fungal species. Previously, we have shown the existence of diverse regulatory mechanisms in Arum- and Paris-type AM symbioses in response to gibberellin (GA) among different host species. However, due to the design of the study, it remained possible that the use of different plant species influenced the results. Here, we used tomato plants to compare the transcriptional responses during Arum- and Paris-type AM symbioses in a single plant species. The tomato plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis or Gigaspora margarita exhibited Arum- and Paris-type AMs, respectively, and demonstrated similar colonization rates and shoot biomass. Comparative transcriptomics showed shared expression patterns of AM-related genes in tomato roots upon each fungal infection. On the contrary, the defense response and GA biosynthetic process was transcriptionally upregulated during Paris-type AM symbiosis. Thus, both shared and different transcriptional reprogramming function in establishing Arum- and Paris-type AM symbioses in tomato plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 970 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling of Two Italian Olea europaea (L.) Varieties Subjected to UV-B Stress
by Chiara Piccini, Claudio Cantini, Giampiero Cai, Diana C. G. A. Pinto, Artur M. S. Silva, Marco Romi and Maria Celeste Dias
Plants 2022, 11(5), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050680 - 2 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to natural and/or anthropogenic causes decreases the amount of UV-B radiation filtered, and consequently increases the risk of potential damage to organisms. In the Mediterranean region, high UV-B indices are frequent. Even for species typical [...] Read more.
The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to natural and/or anthropogenic causes decreases the amount of UV-B radiation filtered, and consequently increases the risk of potential damage to organisms. In the Mediterranean region, high UV-B indices are frequent. Even for species typical of this region, such as the olive tree, the progressive increase in UV-B radiation represents a threat. This work aimed to understand how high UV-B radiation modulates the phenolic and lipophilic profile of olive varieties, and identify metabolites that enhance olive stress tolerance. Two Italian olive varieties were subjected to chronic UV-B stress, and leaves were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the most representative phenolic and lipophilic compounds of Giarraffa and Olivastra Seggianese were readjusted in response to UV-B stress. The Giarraffa variety seemed better suited to prolonged UV-B stress, possibly due to the higher availability of flavonoids that could help control oxidative damage, and the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives that could provide strong UV-B shield protection. In addition, this variety contained higher levels of fatty acids (e.g., palmitic, α-linolenic, and stearic acids), which can help to maintain membrane integrity and accumulate more sorbitol (which may serve as an osmoprotectant or act a free-radical scavenger), terpenes, and long-chain alkanes, providing higher protection against UV-B stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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13 pages, 1044 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Fertilization Capacity of the Aquaculture Sediment for Wheat Grass as Sustainable Alternative Use
by Marian Burducea, Andrei Lobiuc, Lenuta Dirvariu, Eugen Oprea, Stefan Mihaita Olaru, Gabriel-Ciprian Teliban, Vasile Stoleru, Vlad Andrei Poghirc, Irina Gabriela Cara, Manuela Filip, Mariana Rusu, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Cristian-Alin Barbacariu
Plants 2022, 11(5), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11050634 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
Periodic removal of sediment from aquaculture ponds is practiced to maintain their productivity and animal welfare. The recovery of sediment as a plant fertilizer could alleviate the costs of sediment removal. The objective of this study was to test the effects of a [...] Read more.
Periodic removal of sediment from aquaculture ponds is practiced to maintain their productivity and animal welfare. The recovery of sediment as a plant fertilizer could alleviate the costs of sediment removal. The objective of this study was to test the effects of a dried sediment, extracted from an aquaculture pond used for common carp cultivation, on the growth and physiology of potted wheat grass and the quality of the juice obtained from wheat grass. The results showed that sediment application did not produce significant morphological changes, although the values for plant height (16.94–19.22 cm), leaf area (19.67–139.21 mm2), and biomass (3.39–4.26 g/plant) were higher in sediment-grown plants. However, at a physiological level, the effect was negative, decreasing photosynthesis (0.82–1.66 μmol CO2 m2s−1), fluorescence ΦPSII (0.737–0.782), and chlorophyll content (1.40–1.83 CCI). The juice yield was reduced in the sediment treatments (46–58 g/100 g), while the quality was improved by increasing the content of phenols (2.55–3.39 µg/mL gallic acid equivalent), flavonoids (1.41–1.85 µg/mL quercetin equivalent), and antioxidant activity (47.99–62.7% inhibition of; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The positive results obtained in this study can be attributed to the moderate nutrient content of the sediment and a negligible concentration of heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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23 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Fingerprinting and Molecular Characterization of the Rock Samphire Germplasm Collection from the Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, Northern Greece
by Kalliopi Kadoglidou, Maria Irakli, Anastasia Boutsika, Ifigeneia Mellidou, Nikolas Maninis, Eirini Sarrou, Vasiliki Georgiadou, Nikolaos Tourvas, Nikos Krigas, Theodoros Moysiadis, Katerina Grigoriadou, Eleni Maloupa, Aliki Xanthopoulou and Ioannis Ganopoulos
Plants 2022, 11(4), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040573 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
The traditionally edible aerial parts of rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum L.) could be a valuable functional food or feed ingredient due to their high antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid content, and rich content in secondary metabolites such as phenolics and flavonoids. The first [...] Read more.
The traditionally edible aerial parts of rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum L.) could be a valuable functional food or feed ingredient due to their high antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid content, and rich content in secondary metabolites such as phenolics and flavonoids. The first objective of this study was to evaluate eighteen genotypes derived from different regions of Greece regarding the phytochemical contents of their soluble extracts in total phenolics, total flavonoids, and individual polyphenols as determined by LC-MS analysis, as well as ascorbic acid content and their antioxidant capacity as determined by different assays, including ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. The second objective of the study was the molecular characterization of native Greek C. maritimum genotypes. Great variation among genotypes was observed in terms of the antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid content, and phenolic compounds (total phenolic content and total flavonoid content), as well as in caffeolquinic acids and flavonoids. The principal component analysis highlighted genotypes with a higher potential in antioxidants and polyphenolics. The most promising genotypes were G9 from Kefalonia, followed by G4 from Ikaria, where both clearly exhibited a similar response with high values of evaluated traits. The molecular characterization of genotypes revealed low variability and low to moderate genetic diversity between populations. Our data indicated that the rock samphire germplasm collection from the Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia could serve as an important source of documented genetic material and, thus, it is suggested for further investigation to provide insight regarding cultivation and agro-processing aspects, artificial selection, or plant breeding aimed at developing C. maritimum genotypes of high-bioactive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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17 pages, 4908 KiB  
Article
Ecological Networks in Urban Forest Fragments Reveal Species Associations between Native and Invasive Plant Communities
by Sonali Chauhan, Gitanjali Yadav and Suresh Babu
Plants 2022, 11(4), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040541 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4086
Abstract
Forest fragments are characteristic features of many megacities that have survived the urbanisation process and are often represented by unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Such woodlands are representations of nature in the city—often dominated by non-native and invasive species that coexist with [...] Read more.
Forest fragments are characteristic features of many megacities that have survived the urbanisation process and are often represented by unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Such woodlands are representations of nature in the city—often dominated by non-native and invasive species that coexist with resilient native congeners and purposefully introduced flora. These forest fragments also provide significant ecosystem services to urban society and therefore, understanding their compositional patterns is of considerable importance for conservation and management. In this work, we use a complex network approach to investigate species assemblages across six distinct urban forest fragments in the South Delhi Ridge area of the National Capital Territory, India. We generate bipartite ecological networks using conventional vegetation sampling datasets, followed by network partitioning to identify multiple cliques across the six forest fragments. Our results show that urban woodlands primarily form invasive–native associations, and that major invasive species, such as Prosopis juliflora and Lantana camara exclude each other while forming cliques. Our findings have implications for the conservation of these urban forests and highlight the importance of using network approaches in vegetation analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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22 pages, 4941 KiB  
Article
Photoactivated TiO2 Nanocomposite Delays the Postharvest Ripening Phenomenon through Ethylene Metabolism and Related Physiological Changes in Capsicum Fruit
by Arijit Ghosh, Indraneel Saha, Masayuki Fujita, Subhas Chandra Debnath, Alok Kumar Hazra, Malay Kumar Adak and Mirza Hasanuzzaman
Plants 2022, 11(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11040513 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Capsicum is one of the most perishable fruit which undergo rapid loss of commercial value during postharvest storage. In this experiment our aim is to evaluate the effect of photoactivated TiO2 nano-particle complexed with chitosan or TiO2-nanocomposite (TiO2-NC) [...] Read more.
Capsicum is one of the most perishable fruit which undergo rapid loss of commercial value during postharvest storage. In this experiment our aim is to evaluate the effect of photoactivated TiO2 nano-particle complexed with chitosan or TiO2-nanocomposite (TiO2-NC) on extension self-life of Capsicum fruit and its effect on related morphological, physiological and molecular attributes at room temperature (25 °C). Initially, TiO2-NC coated fruits recorded superior maintenance of total soluble solids accumulation along with retention of firmness, cellular integrity, hydration, color etc. On the extended period of storage, fruit recorded a lower bioaccumulation of TiO2 in comparison to metallic silver over the control. On the level of gene expression for ethylene biosynthetic and signaling the TiO2-NC had more regulation, however, discretely to moderate the ripening. Thus, ACC synthase and oxidase recorded a significantly better downregulation as studied from fruit pulp under TiO2-NC than silver. On the signaling path, the transcripts for CaETR1 and CaETR2 were less abundant in fruit under both the treatment when studied against control for 7 d. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also correlated to retard the oxidative lysis of polyamine oxidation by diamine and polyamine oxidase activity. The gene expression for hydrolytic activity as non-specific esterase had corroborated the development of essential oil constituents with few of those recorded in significant abundance. Therefore, TiO2-NC would be reliable to induce those metabolites modulating ripening behavior in favor of delayed ripening. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis profile of all tested essential oil constituents suggesting positive impact of TiO2-NC on shelf-life extension of Capsicum fruit. Our results indicated the potentiality of TiO2-NC in postharvest storage those may connect ethylene signaling and ROS metabolism in suppression of specific ripening attributes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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10 pages, 1385 KiB  
Communication
Functional Antagonism of WRI1 and TCP20 Modulates GH3.3 Expression to Maintain Auxin Homeostasis in Roots
by Que Kong, Pui Man Low, Audrey R. Q. Lim, Yuzhou Yang, Ling Yuan and Wei Ma
Plants 2022, 11(3), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030454 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3509
Abstract
Auxin is a well-studied phytohormone, vital for diverse plant developmental processes. The GH3 genes are one of the major auxin responsive genes, whose expression changes lead to modulation of plant development and auxin homeostasis. However, the transcriptional regulation of these GH3 genes remains [...] Read more.
Auxin is a well-studied phytohormone, vital for diverse plant developmental processes. The GH3 genes are one of the major auxin responsive genes, whose expression changes lead to modulation of plant development and auxin homeostasis. However, the transcriptional regulation of these GH3 genes remains largely unknown. WRI1 is an essential transcriptional regulator governing plant fatty acid biosynthesis. Recently, we identified that the expression of GH3.3 is increased in the roots of wri1-1 mutant. Nevertheless, in this study we found that AtWRI1 did not activate or repress the promoter of GH3.3 (proGH3.3) despite of its binding to proGH3.3. Cross-family transcription factor interactions play pivotal roles in plant gene regulatory networks. To explore the molecular mechanism by which WRI1 controls GH3.3 expression, we screened an Arabidopsis transcription factor library and identified TCP20 as a novel AtWRI1-interacting regulator. The interaction between AtWRI1 and TCP20 was further verified by several approaches. Importantly, we found that TCP20 directly regulates GH3.3 expression via binding to TCP binding element. Furthermore, AtWRI1 repressed the TCP20-mediated transactivation of proGH3.3. EMSAs demonstrated that AtWRI1 antagonized TCP20 from binding to proGH3.3. Collectively, we provide new insights that WRI1 attenuates GH3.3 expression through interaction with TCP20, highlighting a new mechanism that contributes to fine-tuning auxin homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory Response of Lavandula luisieri and Lavandula pedunculata Essential Oils
by Monica Zuzarte, Cátia Sousa, Carlos Cavaleiro, Maria Teresa Cruz and Lígia Salgueiro
Plants 2022, 11(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030370 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3056
Abstract
Portuguese lavenders remain undervalued in global markets due to the lack of high-quality end-products and scarcity of scientific-based studies validating their bioactive potential. Moreover, chemical variability is frequent in these species, and can compromise both safety and efficacy. In the present study, the [...] Read more.
Portuguese lavenders remain undervalued in global markets due to the lack of high-quality end-products and scarcity of scientific-based studies validating their bioactive potential. Moreover, chemical variability is frequent in these species, and can compromise both safety and efficacy. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of L. luisieri and L. pedunculata, two highly prevalent species in Portugal, was assessed and correlated with their chemical variability. Representative samples with distinct chemical profiles were selected to assess the anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated macrophages. L. luisieri essential oil with low quantities of necrodane derivatives was the most potent at inhibiting NO production. Interestingly, the essential oil was more effective than its main compounds (1,8-cineole and fenchone), assessed alone or in combination. Our results also demonstrated a significant effect of the oil on the expression of the inflammatory proteins (iNOS and pro-IL-1β) and on the NF-κB pathway. Overall, this study highlights the impact of chemical variability on oils’ efficacy by showing distinct effects among the chemotypes. We also identify L. luisieri essential oil, with low quantities of necrodane derivatives, as the most promising in the mitigation of the inflammatory response, thus corroborating its traditional uses and paving the way for the development of herbal medicinal products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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19 pages, 25201 KiB  
Article
The INRAE Centre for Vegetable Germplasm: Geographically and Phenotypically Diverse Collections and Their Use in Genetics and Plant Breeding
by Jérémy Salinier, Véronique Lefebvre, Didier Besombes, Hélène Burck, Mathilde Causse, Marie-Christine Daunay, Catherine Dogimont, Juliette Goussopoulos, Christophe Gros, Brigitte Maisonneuve, Louis McLeod, Fatiha Tobal and Rebecca Stevens
Plants 2022, 11(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030347 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4570
Abstract
The French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE) conserves and distributes five vegetable collections as seeds: the aubergine* (in this article the word aubergine refers to eggplant), pepper, tomato, melon and lettuce collections, together with their wild or cultivated [...] Read more.
The French National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE) conserves and distributes five vegetable collections as seeds: the aubergine* (in this article the word aubergine refers to eggplant), pepper, tomato, melon and lettuce collections, together with their wild or cultivated relatives, are conserved in Avignon, France. Accessions from the collections have geographically diverse origins, are generally well-described and fixed for traits of agronomic or scientific interest and have available passport data. In addition to currently conserving over 10,000 accessions (between 900 and 3000 accessions per crop), the centre maintains scientific collections such as core collections and bi- or multi-parental populations, which have also been genotyped with SNP markers. Each collection has its own merits and highlights, which are discussed in this review: the aubergine collection is a rich source of crop wild relatives of Solanum; the pepper, melon and lettuce collections have been screened for resistance to plant pathogens, including viruses, fungi, oomycetes and insects; and the tomato collection has been at the heart of genome-wide association studies for fruit quality traits and environmental stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 1900 KiB  
Article
No Evidence for Light-Induced Embolism Repair in Cut Stems of Drought-Resistant Mediterranean Species under Soaking
by Martina Tomasella, Sara Natale, Francesco Petruzzellis, Sara Di Bert, Lorenzo D’Amico, Giuliana Tromba and Andrea Nardini
Plants 2022, 11(3), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030307 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2204
Abstract
(1) Recent studies suggested that stem photosynthesis could favor bark water uptake and embolism recovery when stem segments are soaked in water under light conditions, but evidence for this phenomenon in drought-resistant Mediterranean species with photosynthetic stems is missing. (2) Embolism recovery upon [...] Read more.
(1) Recent studies suggested that stem photosynthesis could favor bark water uptake and embolism recovery when stem segments are soaked in water under light conditions, but evidence for this phenomenon in drought-resistant Mediterranean species with photosynthetic stems is missing. (2) Embolism recovery upon immersion in water for 2 h–4 h under light was assessed (i) via a classical hydraulic method in leafless Fraxinus ornus and Olea europaea branch segments stressed to xylem water potentials (Yxyl) inducing ca. 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and (ii) via X-ray micro-CT imaging of the stem segments of drought-stressed potted F. ornus saplings. Hydraulic recovery was also assessed in vivo in intact drought-stressed F. ornus saplings upon soil re-irrigation. (3) Intact F. ornus plants recovered hydraulic function through root water uptake. Conversely, the soaked stem segments of both species did not refill embolized conduits, although Yxyl recovered to pre-stress levels (between −0.5 MPa and −0.2 MPa). (4) We hypothesize that xylem embolism recovery through bark water uptake, even in light conditions, may not be a common phenomenon in woody plants and/or that wounds caused by cutting short stem segments might inhibit the refilling process upon soaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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21 pages, 9971 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Ingredients Incorporated in the Traditional Mixed-Salad of the Capuchin Monks
by Laura Cornara, Gabriele Ambu, Alex Alberto, Domenico Trombetta and Antonella Smeriglio
Plants 2022, 11(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030301 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2890
Abstract
Recipes on the composition of the “salad of the monks” (Capuchin monks) have been reported in Italy since the 17th century. Different wild edible plants were highly regarded as an important ingredient of this mixed salad. Among these, some species played a key [...] Read more.
Recipes on the composition of the “salad of the monks” (Capuchin monks) have been reported in Italy since the 17th century. Different wild edible plants were highly regarded as an important ingredient of this mixed salad. Among these, some species played a key role for both their taste and nutritional properties: Plantago coronopus L. (PC), Rumex acetosa L., Cichorium intybus L., and Artemisia dracunculus L. In the present study, the micromorphological and phytochemical features as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of extracts of these fresh and blanched leaves, were investigated. The extracts obtained by blanched leaves, according to the traditionally used cooking method, showed the highest content of bioactive compounds (total phenols 1202.31–10,751.88 mg GAE/100 g DW; flavonoids 2921.38–61,141.83 mg QE/100 g DW; flavanols 17.47–685.52 mg CE/100 g DW; proanthocyanidins 2.83–16.33 mg CyE/100 g DW; total chlorophyll 0.84–1.09 mg/g FW; carbohydrates 0.14–1.92 g/100 g FW) and possess the most marked antioxidant (IC50 0.30–425.20 µg/mL) and anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 240.20–970.02 µg/mL). Considering this, our results indicate that increased consumption of the investigated plants, in particular of PC, raw or cooked briefly, could provide a healthy food source in the modern diet by the recovery and enhancement of ancient ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 1573 KiB  
Article
D-Tagatose-Based Product Triggers Sweet Immunity and Resistance of Grapevine to Downy Mildew, but Not to Gray Mold Disease
by Nikola Mijailovic, Nicola Richet, Sandra Villaume, Andrea Nesler, Michele Perazzolli, Essaid Aït Barka and Aziz Aziz
Plants 2022, 11(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030296 - 23 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3702
Abstract
The use of natural bio-based compounds becomes an eco-friendly strategy to control plant diseases. Rare sugars would be promising compounds as inducers of plant “sweet immunity”. The present study aimed to investigate the induced resistance of grapevine leaves against Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis [...] Read more.
The use of natural bio-based compounds becomes an eco-friendly strategy to control plant diseases. Rare sugars would be promising compounds as inducers of plant “sweet immunity”. The present study aimed to investigate the induced resistance of grapevine leaves against Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea by a rare sugar-based product (IFP48) and its active ingredient D-tagatose (TAG), in order to elucidate molecular mechanism involved in defense-related metabolic regulations before and after pathogen challenge. Data showed that spraying leaves with IFP48 and TAG lead to a significant reduction of downy mildew, but not of gray mold disease. The induced protection against P. viticola relies on IFP48’s and to a lesser extent TAG’s ability to potentiate the activation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-responsive genes and stilbene phytoalexin accumulation. Most of defense responses remained upregulated in IFP48-treated plants after infection with P. viticola, but inconsistent following challenge with B. cinerea. The beneficial effects of IFP48 were associated with an enhanced accumulation of tagatose inside leaf tissues compared to TAG treatment. Meanwhile, the amounts of sugars, glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose and trehalose remained unchanged or decreased in IFP48-treated leaves after P. viticola infection, although only a few genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism showed transcriptional regulation. This suggests a contribution of sugar homeostasis to the IFP48-induced sweet immune response and priming plants for enhanced resistance to P. viticola, but not to B. cinerea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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20 pages, 3592 KiB  
Article
Deciphering Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.) Using Transcriptome Analyses
by Biswa R. Acharya, Devinder Sandhu, Christian Dueñas, Jorge F. S. Ferreira and Kulbhushan K. Grover
Plants 2022, 11(3), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030291 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
Guar is a commercially important legume crop known for guar gum. Guar is tolerant to various abiotic stresses, but the mechanisms involved in its salinity tolerance are not well established. This study aimed to understand molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in guar. RNA [...] Read more.
Guar is a commercially important legume crop known for guar gum. Guar is tolerant to various abiotic stresses, but the mechanisms involved in its salinity tolerance are not well established. This study aimed to understand molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in guar. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was employed to study the leaf and root transcriptomes of salt-tolerant (Matador) and salt-sensitive (PI 340261) guar genotypes under control and salinity. Our analyses identified a total of 296,114 unigenes assembled from 527 million clean reads. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the gene expression differences were more pronounced between salinity treatments than between genotypes. Differentially expressed genes associated with stress-signaling pathways, transporters, chromatin remodeling, microRNA biogenesis, and translational machinery play critical roles in guar salinity tolerance. Genes associated with several transporter families that were differentially expressed during salinity included ABC, MFS, GPH, and P-ATPase. Furthermore, genes encoding transcription factors/regulators belonging to several families, including SNF2, C2H2, bHLH, C3H, and MYB were differentially expressed in response to salinity. This study revealed the importance of various biological pathways during salinity stress and identified several candidate genes that may be used to develop salt-tolerant guar genotypes that might be suitable for cultivation in marginal soils with moderate to high salinity or using degraded water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 3914 KiB  
Article
Calmodulin Domain Protein Kinase PiCDPK1 Regulates Pollen Tube Growth Polarity through Interaction with RhoGDI
by Nolan Scheible, Gyeong Mee Yoon and Andrew G. McCubbin
Plants 2022, 11(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030254 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
The pollen-specific calcium-dependent protein kinase PiCDPK1 of Petunia inflata has previously been shown to regulate polarity in tip growth in pollen tubes. Here we report the identification of a Rho Guanine Dissociation Inhibitor (PiRhoGDI1) as a PiCDPK1 interacting protein. We demonstrate that PiRhoGDI1 [...] Read more.
The pollen-specific calcium-dependent protein kinase PiCDPK1 of Petunia inflata has previously been shown to regulate polarity in tip growth in pollen tubes. Here we report the identification of a Rho Guanine Dissociation Inhibitor (PiRhoGDI1) as a PiCDPK1 interacting protein. We demonstrate that PiRhoGDI1 and PiCDPK1 interact in a yeast 2-hybrid assay, as well as in an in vitro pull-down assay, and that PiRhoGDI1 is phosphorylated by PiCDPK1 in vitro. We further demonstrate the PiRhoGDI1 is capable of rescuing the loss of growth polarity phenotype caused by over-expressing PiCDPK1 in vivo using stable transgenic plants. We confirmed that PiRhoGDI1 interacts with a pollen-expressed ROP GTPase isoform consistent with the established role of RhoGDIs in negatively regulating GTPases through their membrane removal and locking them in an inactive cytosolic complex. ROP is a central regulator of polarity in tip growth, upstream of Ca2+, and PiCDPK1 over-expression has been previously reported to lead to dramatic elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ through a positive feedback loop. The discovery that PiCDPK1 impacts ROP regulation via PiRhoGDI1 suggests that PiCDPK1 acts as RhoGDI displacement factor and leads us to propose a model which we hypothesize regulates the rapid recycling of ROP GTPase at the pollen tube tip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 1156 KiB  
Article
Addition of Medicinal Plants Increases Antioxidant Activity, Color, and Anthocyanin Stability of Black Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) Functional Beverages
by Desislava Teneva, Daniela Pencheva, Ani Petrova, Manol Ognyanov, Yordan Georgiev and Petko Denev
Plants 2022, 11(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030243 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2707
Abstract
The present study investigates the effect of the addition of medicinal plants, such as lady’s mantle, lavender, rosehip, and meadowsweet, on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and color intensity of ready-to-drink aronia nectar during pasteurization and long-term storage. Pasteurization caused a significant decrease [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the effect of the addition of medicinal plants, such as lady’s mantle, lavender, rosehip, and meadowsweet, on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and color intensity of ready-to-drink aronia nectar during pasteurization and long-term storage. Pasteurization caused a significant decrease in anthocyanin content of aronia nectar, which reduced to 20% of the initial value after four months of storage. Herbs provided different protection to aronia anthocyanins that degraded more slowly during the four-month storage compared to pasteurized control without herbs. The addition of medicinal plants enriched aronia nectar with phenolic compounds and increased its antioxidant activity by up to 52% in meadowsweet-aronia nectar. Moreover, it was accompanied by a color intensity magnification due to co-pigmentation of aronia anthocyanins and herbal phenolics. In contrast to anthocyanins, which constantly degraded during the whole period, color intensity began to stabilize after 30 days, demonstrating that co-pigmentation was progressively established during the time and rosehip provided the best stabilization of aronia nectar color. Current research demonstrates for the first time that medicinal plants such as lady’s mantle, rosehip, and especially meadowsweet can be used to increase antioxidant activity, color, and anthocyanin stability of black chokeberry functional beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Root Morphology, Allometric Relations and Rhizosheath of Ancient and Modern Tetraploid Wheats (Triticum durum Desf.) in Response to Inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum T-22
by Rocco Bochicchio, Rosanna Labella, Antonella Vitti, Maria Nuzzaci, Giuseppina Logozzo and Mariana Amato
Plants 2022, 11(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020159 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Early root traits and allometrics of wheat are important for competition and use of resources. They are under-utilized in research and un-explored in many ancient wheats. This is especially true for the rhizosheath emerging from root-soil interactions. We investigated root morphology, root/shoot relations [...] Read more.
Early root traits and allometrics of wheat are important for competition and use of resources. They are under-utilized in research and un-explored in many ancient wheats. This is especially true for the rhizosheath emerging from root-soil interactions. We investigated root morphology, root/shoot relations and the amount of rhizosheath of four tetrapoid wheat seedlings (30 days after emergence): the italian landrace Saragolle Lucana and modern varieties Creso, Simeto and Ciclope, and tested the hypothesis that inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (T-22) enhances rhizosheath formation and affects wheat varieties differently. Overall growth of non-inoculated plants showed different patterns in wheat varieties, with Saragolle and Ciclope at the two extremes: Saragolle invests in shoot rather than root mass, and in the occupation of space with highest (p < 0.05) shoot height to the uppermost internode (5.02 cm) and length-to-mass shoot (97.8 cm g−1) and root (more than 140 m g−1) ratios. This may be interpreted as maximizing competition for light but also as a compensation for low shoot efficiency due to the lowest (p < 0.05) recorded values of optically-measured chlorophyll content index (22.8). Ciclope invests in biomass with highest shoot (0.06 g) and root (0.04 g) mass and a thicker root system (average diameter 0.34 mm vs. 0.29 in Saragolle) as well as a highest root/shoot ratio (0.95 g g−1 vs. 0.54 in Saragolle). Rhizosheath mass ranged between 22.14 times that of shoot mass in Ciclope and 43.40 in Saragolle (different for p < 0.05). Inoculation with Trichoderma increased the amount of rhizosheath from 9.4% in Ciclope to 36.1% in Simeto and modified root architecture in this variety more than in others. Ours are the first data on roots and seedling shoot traits of Saragolle Lucana and of Trichoderma inoculation effects on rhizosheath. This opens to new unreported interpretations of effects of Trichoderma inoculation on improving plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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18 pages, 1684 KiB  
Article
Classification and Characterization of the Manoor Valley’s (Lesser Himalaya) Vegetation from the Subtropical-Temperate Ecotonal Forests to the Alpine Pastures along Ecological Variables
by Inayat Ur Rahman, Aftab Afzal, Zafar Iqbal, Mashail Nasser Alzain, Al-Bandari Fahad Al-Arjani, Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi, Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah, Niaz Ali, Shazia Sakhi, Muhammad Azhar Khan, Uzma Khan, Farhana Ijaz, Samina Mumtaz and Eduardo Soares Calixto
Plants 2022, 11(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010087 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Plant species are distributed in different types of habitats, forming different communities driven by different sets of environmental variables. Here, we assessed potential plant communities along an altitudinal gradient and their associations with different environmental drivers in the unexplored Manoor Valley (Lesser Himalaya), [...] Read more.
Plant species are distributed in different types of habitats, forming different communities driven by different sets of environmental variables. Here, we assessed potential plant communities along an altitudinal gradient and their associations with different environmental drivers in the unexplored Manoor Valley (Lesser Himalaya), Pakistan. We have implemented various ecological techniques and evaluated phytosociological attributes in three randomly selected 50 m-transects within each stand (a total of 133) during different seasons for four years (2015–2018). This phytosociological exploration reported 354 plant species representing 93 different families. The results revealed that the Therophytic life form class dominated the flora, whereas Nanophyll dominated the leaf size spectra. There were a total of twelve plant communities identified, ranging from the lowest elevations to the alpine meadows and cold deserts. The maximum number of species were found in Cedrus–Pinus–Parrotiopsis community (197 species), in the middle altitudinal ranges (2292–3168 m). Our results showed that at high altitudes, species richness was reduced, whereas an increase in soil nutrients was linked to progression in vegetation indicators. We also found different clusters of species with similar habitats. Our study clearly shows how altitudinal variables can cluster different plant communities according to different microclimates. Studies such as ours are paramount to better understanding how environmental factors influence ecological and evolutionary aspects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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18 pages, 3631 KiB  
Article
Metamitron, a Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain Inhibitor, Modulates the Photoprotective Mechanism of Apple Trees
by Yuval Tadmor, Amir Raz, Shira Reikin-Barak, Vivek Ambastha, Eli Shemesh, Yehoram Leshem, Omer Crane, Raphael A. Stern, Martin Goldway, Dan Tchernov and Oded Liran
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122803 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3312
Abstract
Chemical thinning of apple fruitlets is an important practice as it reduces the natural fruit load and, therefore, increases the size of the final fruit for commercial markets. In apples, one chemical thinner used is Metamitron, which is sold as the commercial product [...] Read more.
Chemical thinning of apple fruitlets is an important practice as it reduces the natural fruit load and, therefore, increases the size of the final fruit for commercial markets. In apples, one chemical thinner used is Metamitron, which is sold as the commercial product Brevis® (Adama, Ashdod, Israel). This thinner inhibits the electron transfer between Photosystem II and Quinone-b within light reactions of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the responses of two apple cultivars—Golden Delicious and Top Red—and photosynthetic light reactions after administration of Brevis®. The analysis revealed that the presence of the inhibitor affects both cultivars’ energetic status. The kinetics of the photoprotective mechanism’s sub-processes are attenuated in both cultivars, but this seems more severe in the Top Red cultivar. State transitions of the antenna and Photosystem II repair cycle are decreased substantially when the Metamitron concentration is above 0.6% in the Top Red cultivar but not in the Golden Delicious cultivar. These attenuations result from a biased absorbed energy distribution between photochemistry and photoprotection pathways in the two cultivars. We suggest that Metamitron inadvertently interacts with photoprotective mechanism-related enzymes in chloroplasts of apple tree leaves. Specifically, we hypothesize that it may interact with the kinases responsible for the induction of state transitions and the Photosystem II repair cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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15 pages, 4162 KiB  
Article
Chemical Compounds, Antitumor and Antimicrobial Activities of Dry Ethanol Extracts from Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm
by Tsvetelina Andonova, Yordan Muhovski, Hafize Fidan, Iliya Slavov, Albena Stoyanova and Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2715; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122715 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2875
Abstract
Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. is used in traditional medicine and has various established biological activities, however, the species is considered to be a potentially invasive alien tree species for Bulgarian flora. However, there is still much to be studied about the phytochemical and biological [...] Read more.
Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. is used in traditional medicine and has various established biological activities, however, the species is considered to be a potentially invasive alien tree species for Bulgarian flora. However, there is still much to be studied about the phytochemical and biological characteristics of the species. The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition of the ethanol extracts of aerial plant parts, by GC-MS analysis, and to thereby evaluate their in vitro antitumor and antibacterial properties. All three extracts were tested against the HT-29 and PC3 tumor cell lines using the MTT assay. Fifty-six components were identified from leaf, flower, and stem bark extracts, and over 10% were the following constituents: pyrogallol, α-terpinyl acetate, neryl acetate, and α-terpinyl isobutanoate. The oxygenated monoterpenes predominated in the extracts, followed by the oxygenated aliphatics and phenylpropanoids. Significant antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 cell line (IC50–21.44 µg/mL and 23.63 µg/mL, respectively) was found for the flower and leaf extracts. Antibacterial activity was established for the following bacteria strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus NCTC 10320, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 6027, and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 6380. The stem bark and flower extracts showed better antimicrobial potential. K. paniculata could be considered as a potential source of biologically active substances with antitumor and antibacterial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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15 pages, 2030 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus Extracts: Evaluation of Drying Effect, Solvent Extraction, and Extracted Plant Parts
by Touka Letaief, Stefania Garzoli, Valentina Laghezza Masci, Jamel Mejri, Manef Abderrabba, Antonio Tiezzi and Elisa Ovidi
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122651 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
The Tunisian Ziziphus lotus plant was investigated to determine its phytoconstituents and evaluate its biological activities. In particular, the GC/MS technique was used to describe the chemical composition of Z. lotus active extracts and fractions. Among the obtained extracts, the yields of the [...] Read more.
The Tunisian Ziziphus lotus plant was investigated to determine its phytoconstituents and evaluate its biological activities. In particular, the GC/MS technique was used to describe the chemical composition of Z. lotus active extracts and fractions. Among the obtained extracts, the yields of the dried root methanolic extract (29.80%) and the fruit aqueous extract (48.00%) were the highest ones. The dried root methanolic extract exhibited the highest amount in the total phenolics (186.44 ± 0.26 mg GAE/g DW), total flavonoids (102.50 ± 3.53 mg QE/g DW), and tannins (60.714 ± 2.2 mg catechin/g DW). The root aqueous extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 8.96 ± 0.38 mg/L and 16.46 ± 0.60 mg/L for the ABTS+ and DPPH• assays, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was accorded to the methanolic extract of the dried roots with a value of 304.07 ± 1.11 µg AAE/mg. The drying process was found to improve the qualitative and quantitative properties of the Z. lotus extracts. The evaluation of the cytotoxic activity against the SH-SY5Y cell line was carried out using MTT assay. The petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of the dried roots showed relevant cytotoxic activities. The thin layer chromatography and the GC-MS/GC-FID analysis led to the identification of the 13-epimanool as a potent cytotoxic compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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14 pages, 1160 KiB  
Article
Plant Response to Mechanically-Induced Stress: A Case Study on Specialized Metabolites of Leafy Vegetables
by Jana Šic Žlabur, Sanja Radman, Sanja Fabek Uher, Nevena Opačić, Božidar Benko, Ante Galić, Paola Samirić and Sandra Voća
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122650 - 2 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Plants have evolved various adaptive mechanisms to environmental stresses, such as sensory mechanisms to detect mechanical stimuli. This plant adaptation has been successfully used in the production practice of leafy vegetables, called mechanical conditioning, for many years, but there is still a lack [...] Read more.
Plants have evolved various adaptive mechanisms to environmental stresses, such as sensory mechanisms to detect mechanical stimuli. This plant adaptation has been successfully used in the production practice of leafy vegetables, called mechanical conditioning, for many years, but there is still a lack of research on the effects of mechanically-induced stress on the content of specialized metabolites, or phytochemicals with significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the content of specialized metabolites and antioxidant capacity of lettuce and green chicory under the influence of mechanical stimulation by brushing. Mechanically-induced stress had a positive effect on the content of major antioxidants in plant cells, specifically vitamin C, total phenols, and flavonoids. In contrast, no effect of mechanical stimulation was found on the content of pigments, total chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that induced mechanical stress is a good practice in the cultivation of leafy vegetables, the application of which provides high quality plant material with high nutritional potential and significantly higher content of antioxidants and phytochemicals important for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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19 pages, 2651 KiB  
Article
Molecular Authentication, Phytochemical Evaluation and Asexual Propagation of Wild-Growing Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) Genotypes of Northern Greece for Sustainable Exploitation
by Eleni Maloupa, Eleftherios Karapatzak, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Antonis Karydas, Katerina Papanastasi, Dimitris Kyrkas, Paraskevi Yfanti, Nikos Nikisianis, Anthimos Zahariadis, Ioanna S. Kosma, Anastasia V. Badeka, Giorgos Patakioutas, Dimitrios Fotakis and Nikos Krigas
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2634; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122634 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
Dogroses belong to a taxonomically difficult genus and family and represent important phytogenetic resources associated with high ornamental, pharmaceutical-cosmetic and nutritional values, thus suggesting a potentially high exploitation merit. Triggered by these prospects, wild-growing Rosa canina populations of Greece were selected for investigation [...] Read more.
Dogroses belong to a taxonomically difficult genus and family and represent important phytogenetic resources associated with high ornamental, pharmaceutical-cosmetic and nutritional values, thus suggesting a potentially high exploitation merit. Triggered by these prospects, wild-growing Rosa canina populations of Greece were selected for investigation and evaluation of their potential for integrated domestication. We collected ripe rosehips from Greek native wild-growing populations (samples from seven genotypes) for phytochemical analysis (total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity and vitamin C content), leaf samples for DNA analysis using the ITS2 sequence (nine genotypes) and fresh soft-wood stem cuttings for propagation trials (seven genotypes). After evaluation of these materials, this study reports for the first-time distinct DNA-fingerprinted genotypes from Greece with interesting phytochemical profiles mainly in terms of Vitamic C content (up to 500.22 ± 0.15 mg of ascorbic acid equivalents/100 g of sample) as well as effective asexual propagation protocols for prioritized R. canina genotypes via cuttings. The latter highlights the importance of the levels of external hormone application (2000 ppm of indole-3-butyric acid), the effect of season (highly-effective spring trials) and genotype-specific differences in rooting capacities of the studied genotypes. All inclusive, this study offers new artificially selected material of Greek native R. canina with a consolidated identity and interesting phytochemical profile. These materials are currently under ex-situ conservation for further evaluation and characterization in pilot field studies, thus facilitating its sustainable exploitation for applications in the agro-alimentary, medicinal-cosmetic, and ornamental sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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20 pages, 4424 KiB  
Article
GIS-Facilitated Seed Germination and Multifaceted Evaluation of the Endangered Abies marocana Trab. (Pinaceae) Enabling Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation
by Stefanos Hatzilazarou, Mohamed El Haissoufi, Elias Pipinis, Stefanos Kostas, Mohamed Libiad, Abdelmajid Khabbach, Fatima Lamchouri, Soumaya Bourgou, Wided Megdiche-Ksouri, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar, Vasiliki Aslanidou, Vasileios Greveniotis, Michalia A. Sakellariou, Ioannis Anestis, Georgios Tsoktouridis and Nikos Krigas
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2606; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122606 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
In the frame of the sustainable use of neglected and underutilized phytogenetic resources, and along with numerous studies in Abies spp. due to the innate conservation value of fir forests, this research focused on the Moroccan endemic fir, Abies marocana. The aim was [...] Read more.
In the frame of the sustainable use of neglected and underutilized phytogenetic resources, and along with numerous studies in Abies spp. due to the innate conservation value of fir forests, this research focused on the Moroccan endemic fir, Abies marocana. The aim was triple-fold: to assess its potential and dynamics in economic sectors for sustainable exploitation; to determine the ecological conditions in which the species naturally thrives; and to find the appropriate requirements for its successful seed germination. We sourced multifaceted evaluations for three economic sectors performed in three levels, using 48 attributes and eight criteria from previous studies of our own, and the relevant species-specific assessments are overviewed herein in detail. The species’ ecological profile was constructed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and open access data (Worldclim). Seed germination trials were performed to examine the effect of cold stratification (non-stratified, one- and two-months stratified seeds), the influence of four temperatures (10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C), and interactions thereof in relation to germination percentage (GP) and mean germination time (MGT). The experiments showed that the interaction of cold stratification and germination temperature has a strong effect on the GP and MGT of A. marocana seeds. A detailed GIS-derived ecological profile of the focal species was created in terms of precipitation and temperature natural regimes, enabling the interpretation of the seed germination results. The multifaceted evaluations reveal an interesting potential of the Moroccan fir in different economic sectors, which is mainly compromised due to extant research gaps, unfavorable conditions, and low stakeholder attraction. The findings of this study fill in extant research gaps, contribute to in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, and can facilitate the sustainable exploitation of this emblematic local endemic plant of northern Morocco. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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12 pages, 3542 KiB  
Communication
Carboxylation Capacity Can Limit C3 Photosynthesis at Elevated CO2 throughout Diurnal Cycles
by James Bunce
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122603 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
The response of carbon fixation in C3 plants to elevated CO2 is relatively larger when photosynthesis is limited by carboxylation capacity (VC) than when limited by electron transport (J). Recent experiments under controlled, steady-state conditions have shown that photosynthesis [...] Read more.
The response of carbon fixation in C3 plants to elevated CO2 is relatively larger when photosynthesis is limited by carboxylation capacity (VC) than when limited by electron transport (J). Recent experiments under controlled, steady-state conditions have shown that photosynthesis at elevated CO2 may be limited by VC even at limiting PPFD. These experiments were designed to test whether this also occurs in dynamic field environments. Leaf gas exchange was recorded every 5 min using two identical instruments both attached to the same leaf. The CO2 concentration in one instrument was controlled at 400 μmol mol−1 and one at 600 μmol mol−1. Leaves were exposed to ambient sunlight outdoors, and cuvette air temperatures tracked ambient outside air temperature. The water content of air in the leaf cuvettes was kept close to that of the ambient air. These measurements were conducted on multiple, mostly clear days for each of three species, Glycine max, Lablab purpureus, and Hemerocallis fulva. The results indicated that in all species, photosynthesis was limited by VC rather than J at both ambient and elevated CO2 both at high midday PPFDs and also at limiting PPFDs in the early morning and late afternoon. During brief reductions in PPFD due to midday clouds, photosynthesis became limited by J. The net result of the apparent deactivation of Rubisco at low PPFD was that the relative stimulation of diurnal carbon fixation at elevated CO2 was larger than would be predicted when assuming limitation of photosynthesis by J at low PPFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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16 pages, 5384 KiB  
Article
RWLMod—Potential Model to Study Plant Tolerance in Drought Stress Conditions
by Florin Sala, Mihai Valentin Herbei and Ciprian Rujescu
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122576 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Rationale: Water loss by evaporation is a normal physiological process, in order to regulate plant temperature. Under conditions of thermal and water stress, water loss is accelerated compared to normal conditions, and the response of plants is variable. In extreme cases, it can [...] Read more.
Rationale: Water loss by evaporation is a normal physiological process, in order to regulate plant temperature. Under conditions of thermal and water stress, water loss is accelerated compared to normal conditions, and the response of plants is variable. In extreme cases, it can lead to wilting and death of plants. It was found that the phenomenon of water loss behaved as a pattern in different plant species, given by two functions, logistics (first part of water loss) and hyperbola (second part of water loss) in relation to a moment m, at which the rate of water loss (RWL) has reached its maximum value. Method: We studied the water loss process for a series of plant samples on different plant species (Picea abies L., H. Karst; Juniperus communis L.; Pinus silvestris L.; Thuja occidentalis L.; Lamium purpureum L.; Veronica hederifolia L.), measuring the rate of weight loss (RWL) in controlled conditions. The drying of the samples was done in identical conditions (thermo-balance, 100 °C, standard temperature for drying the plant samples) with the real-time recording of the drying time simultaneously with the water loss rate (RWL) from the plant samples. The exposure time varied, depending on each species sample, and was approximately 1000 s. Results: The experimental data was recorded at intervals of every 10 s, during the entire drying period. RWL values varied from 0.024 to 0.054 g/min at the beginning of the drying process and reached maximum values after 70–100 s, having values between 0.258 g/min and 0.498 g/min. During the drying period, this indicator presented different graphic evolutions, difficult to be described with a single function. The first segment was described by a logistic function, and the second was described by a hyperbola, resulting in a model (RWLMod) which described the real phenomenon. This model and theoretical calculation were used to quantify the water loss in a time interval and, compared with empirical dates, no significant differences were observed, which indicated an increased degree of accuracy regarding the use of this model. Recommendation and novelty of work: The novelty of the work is given by the obtained model (RWLMod), which makes possible the description of RWL over the entire time interval, and ensures a good fit with the real data. It recommends the method and model in studies of plant behaviour under stress in relation to different influencing factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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24 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Some Egyptian Six-Rowed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
by Azza H. Mohamed, Ahmad A. Omar, Ahmed M. Attya, Mohamed M. A. Elashtokhy, Ehab M. Zayed and Rehab M. Rizk
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112527 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2814
Abstract
Barley production is essential in Egypt. In the present study, 15 different six-rowed Egyptian barley cultivars were studied. To differentiate between the different cultivars under study in terms of morphological characteristics and ISSR, molecular characterization reactions were carried out. Moreover, four cultivars (Giza [...] Read more.
Barley production is essential in Egypt. In the present study, 15 different six-rowed Egyptian barley cultivars were studied. To differentiate between the different cultivars under study in terms of morphological characteristics and ISSR, molecular characterization reactions were carried out. Moreover, four cultivars (Giza 123, Giza 126, Giza 136, and Giza 138) were selected for further studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Computational analysis of the DNA barcoding sequences of the two plastid markers rbcL and matK was executed, and the results were deposited in the NCBI database. The morphological traits showed low statistical significance among the different cultivars under study via the data collected from two seasons, suggesting that the mean field performance of these Egyptian cultivars may be equal under these conditions. The results showed that the phylogenetic tree was divided into four groups, one of which contained the most closely related genotypes in the genetic distance, including Giza 124, Giza 130, Giza 138, Giza 136, and Giza 137, which converge in the indicative uses of farmers. The seed coat of the studied cultivars was “rugose”. The elevation folding of the rugose pattern ranged from 11 ± 1.73 µm (Giza 126) to 14.67 ± 2.43 µm (Giza 123), suggesting variation in seed quality and its uses in feed and the food industry. According to the similarity matrix of ISSR analysis, the highest similarity value (93%) was recorded between Giza 133 and Giza 132, as well as between Giza 2000 and Giza 126. On the other hand, the lowest similarity value (80%) was recorded between Giza 130 and (Giza 133 and Giza 132), indicating that these cultivars were distantly related. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.26 for the primer ISSR UBC 835 to 0.37 for the primers ISSR UBC 814 and ISSR UBC 840. The current study showed that the matK gene is more mutable than the rbcL gene among the tested cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Plants—Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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