Topical Collection "Feature Papers in Plant Protection"

A topical collection in Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This collection belongs to the section "Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions".

Editors

Prof. Dr. Paula Baptista
Website
Collection Editor
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: biological control; endophyte-mediated resistance to diseases; tri-partite interactions; plant–microbe interactions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Livy Williams
Website
Collection Editor
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Charleston, SC 29414, United States
Interests: arthropod-plant interactions; plant response to herbivory; chemical ecology; biological control; sustainable agriculture; soil-borne arthropods

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

As follows from the title, this Topical Collection “Feature Papers in Plant Protection” aims to collect high-quality research articles, short communications, and review articles in all fields of Plant Protection.

For the selected works of this section on Plant Protection, we will focus on research questions that address plant interactions with other organisms and plant pest management.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Plant–microbe interactions;
  • Plant pathogenic fungi, oomycota, bacteria, viruses;
  • Plant disease epidemiology;
  • Diagnosis of plant disease;
  • Plant parasitic nematology;
  • Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria;
  • Mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis;
  • Entomology;
  • Acarology;
  • Forest pathology;
  • Molecular plant–arthropod interactions;
  • Chemical ecology of plant–arthropod interactions;
  • Integrated pest management;
  • Soil-borne pathogens and arthropods;
  • Insect–plant–microbe interactions;
  • Insect vectors of plant diseases;
  • Weed science;
  • Weed ecology;
  • Plant microbiome;
  • Integrated weed management;
  • Plant protection chemicals;
  • Beneficial microbes;
  • Herbicide resistance;
  • Biological control;
  • Plant immunity;
  • Induced resistance;
  • Plant biotic stress;
  • Plant defenses;
  • Elicitors;
  • Impact of abiotic stress on plant–microbe interaction.

Prof. Dr. Paula Baptista
Dr. Livy Williams
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
Creation and Validation of a Temperature-Based Phenology Model for Meloidogyne incognita on Common Bean
Plants 2021, 10(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020240 - 26 Jan 2021
Abstract
The thermal requirements of Meloidogyne incognita on Phaseolus vulgaris in a set of constant soil temperatures were determined and the phenology model was validated at fluctuating soil temperatures. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (S) from nematode [...] Read more.
The thermal requirements of Meloidogyne incognita on Phaseolus vulgaris in a set of constant soil temperatures were determined and the phenology model was validated at fluctuating soil temperatures. The base temperature (Tb) and the thermal constant (S) from nematode inoculation to females starting to lay eggs were 11.3 °C and 323 accumulated degree days (DD), respectively; Tb= 10.5 °C and S = 147 DD from egg production to emergence of juveniles; and Tb = 11.1 °C and S = 476 DD for life cycle completion. At fluctuating soil temperatures in pots with the minimum lower than Tb and the maximum higher than To (optimal temperature), the DD calculation was carried out by the average daily temperature–Tb (ADTb) and the single sine method over Tb (SSTb) with horizontal, intermediate, and vertical cutoffs. The most accurate were the ADTb and the SSTb with horizontal and intermediate cutoffs (93–106% of the predicted value) but the vertical underestimated the accumulated DD (75–82% of the predicted value). When fluctuating soil temperatures were between Tb and To in a plastic greenhouse, only the ADTb method was used. Life cycle completion was observed around 465 DD (accuracy between 0.95 and 0.99) at four different transplanting dates. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Large-Scale Seedling Grow-Out Experiments Do Not Support Seed Transmission of Sweet Potato Leaf Curl Virus in Sweet Potato
Plants 2021, 10(1), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010139 - 12 Jan 2021
Abstract
Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) threatens global sweet potato production. SPLCV is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci or via infected vegetative planting materials; however, SPLCV was suggested to be seed transmissible, which is a characteristic that is disputed for geminiviruses. The objective of [...] Read more.
Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) threatens global sweet potato production. SPLCV is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci or via infected vegetative planting materials; however, SPLCV was suggested to be seed transmissible, which is a characteristic that is disputed for geminiviruses. The objective of this study was to revisit the validity of seed transmission of SPLCV in sweet potato. Using large-scale grow-out of sweet potato seedlings from SPLCV-contaminated seeds over 4 consecutive years, approximately 23,034 sweet potato seedlings of 118 genotype entries were evaluated. All seedlings germinating in a greenhouse under insect-proof conditions or in a growth chamber were free of SPLCV; however, a few seedlings grown in an open bench greenhouse lacking insect exclusion tested positive for SPLCV. Inspection of these seedlings revealed that B. tabaci had infiltrated the greenhouse. Therefore, transmission experiments were conducted using B. tabaci MEAM1, demonstrating successful vector transmission of SPLCV to sweet potato. Additionally, tests on contaminated seed coats and germinating cotyledons demonstrated that SPLCV contaminated a high percentage of seed coats collected from infected maternal plants, but SPLCV was never detected in emerging cotyledons. Based on the results of grow-out experiments, seed coat and cotyledon tests, and vector transmission experiments, we conclude that SPLCV is not seed transmitted in sweet potato. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Open AccessArticle
Use of LAMP for Assessing Botrytis cinerea Colonization of Bunch Trash and Latent Infection of Berries in Grapevines
Plants 2020, 9(11), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9111538 - 11 Nov 2020
Abstract
A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was evaluated for the detection of Botrytis cinerea in grapevine bunch trash, immature berries, and ripening berries. A simple method for the preparation of crude extracts of grape tissue was also developed for on-site LAMP analysis. [...] Read more.
A real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was evaluated for the detection of Botrytis cinerea in grapevine bunch trash, immature berries, and ripening berries. A simple method for the preparation of crude extracts of grape tissue was also developed for on-site LAMP analysis. When tested with 14 other fungal species frequently found in grapevines, the LAMP assay was specific and sensitive to a B. cinerea DNA quantity of 0.1 ng/µL. The sensitivity was further tested using bunch trash samples with B. cinerea colonization levels between 6 and 100% and with bulk-berry samples composed of 4 pathogen-free berries or 4 berries among which 25 to 100% had been inoculated with B. cinerea. The LAMP assay detected the lowest B. cinerea colonization level tested in bunch trash and in immature and mature berries in less than 20 min. In single-berry experiments, LAMP amplified B. cinerea DNA from all artificially inoculated individual immature and mature berries. No amplification occurred in B. cinerea-free material. The real-time LAMP assay has the potential to be used as a rapid on-site diagnostic tool for assessing B. cinerea colonization in bunch trash and B. cinerea latent infections in berries, which represent critical stages for decision-making about disease management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Bioformulations Developed from Pseudomonas putida BSP9 and Its Biosurfactant for Growth Promotion of Brassica juncea (L.)
Plants 2020, 9(10), 1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9101349 - 12 Oct 2020
Abstract
In this study, Pseudomonas putida BSP9 isolated from rhizosphere of Brassica juncea was investigated for its plant growth promoting and biosurfactant producing activities. The isolate showed the ability to produce indole acetic acid, siderophore, phosphate solubilization activity and was an efficient producer of [...] Read more.
In this study, Pseudomonas putida BSP9 isolated from rhizosphere of Brassica juncea was investigated for its plant growth promoting and biosurfactant producing activities. The isolate showed the ability to produce indole acetic acid, siderophore, phosphate solubilization activity and was an efficient producer of biosurfactant. Purification (of the biosurfactant) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and further characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that biosurfactant produced by the isolate belonged to the glycolipid category, which is largely produced by Pseudomonas sp. In addition, liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis showed the presence of a mixture of six mono-rhamnolipidic and a di-rhamnolipidic congeners, confirming it as a rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Bioformulations were developed using BSP9 and its biosurfactant to check their impact on promoting plant growth in B. juncea. It was noted from the study that bioformulations amended with biosurfactant (singly or in combination with BSP9) resulted in enhancement in the growth parameters of B. juncea as compared to untreated control. Maximum increment was achieved by plants inoculated with bioformulation that had BSP9 plus biosurfactant. The study also suggested that growth promotion was significant up to a threshold level of biosurfactant and that further increasing the concentration did not further enhance the growth parameter values of the plant. The study proves that novel bioformulations can be developed by integrating plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their biosurfactant, and they can be effectively used for increasing agricultural productivity while minimizing our dependence on agrochemicals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, the Fusarium Wilt Pathogen of Banana, in Ecuador
Plants 2020, 9(9), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9091133 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
The continued dispersal of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical race 4 (FocTR4), a quarantine soil-borne pathogen that kills banana, has placed this worldwide industry on alert and triggered enormous pressure on National Plant Protection (NPOs) agencies to limit new incursions. [...] Read more.
The continued dispersal of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical race 4 (FocTR4), a quarantine soil-borne pathogen that kills banana, has placed this worldwide industry on alert and triggered enormous pressure on National Plant Protection (NPOs) agencies to limit new incursions. Accordingly, biosecurity plays an important role while long-term control strategies are developed. Aiming to strengthen the contingency response plan of Ecuador against FocTR4, a population biology study—including phylogenetics, mating type, vegetative compatibility group (VCG), and pathogenicity testing—was performed on isolates affecting local bananas, presumably associated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Our results revealed that Foc populations in Ecuador comprise a single clonal lineage, associated with VCG0120. The lack of diversity observed in Foc populations is consistent with a single introduction event from which secondary outbreaks originated. The predominance of VCG0120, together with previous reports of its presence in Latin America countries, suggests this group as the main cause of the devastating Fusarium wilt epidemics that occurred in the 1950s associated to the demise of ‘Gros Michel’ bananas in the region. The isolates sampled from Ecuador caused disease in cultivars that are susceptible to races 1 and 2 under greenhouse experiments, although Fusarium wilt symptoms in the field were only found in ‘Gros Michel’. Isolates belonging to the same VCG0120 have historically caused disease on Cavendish cultivars in the subtropics. Overall, this study shows how Foc can be easily dispersed to other areas if restriction of contaminated materials is not well enforced. We highlight the need of major efforts on awareness and monitoring campaigns to analyze suspected cases and to contain potential first introduction events of FocTR4 in Ecuador. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Screening for Resistance in Farmer-Preferred Cassava Cultivars from Ghana to a Mixed Infection of CBSV and UCBSV
Plants 2020, 9(8), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9081026 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) caused by the Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) is a threat to cassava production in Africa. The potential spread of CBSD into West Africa is a cause for concern, therefore screening [...] Read more.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) caused by the Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) is a threat to cassava production in Africa. The potential spread of CBSD into West Africa is a cause for concern, therefore screening for resistance in farmer-preferred genotypes is crucial for effective control and management. We multiplied a selection of eleven cassava cultivars grown by farmers in Ghana to test their response to a mixed infection of CBSV (TAZ-DES-01) and UCBSV (TAZ-DES-02) isolates using a stringent top-cleft graft inoculation method. Virus titers were quantified in the inoculated scions and cuttings propagated from the inoculated scions to assess virus accumulation and recovery. All cultivars were susceptible to the mixed infection although their response and symptom development varied. In the propagated infected scions, CBSV accumulated at higher titers in leaves of eight of the eleven cultivars. Visual scoring of storage roots from six-month-old virus-inoculated plants revealed the absence of CBSD-associated necrosis symptoms and detectable titers of CBSVs in the cultivar, IFAD. Although all eleven cultivars supported the replication of CBSV and UCBSV in their leaves, the absence of virus replication and CBSD-associated symptoms in the roots of some cultivars could be used as criteria to rapidly advance durable CBSD tolerance using breeding and genetic engineering approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Together for the Better: Improvement of a Model Based Strategy for Grapevine Downy Mildew Control by Addition of Potassium Phosphonates
Plants 2020, 9(6), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060710 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Grapevine downy mildew is one of the major diseases in viticulture. To control this disease, a more effective strategy has been developed and established based on growth and model data as well as on a combination of fungicides. For this purpose, the systemic [...] Read more.
Grapevine downy mildew is one of the major diseases in viticulture. To control this disease, a more effective strategy has been developed and established based on growth and model data as well as on a combination of fungicides. For this purpose, the systemic plant protection product potassium phosphonate (PP) was combined with two contact fungicides. Treatments were carried out according to the different experimental conditions after the growth of 400 cm2, 600 cm2, and 800 cm2 leaf area per primary shoot. PP increased the effectiveness of the preventive fungicides whenever high infection pressure was the case. The experiments also show that it is possible to extend the treatment intervals from 400 cm2 to 600 cm2 new leaf area when PP was added. However, none of the tested treatments were sufficient for the extension to intervals of 800 cm2. These data show that PP can be a key factor in the reduction of the application of synthetic or copper-based fungicides. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Artificial Small RNA-Based Silencing Tools for Antiviral Resistance in Plants
Plants 2020, 9(6), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9060669 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Artificial small RNAs (art-sRNAs), such as artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs), are highly specific 21-nucleotide small RNAs designed to recognize and silence complementary target RNAs. Art-sRNAs are extensively used in gene function studies or for improving crops, particularly [...] Read more.
Artificial small RNAs (art-sRNAs), such as artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNAs (syn-tasiRNAs), are highly specific 21-nucleotide small RNAs designed to recognize and silence complementary target RNAs. Art-sRNAs are extensively used in gene function studies or for improving crops, particularly to protect plants against viruses. Typically, antiviral art-sRNAs are computationally designed to target one or multiple sites in viral RNAs with high specificity, and art-sRNA constructs are generated and introduced into plants that are subsequently challenged with the target virus(es). Numerous studies have reported the successful application of art-sRNAs to induce resistance against a large number of RNA and DNA viruses in model and crop species. However, the application of art-sRNAs as an antiviral tool has limitations, such as the difficulty to predict the efficacy of a particular art-sRNA or the emergence of virus variants with mutated target sites escaping to art-sRNA-mediated degradation. Here, we review the different classes, features, and uses of art-sRNA-based tools to induce antiviral resistance in plants. We also provide strategies for the rational design of antiviral art-sRNAs and discuss the latest advances in developing art-sRNA-based methodologies for enhanced resistance to plant viruses. Full article
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