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Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan
Interests: high precision instrument design; laser engineering; smart sensors and actuators; optical device; optical measurement; metrology
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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a collection of top quality papers from the editorial board members, or those who have been invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. The topics include:

  • New innovation ideas
  • New innovation technologies
  • New innovation products

The papers should be research papers (or review papers) with the detailed description and verification of the author’s own work.

Prof. Dr. Chien-Hung Liu
Guest Editor

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • innovation idea
  • innovation technology
  • innovation product

Published Papers (90 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2017, 2016

30 pages, 4949 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Laser-Based Method to Conduct Skin Ablation in Zebrafish and Development of Deep Learning-Based Method for Skin Wound-Size Measurement
by Petrus Siregar, Yi-Shan Liu, Franelyne P. Casuga, Ching-Yu Huang, Kelvin H.-C. Chen, Jong-Chin Huang, Chih-Hsin Hung, Yih-Kai Lin, Chung-Der Hsiao and Hung-Yu Lin
Inventions 2024, 9(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions9020025 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Skin plays an important role as a defense mechanism against environmental pathogens in organisms such as humans or animals. Once the skin integrity is disturbed by a wound, pathogens can penetrate easily into a deeper part of the body to induce disease. By [...] Read more.
Skin plays an important role as a defense mechanism against environmental pathogens in organisms such as humans or animals. Once the skin integrity is disturbed by a wound, pathogens can penetrate easily into a deeper part of the body to induce disease. By this means, it is important for the skin to regenerate quickly upon injury to regain its protective barrier function. Traditionally, scientists use rodents or mammals as experimental animals to study skin wound healing. However, due to concerns about animal welfare and increasing costs of laboratory animals, such as rodents, scientists have considered alternative methods of implementing replace, reduce, and refine (3Rs) in experimentation. Moreover, several previous studies on skin wound healing in fish used relatively expensive medical-grade lasers with a low calculation efficiency of the wound area, which led to human judgment errors. Thus, this study aimed to develop a new alternative model for skin wound healing by utilizing zebrafish together with a new rapid and efficient method as an alternative in investigating skin wound healing. First, in order to fulfill the 3Rs concept, the pain in the tested zebrafish was evaluated by using a 3D locomotion assay. Afterward, the obtained behavior data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s multiple comparisons tests; later, 3 watts was chosen as the power for the laser, since the wound caused by the laser at this power did not significantly alter zebrafish swimming behaviors. Furthermore, we also optimized the experimental conditions of zebrafish skin wound healing using a laser engraving machine, which can create skin wounds with a high reproducibility in size and depth. The wound closure of the tested zebrafish was then analyzed by using a two-way ANOVA, and presented in 25%, 50%, and 75% of wound-closure percentages. After imparting wounds to the skin of the zebrafish, wound images were collected and used for deep-learning training by convolutional neural networks (CNNs), either the Mask-RCNN or U-Net, so that the computer could calculate the area of the skin wounds in an automatic manner. Using ImageJ manual counting as a gold standard, we found that the U-Net performance was better than the Mask RCNN for zebrafish skin wound judgment. For proof-of-concept validation, a U-Net trained model was applied to study and determine the effect of different temperatures and the administration of antioxidants on the skin wound-healing kinetics. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the speed of wound closure and the exposure to different temperatures and administration of antioxidants. Taken together, the laser-based skin ablation and deep learning-based wound-size measurement methods reported in this study provide a faster, reliable, and reduced suffering protocol to conduct skin wound healing in zebrafish for the first time. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2018, 2017, 2016

20 pages, 19098 KiB  
Review
Patent Parasites: Non-Inventors Patenting Existing Open-Source Inventions in the 3-D Printing Technology Space
by Apoorv Kulkarni and Joshua M. Pearce
Inventions 2023, 8(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8060141 - 6 Nov 2023
Viewed by 5160
Abstract
Open-source 3-D printing has played a pivotal role in revolutionizing the additive manufacturing (AM) landscape by making distributed manufacturing economic, democratizing access, and fostering far more rapid innovation than antiquated proprietary systems. Unfortunately, some 3-D printing manufacturing companies began deviating from open-source principles [...] Read more.
Open-source 3-D printing has played a pivotal role in revolutionizing the additive manufacturing (AM) landscape by making distributed manufacturing economic, democratizing access, and fostering far more rapid innovation than antiquated proprietary systems. Unfortunately, some 3-D printing manufacturing companies began deviating from open-source principles and violating licenses for the detriment of the community. To determine if a pattern has emerged of companies patenting clearly open-source innovations, this study presents three case studies from the three primary regions of open-source 3-D printing development (EU, U.S., and China) as well as three aspects of 3-D printing technology (AM materials, an open-source 3-D printer, and core open-source 3-D printing concepts used in most 3-D printers). The results of this review have shown that non-inventing entities, called patent parasites, are patenting open-source inventions already well-established in the open-source community and, in the most egregious cases, commercialized by one (or several) firm(s) at the time of the patent filing. Patent parasites are able to patent open-source innovations by using a different language, vague patent titles, and broad claims that encompass enormous swaths of widely diffused open-source innovation space. This practice poses a severe threat to innovation, and several approaches to irradicate the threat are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 8178 KiB  
Article
Design and Operation of a Gripper for a Berthing Task
by Alexander Titov, Matteo Russo and Marco Ceccarelli
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040082 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 865
Abstract
The idea of an extension of life for CubeSats is proposed to reduce space debris in a low-earth orbit. In this work, a gripper is designed for geometry-based grasping in berthing tasks. The grasping operation is outlined for square- and rectangle-shaped CubeSats. Equilibrium [...] Read more.
The idea of an extension of life for CubeSats is proposed to reduce space debris in a low-earth orbit. In this work, a gripper is designed for geometry-based grasping in berthing tasks. The grasping operation is outlined for square- and rectangle-shaped CubeSats. Equilibrium conditions are formulated to design the fingertips’ shape and parameters for grasping CubeSat bodies. A design scheme is proposed to provide the required accuracy. A design concept is developed into a lab prototype by using low-cost 3D printing manufacturing, and a mock-up grasping task that is representative of the berthing operation is evaluated with the lab prototype. Center-mass hanging setup for the prototype and grasped body is used to evaluate the impact of grasping, partially replicating the conditions in space by reducing the effect of gravity on the system. Full article
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32 pages, 5050 KiB  
Article
Practical Improvement Scenarios for an Innovative Waste-Collection Recycling Program Operating with Mobile Green Points (MGPs)
by Konstantinos Tsimnadis, Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos and Stefanos Leontopoulos
Inventions 2023, 8(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8040080 - 24 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Since 2021, the prefectural authorities of the Attica Region in Greece have been operating a rewarding recycling program for the collection of clean recyclable waste in collaboration with the “Specialist Integrated Association of the Prefecture of Attica” (EDSNA, in Greek) and private contractors, [...] Read more.
Since 2021, the prefectural authorities of the Attica Region in Greece have been operating a rewarding recycling program for the collection of clean recyclable waste in collaboration with the “Specialist Integrated Association of the Prefecture of Attica” (EDSNA, in Greek) and private contractors, called “THE GREEN CITY”. This program mobilizes almost 30 mobile green points (MGPs) daily, which are self-propelled trucks that collect clean recyclable materials from citizens and businesses across the Attica Region. After one year of operation, this program has shown promising results, having more than 100,000 registered citizens and having already collected over 500 tons of clean recyclable municipal solid wastes in more than 60 municipalities of Attica. However, these promising results are accompanied by some significant financial and environmental costs. This study presents two different practical improvement scenarios for THE GREEN CITY recycling program’s current situation that ensure (a) the shortening of the annual kilometers and time on the remote routes of all programs, (b) the annual fuel-cost decrease for the MGPs and (c) the annual reduction of their CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Afterwards, we compare these two scenarios and conclude that the “first improvement scenario with main depot decentralization” is more realistic, feasible and has a bigger total sum of positive impacts than the second one. Therefore, this study strongly suggests the implementation of the “first improvement scenario with main depot decentralization” and opens the road to future improvement scenarios for various waste-management systems or recycling programs. Full article
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25 pages, 11332 KiB  
Article
Open-Source Designs for Distributed Manufacturing of Low-Cost Customized Walkers
by Anita So, Jacob M. Reeves and Joshua M. Pearce
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030079 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3176
Abstract
To improve accessibility, this article describes a static, four-legged walker that can be constructed from materials and fasteners commonly available from hardware stores coupled by open-source 3D-printed joints. The designs are described in detail, shared under an open-source license, and fabricated with a [...] Read more.
To improve accessibility, this article describes a static, four-legged walker that can be constructed from materials and fasteners commonly available from hardware stores coupled by open-source 3D-printed joints. The designs are described in detail, shared under an open-source license, and fabricated with a low-cost open-source desktop 3D printer and hand tools. The resulting device is loaded to failure to determine the maximum load that the design can safely support in both vertical and horizontal failure modes. The experimental results showed that the average vertical failure load capacity was 3680 ± 694.3 N, equivalent to 375.3 ± 70.8 kg of applied weight with the fractured location at the wood dowel handlebars. The average horizontal load capacity was 315.6 ± 49.4 N, equivalent to 32.2 ± 5.1 kg. The maximum weight capacity of a user of 187.1 ± 29.3 kg was obtained, which indicates that the open-source walker design can withstand the weight requirements of all genders with a 95% confidence interval that includes a safety factor of 1.8 when considering the lowest deviation weight capacity. The design has a cost at the bottom of the range of commercial walkers and reduces the mass compared to a commercial walker by 0.5 kg (19% reduction). It can be concluded that this open-source walker design can aid accessibility in low-resource settings. Full article
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21 pages, 12043 KiB  
Article
Use of IDeS Method to Design an Innovative HYICE Sportscar
by Giulio Galiè, Michele Cappelli, Pietro Maffei, Matteo Robusti, Igor Vasileski and Leonardo Frizziero
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030075 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
In the contemporary automobile scene, environmental effect abatement is being increasingly sought; this demands a full rethinking of the entire system and entails more than just the reduction in exhaust pollutant emissions. Currently, the most popular approach is the electrification of automobiles, which [...] Read more.
In the contemporary automobile scene, environmental effect abatement is being increasingly sought; this demands a full rethinking of the entire system and entails more than just the reduction in exhaust pollutant emissions. Currently, the most popular approach is the electrification of automobiles, which significantly reduces pollution in major urban areas while simultaneously posing a new set of problems. The two types of zero-emission vehicles that are now being developed the most are hydrogen fuel cells and battery electric cars, but another option is the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (HYICE) engine, which is highly advantageous in terms of pollutants, aside from Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), which can be considerably decreased. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel vehicle design that transports this type of technology into a sporting context while striving for considerable environmental benefits and integrating them into a society where the love of automobiles still has a strong following. The cutting-edge Industrial Design Structure (IDeS) methodology is used in this work, and a sample structure was created to demonstrate how the problems and technical limitations represented can be solved. The steps of the methodology are followed to shape the final product, with careful consideration given to the design of the styling component through the use of the Stylistic Design Engineering (SDE) method. With the ultimate goal of achieving sustainable driving pleasure, the study looks into whether recyclable materials can be used for the body and whether extremely light materials can be used for the chassis. Full article
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11 pages, 5769 KiB  
Article
Quantum Power Electronics: From Theory to Implementation
by Meysam Gheisarnejad and Mohammad-Hassan Khooban
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030072 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
While impressive progress has been already achieved in wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductors such as 4H-SiC and GaN technologies, the lack of intelligent methodologies to control the gate drivers has prevented exploitation of the maximum potential of semiconductor chips from obtaining the desired device operations. [...] Read more.
While impressive progress has been already achieved in wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductors such as 4H-SiC and GaN technologies, the lack of intelligent methodologies to control the gate drivers has prevented exploitation of the maximum potential of semiconductor chips from obtaining the desired device operations. Thus, a potent ongoing trend is to design a fast gate driver switching scheme to upgrade the performance of electronic equipment at the system level. To address this issue, this work proposed a novel intelligent scheme for the control of gate driver switching using the concept of quantum computation in machine learning. In particular, the quantum principle was incorporated into deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to address the hardware limitations of conventional computers and the growing amount of data sets. Taking potential benefit of the quantum theory, the DRL algorithm influenced by quantum specifications (referred to as QDRL) not only ameliorates the performance of the native algorithm on traditional computers but also enhances the progress of relevant research fields like quantum computing and machine learning. To test the practicability and usefulness of QDRL, a dc/dc parallel boost converter feeding constant power loads (CPLs) was chosen as the case study, and several power hardware-in-the-loop (PHiL) experiments and comparative analysis were performed. Full article
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19 pages, 9562 KiB  
Article
Development of a 3D Printed New Metering Mechanism for a Multi-Crop Seed Broadcasting System Using an Autonomous Small-Scale Vehicle
by Arkar Minn, R. M. Rasika D. Abeyrathna, Victor Massaki Nakaguchi and Tofael Ahamed
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030069 - 9 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Developing countries in Asia widely use manual seed broadcasting methods due to a lack of appropriate seeding machinery. The agricultural sector is currently facing labor shortages and high labor costs, especially seasonal labor shortages for broadcasting and transplanting operations. However, the primary constraint [...] Read more.
Developing countries in Asia widely use manual seed broadcasting methods due to a lack of appropriate seeding machinery. The agricultural sector is currently facing labor shortages and high labor costs, especially seasonal labor shortages for broadcasting and transplanting operations. However, the primary constraint in adopting existing broadcasting seeders for small-scale farmers in developing countries is the high initial purchase costs. Therefore, developing locally commercial accessible technology for small-scale farmers is an urgent requirement. In this regard, attempt was taken to develop a new low-cost 3D printed seeder that can be used for multi-crop seed broadcasting operations when integrated with an autonomous terrain vehicle. A new seed metering mechanism was proposed for seed broadcasting that can be controlled electronically from the autonomous terrain vehicle. Positional sensors based on the real time kinematics—global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS) were used to record positional information. The best observation was noted at a vehicle operational speed of 0.351 ms−1 and had a coefficient of variation (CV) referring to the distribution uniformity of seeds of 19% for green peas, 22% for cowpeas, and 25% for chickpeas. The developed seeder could spread multi-crop seeds and adjust the seed rates electronically at the different ranges of rotational speeds. Therefore, the use of 3D printed fabricated prototype seed broadcasting units with small-scale autonomous vehicles can be implemented to help in labor supplements and perform the broadcasting of different seeds. Full article
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22 pages, 5789 KiB  
Article
Knee Angle Generation with Walking Speed Adaptation Ability for a Powered Transfemoral Prosthetic Leg Prototype
by I Wayan Dani Pranata, Phuc Thanh-Thien Nguyen, Kuo-Ho Su, Yu-Cheng Kuo and Chung-Hsien Kuo
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030067 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
This paper presents a microcontroller-based solution for generating real-time normal walking knee angle of a powered transfemoral prosthetic leg prototype. The proposed control algorithm was used to determine the prosthetic knee angle by utilizing seven hip angle movement features generated from only the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a microcontroller-based solution for generating real-time normal walking knee angle of a powered transfemoral prosthetic leg prototype. The proposed control algorithm was used to determine the prosthetic knee angle by utilizing seven hip angle movement features generated from only the inertia measurement unit (IMU) deployed on the prosthetic socket on the thigh of the same side. Then, a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller is developed to control the motor to reach the desired knee angle in real time. Furthermore, a novel parallel four-bar linkage-based master–slave validation framework combining a motion capture system was introduced to evaluate the performance of the knee angle generation on a speed-adjustable treadmill with able-bodied subjects. In the framework evaluation, 3 different walking speeds were applied to the treadmill to validate different speed adaptation capabilities of the prosthetic leg control system, precisely 50 cm/s, 60 cm/s, and 70 cm/s. Through the proposed 4-bar linkage framework, the prosthesis’s movement can simulate able-bodied subjects well with maximum RMSE never exceeding 0.27° in the swing flexion phase, 4.4° to 5.8° in the stance phase, and 1.953° to 13.466° in the swing extension phase. The treadmill results showed that the prosthetic leg is able to perform a normal walking gait following different walking speeds of the subject. Finally, a corridor walking experiment with a bypass adapter was successfully performed to examine the feasibility of real prosthetic walking situations. Full article
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14 pages, 4884 KiB  
Article
Calculating the Surface Layer Thickness and Surface Energy of Aircraft Materials
by Victor M. Yurov, Vladimir I. Goncharenko, Vladimir S. Oleshko and Anatoly V. Ryapukhin
Inventions 2023, 8(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8030066 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The surface layer determines the physical properties of aviation materials and, based on these properties, the calculation of surface energy anisotropy can be implemented. Moreover, the value of the surface energy determines the service time and the destruction of aircraft structures surface layer, [...] Read more.
The surface layer determines the physical properties of aviation materials and, based on these properties, the calculation of surface energy anisotropy can be implemented. Moreover, the value of the surface energy determines the service time and the destruction of aircraft structures surface layer, while the surface layer thickness determines the distance at which this process usually takes place. In this work, a new atomically smooth crystal empirical model is built without considering the surface roughness. This model can be used to theoretically predict the surface energy anisotropy and surface layer thickness of metals and other compounds, in particular the aviation materials. The work shows that the surface layer of an atomically smooth metal, like other compounds, consists of two nanostructured layers: d(I) and d(II). Having sufficient accuracy, the proposed model would allow the prediction of aviation materials performance properties without the need for ultrahigh vacuum or other complicated theoretical methods to analyze the surfaces of nanosystem atomic structures. Full article
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27 pages, 17857 KiB  
Article
Application of Semi-Circular Double-Skin Facades in Auditoriums in Winter Conditions
by Maria Inês Conceição, Eusébio Conceição, Maria Manuela Lúcio, João Gomes and Hazim Awbi
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020060 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
The DSF (double-skin facade) system is an important element in building design and is used in adjacent spaces to control the inlet solar radiation, heat the air, reduce energy consumption, decrease the acoustics levels, and produce photovoltaic energy, among other improvements. The DSF [...] Read more.
The DSF (double-skin facade) system is an important element in building design and is used in adjacent spaces to control the inlet solar radiation, heat the air, reduce energy consumption, decrease the acoustics levels, and produce photovoltaic energy, among other improvements. The DSF system can, for example, be used in winter conditions to heat the air, which is then transported to non-adjacent spaces to improve the thermal comfort level and the indoor air quality that the occupants are subjected to. Smooth DSF systems, which are a focus in the literature, are subjected to higher solar radiation levels at a specific hour of the day. The semi-circular DSF system used in this work, which was built from a group of smooth DSF systems with different orientations, guarantees the reception of the highest incident solar radiation throughout the entire day. This work presents a numerical study of a new DSF system, called the semi-circular DSF. The DSF system consists of a set of 25 smooth DSFs with different orientations, each one consisting of an outer glazed surface and an inner surface provided by the outer facade of the auditorium, both separated by an air channel. In this work, the influence of the radius of the semi-circular DSF system and the opening angle of the DSF system on the thermal response of the auditorium was analysed. Thus, six auditoriums were considered: two sets of three auditoriums with radii of 5 m and 15 m, with each of the auditoriums having a different DSF opening angle (45°, 90°, and 180°). It was found that the greater the radius of the semi-circular DSF and the opening angle of the DSF system, the greater the area of its glazed surface and, consequently, the greater the availability of solar heating power. Therefore, during the occupation period, only the set of auditoriums with the largest semi-circular DSF radius managed to present acceptable levels of thermal comfort, which were verified from mid-morning until late afternoon. As for the opening angle of the DSF system, the influence was not very significant, although slight improvements in thermal comfort were noted when the value of this angle was reduced (see Case F as an example) due to the corresponding decrease in the volume of indoor air to be heated. In all auditoriums (see Case A to Case F), it was verified that the indoor air quality was acceptable for the occupants, so the airflow rate was adequately promoted by the ventilation system. Full article
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14 pages, 5801 KiB  
Article
Classification of Different Recycled Rubber-Epoxy Composite Based on Their Hardness Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with Comparison Machine Learning Algorithms
by Vadi Su Yılmaz, Kemal Efe Eseller, Ozgur Aslan and Emin Bayraktar
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020054 - 8 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1689
Abstract
This paper aims toward the successful detection of harmful materials in a substance by integrating machine learning (ML) into laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is used to distinguish five different synthetic polymers where eight different heavy material contents are also detected by LIBS. [...] Read more.
This paper aims toward the successful detection of harmful materials in a substance by integrating machine learning (ML) into laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is used to distinguish five different synthetic polymers where eight different heavy material contents are also detected by LIBS. Each material intensity-wavelength graph is obtained and the dataset is constructed for classification by a machine learning (ML) algorithm. Seven popular machine learning algorithms are applied to the dataset which include eight different substances with their wavelength-intensity value. Machine learning algorithms are used to train the dataset, results are discussed and which classification algorithm is appropriate for this dataset is determined. Full article
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24 pages, 3908 KiB  
Review
Patent Landscape Review on Ankle Sprain Prevention Method: Technology Updates
by Natrisha Francis, Aziz Ong, Hazwani Suhaimi and Pg Emeroylariffion Abas
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020053 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Ankle sprains are among the most prevalent musculoskeletal system injuries. Prevention of ankle sprains is important, given the frequency of occurrence of an ankle sprain, the risk of reinjury, and its long-term effects. A systematic patent review using the World Intellectual Property Organization [...] Read more.
Ankle sprains are among the most prevalent musculoskeletal system injuries. Prevention of ankle sprains is important, given the frequency of occurrence of an ankle sprain, the risk of reinjury, and its long-term effects. A systematic patent review using the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)’s PATENTSCOPE database has been performed to study the current development of ankle sprain prevention methods. Using the PRISMA statement as a basis, a total of 426 patent documents have been selected for review, consisting of 150 granted patents and 276 patent applications. In the past decade, China and the United States of America (43% and 29% of the patent applications, respectively) have shown great interest in developing ankle sprain prevention methods. Approximately 49% (or 74) of the patents from the 150 granted are associated with braces, 46% (or 68) are related to orthosis, 3% (or 5) are related to tape, and the remaining 2% (or 3) are associated with other types of ankle sprain prevention methods. This patent review shows that inventors are leaning towards braces and orthosis as the main prevention methods for ankle sprains, with greater interest in orthosis in recent years. Additionally, patents on smart wearable devices suggest initial commercial interest in the development of smart wearable devices as an ankle sprain prevention method. Full article
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22 pages, 5669 KiB  
Perspective
Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing: A Comparison between Arc Laser and Laser/Arc Heat Sources
by Giuseppe Casalino, Mojtaba Karamimoghadam and Nicola Contuzzi
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020052 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4583
Abstract
In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the state of the art of Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing (MWAM) and provide a comparison between Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Wire Laser Additive Manufacturing (WLAM), and Laser Arc Hybrid Wire Deposition (LAHWD) based [...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the state of the art of Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing (MWAM) and provide a comparison between Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), Wire Laser Additive Manufacturing (WLAM), and Laser Arc Hybrid Wire Deposition (LAHWD) based on their characteristics and potential future applications, since MWAM is expected to have a promising future in various areas, such as aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy fields. A detailed discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each Metal Wire Additive Manufacturing process can help to improve our understanding of the unique characteristics of metal wire application. Therefore, this paper offers a comprehensive analysis that can serve as a reference for upcoming industrial projects and research initiatives, with the aim of helping industries choose the most appropriate WAM technique for their specific applications. Full article
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12 pages, 7981 KiB  
Article
An Efficient Ring-Shaped Electromagnetic Thruster
by Daniele Funaro and Alessandro Chiolerio
Inventions 2023, 8(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8020051 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
An electromagnetic thruster is proposed and successfully tested. Its design is inspired by theoretical considerations whose qualitative predictions are well matched with the experimental results. The efficiency is higher than any other device so far reported in the literature, producing a directional thrust [...] Read more.
An electromagnetic thruster is proposed and successfully tested. Its design is inspired by theoretical considerations whose qualitative predictions are well matched with the experimental results. The efficiency is higher than any other device so far reported in the literature, producing a directional thrust of approximately 2.7×106m, where m is the mass of the thruster itself, with a nominal power injected of approximately 10 Watts. The prototype has the shape of a ring and is powered by both radio frequency signals and a stationary high voltage. Improvements and generalizations can be easily devised by adjusting the geometry of the device. Full article
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14 pages, 2167 KiB  
Review
Photobiomodulation with Laser Technology to Reduce Pain Perception during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: Literature Review and New Perspectives with LED Devices
by Paolo Caccianiga, Ileana Carminati and Gianluigi Caccianiga
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010046 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
Despite the growing demand for improving smile aesthetics and occlusal functionality, a significant percentage of patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment because of pain and discomfort related to this therapy. As consequence, controlling the pain experienced by patients during the same therapy [...] Read more.
Despite the growing demand for improving smile aesthetics and occlusal functionality, a significant percentage of patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment because of pain and discomfort related to this therapy. As consequence, controlling the pain experienced by patients during the same therapy represents a primary concern for both patients and clinicians. Recent pieces of evidence have suggested that photobiomodulation can reduce pain experienced by patients during the decrowding stage or during specific protocols, for example, rapid maxillary expansion. PBM can be performed with lasers and also with a light-emitting diode (LED) device. Nonetheless, few studies on the latter are still present in the literature. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation (PBM) with Laser devices in pain management in fixed orthodontic treatment. Only 14 of all articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were therefore used to conduct the research. The different studies compared, in most cases, patients whose mouths were divided into a part treated with PBM and a placebo part. Most of their results show a statistically significant difference in perceived pain between the irradiated arch and the nonirradiated arch. Three authors did not find statistically significant results in favor of PBM, but they used different laser parameters. To obtain generally valid studies, with consistent and reproducible results, it is necessary to standardize the different laser parameters used. LED is less operator-dependent than laser and PBM using this technology seems to have a biological basis similar to that with lasers. In some studies, its clinical efficacy in pain reduction in some orthodontic therapies has been verified. Finally, this article aims to consider LED technology as a future prospect of research on PBM use in orthodontics. Full article
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29 pages, 12817 KiB  
Article
Design of an Autonomous, Sustainable Sharing Mobility Solution Aimed to Mobility-Disabled Individuals
by Leonardo Frizziero, Giulio Galiè, Martina Aldrovandi, Silvia Franco and Elisa Rana
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010044 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Recent analysis has shown deteriorating traffic conditions in urban areas, caused by an increase in the motorization rate, which has risen to 66.6 vehicles per 100 inhabitants. As a result of the pandemic, individuality has grown, hence private vehicles are becoming more prevalent [...] Read more.
Recent analysis has shown deteriorating traffic conditions in urban areas, caused by an increase in the motorization rate, which has risen to 66.6 vehicles per 100 inhabitants. As a result of the pandemic, individuality has grown, hence private vehicles are becoming more prevalent whilst public transport and sharing are negatively affected. Therefore, European policies have encouraged and innovated more sustainable mobility. Thus, the developed project aims to achieve more efficient mobility and more sustainable environments, towards social and economic well-being. The proposed means of transport aims to appeal to an audience with a reduced ability to drive a car as intended. The IDeS methodology was applied to develop a self-driving, urban micro mobility vehicle, aimed to give enough room and equipment for people with moving disabilities. The innovation of the IDeS method is state-of-the-art and ought to satisfy current product needs, which leads to an innovative micromobility vehicle and portrays a design for a car that will help to close the gaps in urban mobility. These design processes, which are distinguished by the fusion of several industrial techniques, enabled the development of a plan that addresses current mobility issues for disabled people and opens to new mobility prospects. Full article
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15 pages, 2333 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Design of ZVS Single-Ended DC/AC Converter Based on Neural Network
by Nikolay Hinov and Bogdan Gilev
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010041 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
This paper presents a model-based and neural network-based innovative design of single-ended transistor resonant DC/AC converters with zero voltage switching (ZVS). A characteristic of the proposed design method is that the determination of the circuit elements of the converter is performed with an [...] Read more.
This paper presents a model-based and neural network-based innovative design of single-ended transistor resonant DC/AC converters with zero voltage switching (ZVS). A characteristic of the proposed design method is that the determination of the circuit elements of the converter is performed with an automated procedure, as their values are determined by the output of a previously trained neural network. The use of the proposed method is justified in cases where there is no methodology for the design of the specific power electronic device, or such a methodology exists, but it is either too complex or based on a large number of assumptions. This is usually due to the increasing complexity of power circuits, their possible modes of operation, and the inevitable assumptions and limitations in the analyses and methodologies based on them. In this way, a natural combination of classic design methods and innovative processes is developed based on applied techniques for artificial intelligence. Full article
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24 pages, 1623 KiB  
Article
Design Requirements for Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV) with Inward Tilt Mechanism to Minimize Steering Disturbances Caused by Uneven Road Surface
by Tetsunori Haraguchi and Tetsuya Kaneko
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010037 - 1 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
The Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV), which has an inward-tilting angle, turns with lateral force due to a large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanisms are [...] Read more.
The Personal Mobility Vehicle (PMV), which has an inward-tilting angle, turns with lateral force due to a large camber angle, so it is necessary to consider the lateral movement of the tire vertical load axis during turning. Although the steering torque mechanisms are very different from those of automobiles, there are not many studies of the steering torque mechanisms of PMVs. In this paper, based on the effects of the force of six components acting on the tires, a method for setting the steering axis specifications is derived, including the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. Automobile tires have a significant ground camber angle when traveling on rutted roads, but they do not have it on slanted roads because the vehicle body tilts along the road surface. On the other hand, in PMVs, the vehicle body always keeps upright when traveling both on slanted roads and on rutted roads. Therefore, the tires have ground camber angles on both types of road surface. We study the straight running ability under such road surface disturbances based on the geometrical minimization of steering moment disturbance due to the vertical load reaction force during turning. This straight running ability can be a remarkable strong point of PMVs with an inward tilt mechanism. In this study, it was proved that the steering axis parameters can be derived uniquely by taking into consideration the requirement to zero the moment (disturbance) around the steering axis due to the reaction force against the vertical load at all internal tilt angles. Full article
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23 pages, 7634 KiB  
Article
A 2-DoF Kinematic Chain Analysis of a Magnetic Spring Excited by Vibration Generator Based on a Neural Network Design for Energy Harvesting Applications
by Joanna Bijak, Grazia Lo Sciuto, Zygmunt Kowalik, Tomasz Trawiński and Marcin Szczygieł
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010034 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
In this paper, an original mathematical model and experimental results for the vibration generator and the magnetic spring prototype that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy are proposed. The magnetic spring model is developed by a robotic approach based on Denavit–Hartenberg’s notation and [...] Read more.
In this paper, an original mathematical model and experimental results for the vibration generator and the magnetic spring prototype that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy are proposed. The magnetic spring model is developed by a robotic approach based on Denavit–Hartenberg’s notation and designed by the 2-degrees of freedom kinematic chain for determination of its motion and estimation of several resonance frequencies useful in many energy harvesting applications. The vibration generator that moves the magnetic spring is modeled by neural networks and the magnetic spring potential energy is calculated by the finite elements method (FEM). Furthermore, the magnetic spring and the vibration generator are designed by the Simulink block diagram. Testing results of the magnetic spring and vibration generator displacement conducted in laboratory have shown good agreement with simulation results. Full article
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32 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
A Generalized Framework for Adopting Regression-Based Predictive Modeling in Manufacturing Environments
by Mobayode O. Akinsolu and Khalil Zribi
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010032 - 29 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1892
Abstract
In this paper, the growing significance of data analysis in manufacturing environments is exemplified through a review of relevant literature and a generic framework to aid the ease of adoption of regression-based supervised learning in manufacturing environments. To validate the practicality of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the growing significance of data analysis in manufacturing environments is exemplified through a review of relevant literature and a generic framework to aid the ease of adoption of regression-based supervised learning in manufacturing environments. To validate the practicality of the framework, several regression learning techniques are applied to an open-source multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process data set to typify inference-driven decision-making that informs the selection of regression learning methods for adoption in real-world manufacturing environments. The investigated regression learning techniques are evaluated in terms of their training time, prediction speed, predictive accuracy (R-squared value), and mean squared error. In terms of training time (TT), k-NN20 (k-Nearest Neighbour with 20 neighbors) ranks first with average and median values of 4.8 ms and 4.9 ms, and 4.2 ms and 4.3 ms, respectively, for the first stage and second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, respectively, over 50 independent runs. In terms of prediction speed (PS), DTR (decision tree regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 5.6784×106 observations per second (ob/s) and 4.8691×106 observations per second (ob/s), and 4.9929×106 observations per second (ob/s) and 5.8806×106 observations per second (ob/s), respectively, for the first stage and second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, respectively, over 50 independent runs. In terms of R-squared value (R2), BR (bagging regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 0.728 and 0.728, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the first stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, and RFR (random forest regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 0.746 and 0.746, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. In terms of mean squared error (MSE), BR (bagging regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 2.7 and 2.7, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the first stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process, and RFR (random forest regressor) ranks first with average and median values of 3.5 and 3.5, respectively, over 50 independent runs, for the second stage of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. All methods are further ranked inferentially using the statistics of their performance metrics to identify the best method(s) for the first and second stages of the predictive modeling of the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process. A Wilcoxon rank sum test is then used to statistically verify the inference-based rankings. DTR and k-NN20 have been identified as the most suitable regression learning techniques given the multi-stage continuous-flow manufacturing process data used for experimentation. Full article
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13 pages, 5532 KiB  
Communication
An Automatic Question Generator for Chinese Comprehension
by Yin-Chun Fung, Lap-Kei Lee and Kwok Tai Chui
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010031 - 28 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Question generation (QG) is a natural language processing (NLP) problem that aims to generate natural questions from a given sentence or paragraph. QG has many applications, especially in education. For example, QG can complement teachers’ efforts in creating assessment materials by automatically generating [...] Read more.
Question generation (QG) is a natural language processing (NLP) problem that aims to generate natural questions from a given sentence or paragraph. QG has many applications, especially in education. For example, QG can complement teachers’ efforts in creating assessment materials by automatically generating many related questions. QG can also be used to generate frequently asked question (FAQ) sets for business. Question answering (QA) can benefit from QG, where the training dataset of QA can be enriched using QG to improve the learning and performance of QA algorithms. However, most of the existing works and tools in QG are designed for English text. This paper presents the design of a web-based question generator for Chinese comprehension. The generator provides a user-friendly web interface for users to generate a set of wh-questions (i.e., what, who, when, where, why, and how) based on a Chinese text conditioned on a corresponding set of answer phrases. The web interface allows users to easily refine the answer phrases that are automatically generated by the web generator. The underlying question generation is based on the transformer approach, which was trained on a dataset combined from three publicly available Chinese reading comprehension datasets, namely, DRUD, CMRC2017, and CMRC2018. Linguistic features such as parts of speech (POS) and named-entity recognition (NER) are extracted from the text, which together with the original text and the answer phrases, are then fed into a machine learning algorithm based on a pre-trained mT5 model. The generated questions with answers are displayed in a user-friendly format, supplemented with the source sentences in the text used for generating each question. We expect the design of this web tool to provide insight into how Chinese question generation can be made easily accessible to users with low computer literacy. Full article
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17 pages, 7083 KiB  
Article
Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod
by Marco Freddi, Patrich Ferretti, Giulia Alessandri and Alfredo Liverani
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010023 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
The following scientific paper aims to analyze in detail the methodology for reverse engineering of a racing motorcycle connecting rod. The objective is to start with a product available on the market as a spare part, reconstruct its CAD model with a high [...] Read more.
The following scientific paper aims to analyze in detail the methodology for reverse engineering of a racing motorcycle connecting rod. The objective is to start with a product available on the market as a spare part, reconstruct its CAD model with a high standard of accuracy, then proceed with lightening modifications to arrive at a new, improved design. The innovative aspect of the procedure lies in the fact that in order to ensure accuracy on the order of a tenth of a millimeter during reconstruction, it was decided to use a FARO articulated arm laser to scan the component’s outer surface. By taking advantage of appropriate redesign CAD software (Geomagic Design X), a reconstruction can proceed within the high standard of accuracy imposed. In conclusion, the modifications made through material removal allow an improvement in product efficiency, ensuring high performance. Full article
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14 pages, 12127 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Chaotic Duffing System with Magnetic Springs
by Artur Karimov, Vyacheslav Rybin, Albert Dautov, Timur Karimov, Yulia Bobrova and Denis Butusov
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010019 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
Mechanical systems with inherent chaotic behavior are of notable practical interest due to their applicability in many fields of technology, from industrial mills and concrete mixers to microscopic micromechanical random bit generators. One of the most generic mathematical models for designing chaotic mechanical [...] Read more.
Mechanical systems with inherent chaotic behavior are of notable practical interest due to their applicability in many fields of technology, from industrial mills and concrete mixers to microscopic micromechanical random bit generators. One of the most generic mathematical models for designing chaotic mechanical systems is the Duffing oscillator, which demonstrates chaotic motion under periodic excitation. The mechanical implementation of Duffing oscillator requires nonlinear springs, which can be implemented using different physical principles. In the current study, we propose the mechanical Duffing oscillator with magnetic springs as a low-wear, robust and easy-to-implement solution. We show by simulation and experimentation that the developed mechanical system performs chaotic oscillations in a wide range of parameters. The proposed design can be revised in a problem-specific manner and achieve many practical applications. Full article
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16 pages, 3591 KiB  
Article
Information Protection in Complexes with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Moving Target Technology
by Vitaly Pikov, Anatoly Ryapukhin and Daniela Veas Iniesta
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010018 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
This article is devoted to the problem of information security in complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Science knows a new promising method of information protection: moving target defense (MTD). The essence of this method is that due to periodic changes in the [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the problem of information security in complexes with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Science knows a new promising method of information protection: moving target defense (MTD). The essence of this method is that due to periodic changes in the parameters of the infocommunication network the information about the information infrastructure collected by the attacker at the reconnaissance stage becomes irrelevant, and the attack becomes ineffective. This article also discusses the features and types of confidential information processed in complexes with UAV and provides a review of the experience of creating systems for protecting information from unauthorized access of complexes with UAV. The proposed hypothesis is tested using a model created using a tool: the GNS3 program. The model in the form of a test network in the GNS3 emulator recreates the proposed method. It was concluded that the effectiveness of the harmful impact on the complex with UAV was reduced by three times. The disadvantages of the proposed method include the problem of ensuring the availability of protected information resources for other legitimate, authorized participants in network interaction, as well as the need to solve the problem of choosing the optimal frequency of changing parameters. Full article
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24 pages, 570 KiB  
Article
Equivalent Exchange Method for Decision-Making in Case of Alternatives with Incomparable Attributes
by Tatiana Kravchenko and Timofey Shevgunov
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010012 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
The paper is focused on searching for novel methods aimed at improving the performance and usability of a common decision-making process where a panel of experts are assisted by specialized software systems. An equivalent exchange method (EEM) is considered in the paper as [...] Read more.
The paper is focused on searching for novel methods aimed at improving the performance and usability of a common decision-making process where a panel of experts are assisted by specialized software systems. An equivalent exchange method (EEM) is considered in the paper as a potential candidate for a versatile method applicable in expert decision-making process for solving problems in various subject domains. The method is formally described in the paper in the form of an iterative algorithm where each iteration leads to the reduce in the number of alternatives under consideration until it converges to the preferable one. The key feature of EEM consists in the fact that the original comparison between multiple alternatives described by many attributes measured in different units is replaced by the sequence of simple exchanges between pairs of alternatives where only two attributes are engaged at once. The numerical example illustrating the full run of the algorithm is thoroughly described, so the actions performed in the steps of the algorithm are explained. The case of the successful implementation of EEM as the module of Expert Decision Support System is also presented. Full article
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2022

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23 pages, 4619 KiB  
Article
Execution Time Decrease for Controllers Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization
by Viorel Mînzu, Eugen Rusu and Iulian Arama
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010009 - 30 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1501
Abstract
Execution time is an important topic when using metaheuristic-based optimization algorithms within control structures. This is the case with Receding Horizon Control, whose controller makes predictions based on a metaheuristic algorithm. Because the closed loop’s main time constraint is that the controller’s run [...] Read more.
Execution time is an important topic when using metaheuristic-based optimization algorithms within control structures. This is the case with Receding Horizon Control, whose controller makes predictions based on a metaheuristic algorithm. Because the closed loop’s main time constraint is that the controller’s run time must be smaller than the sampling period, this paper joins the authors’ previous work in investigating decreasing execution time. In this context, good results have been obtained by introducing the “reference control profile” concept that leads to the idea of adapting the control variables’ domains for each sampling period. This paper continues to address this concept, which is adjusted to harmonize with the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Moreover, besides adapting the control variables’ domains, the proposed controller’s algorithm tunes these domains to avoid losing convergence. A simulation study validates the new techniques using a nontrivial process model and considering three modes in which the controller works. The results showed that the proposed techniques have practical relevance and significantly decrease execution time. Full article
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26 pages, 4703 KiB  
Article
Robust Hierarchical Control Design for the Power Sharing in Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids
by Farooq Alam, Syed Sajjad Haider Zaidi, Arsalan Rehmat, Muhammad Umair Mutarraf, Mashood Nasir and Josep M. Guerrero
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010007 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
Hybrid microgrid optimization, integration, and control are becoming increasingly important. Renewable energy source integrations are being used more often in shipping ports, as well as on short-distance cruises and ferries. Several seaports presently lack cold ironing services, which are shore-based power stations that [...] Read more.
Hybrid microgrid optimization, integration, and control are becoming increasingly important. Renewable energy source integrations are being used more often in shipping ports, as well as on short-distance cruises and ferries. Several seaports presently lack cold ironing services, which are shore-based power stations that provide electricity to ships from the main utility grids. Furthermore, diesel engines and diesel generator-based shipboards must be continuously running and on-line when docking to provide additional loads of ships due to the absence of cold-ironing services at many ports. In this research, we analytically presented the robustness of our proposed hierarchical control design for the hybrid shipboard Microgrid system containing multiple DGs and renewable energy resource (RES) integrations. The performance comparison of the conventional proportional integral (PI) vs. Sliding Mode Controller (SMC)-based control design is validated with simulation tests under different static and dynamical load conditions for both AC and DC types of loads. We further considered multi-DGs and RES integrations into our system to validate our design’s robustness against noise and unwanted faulty load conditions. The complete system stability analysis and designing of the control law are performed. Mathematical derivations and simulation results prove the robustness of the proposed hierarchical control architecture and compare the performance characteristics of two secondary controllers designed using a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Full article
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18 pages, 2884 KiB  
Article
D2D Communication Underlaying UAV-Enabled Network: A Content-Sharing Perspective
by Saad Aslam, Muhammad Harris and Salman Siddiq
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010005 - 26 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
The last era has witnessed an unprecedented demand for digital content. To meet these rigorous demands, researchers have been busy developing content-sharing applications and services. The advancement in technology has aided this process. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained a lot of attention [...] Read more.
The last era has witnessed an unprecedented demand for digital content. To meet these rigorous demands, researchers have been busy developing content-sharing applications and services. The advancement in technology has aided this process. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained a lot of attention in assisting cellular networks since they play a paramount role in disaster management, capacity enhancement, on-demand communication, and content dissemination. In this study, we consider content-centric UAV communication underlaid device-to-device (D2D) users. Different from the current research trends, this study considers clustering the D2D users (i.e., ground users) and UAV only deliver the requested content to the cluster heads. We considered the clustering approach since the UAV is an energy constraint device and the aim is to reduce the energy consumed by the UAV during the communication phase. Clustering the ground nodes will allow the UAV to communicate to only cluster heads as compared with a bigger group of users. Cluster heads are then responsible to forward the cached contents to their respective cluster members. A comprehensive performance evaluation of the proposed scheme was conducted by benchmarking it against state-of-the-art research works and considering various performance parameters such as throughput, energy consumption, and content delivery delay. The proposed scheme produced promising results for all parameters and against other research works as well. Full article
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19 pages, 9665 KiB  
Article
QFD and SDE Methods Applied to Autonomous Minibus Redesign and an Innovative Mobile Charging System (MBS)
by Leonardo Frizziero, Giampiero Donnici, Giulio Galiè, Giacomo Pala, Martina Pilla and Elia Zamagna
Inventions 2023, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010001 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
Urban mobility scenarios are constantly evolving, and today’s solutions may not be adequate in the future. Through innovative analysis and design methods encapsulated by the IDeS methodology, it is possible to plausibly hypothesize a number of key scenarios to be analyzed, for which [...] Read more.
Urban mobility scenarios are constantly evolving, and today’s solutions may not be adequate in the future. Through innovative analysis and design methods encapsulated by the IDeS methodology, it is possible to plausibly hypothesize a number of key scenarios to be analyzed, for which vehicles can be designed in order to solve the main problems. Scenarios such as the steady growth in public mobility, based on the sharing of electric mini-buses at the expense of the privatization of the means of transport, lead to the gradual rethinking of citizens’ needs and the supporting infrastructure. Problems such as the lack of privacy of public vehicles, the efficiency of the infrastructure and recharging modes of e-buses, and autonomous driving are addressed here through methods such as QFD (quality function deployment) and SDE (stylistic design engineering), with the aim of outlining a proposal that, to date, is futuristic but is designed to be concrete and feasible within the next decade. These methodologies were applied to the design of a sustainable urban transport system consisting of an electric mini-bus, effected by rethinking the layout of the interior spaces in favor of areas enabling greater privacy and a mobile recharging system (MBS) capable of offering a new management strategy for the non-stop recharging phase. Through the use of an MBS, which functions as a mobile ‘energy bank’ module that is capable of autonomously reaching a mini-bus in need of recharging and extending its autonomy by connecting and recharging it, the proposed system can potentially be enabled to perform its required service during the day without any need to spend time making intermediate stops for the purpose of recharging. Full article
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21 pages, 5872 KiB  
Article
Design and 3D Manufacturing of an Improved Heliostatic Illuminator
by Marta Varo-Martínez, José C. Ramírez-Faz, Jesús López-Sánchez, Manuel Torres-Roldán, Luis Manuel Fernández-Ahumada and Rafael López-Luque
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040127 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Increasing daylighting levels contributes to improving the energy efficiency of buildings and consequently to the fight against climate change. This work presents a new illuminator based on a previous single-axis polar heliostat. This heliostat allows redirecting sunlight to a specific space to be [...] Read more.
Increasing daylighting levels contributes to improving the energy efficiency of buildings and consequently to the fight against climate change. This work presents a new illuminator based on a previous single-axis polar heliostat. This heliostat allows redirecting sunlight to a specific space to be illuminated at any time of the day. The system presented is simple but compact in size. It has been manufactured by 3D printing with recyclable PETG plastics. Three-dimensional printing has allowed reduction of the mass of the system to less than 5 kg, which means high stability and manageability. Moreover, the system has been provided with an assembly structure that facilitates its correct installation by a single operator. The result is a heliostatic illuminator with an average pointing error of 10 mrad, an acceptable error for urban applications. Finally, a low-cost and high-replicability device has been achieved, which makes it an easily reproducible illuminator and favors its extensive installation. Full article
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9 pages, 792 KiB  
Article
Method of the Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Polyethylene Gas Pipelines with Portable Hardness Testers
by Anna Vinogradova, Kirill Gogolinskii, Alexander Umanskii, Varvara Alekhnovich, Alena Tarasova and Alena Melnikova
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040125 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
This article is devoted to the study of means and methods for non-destructive testing mechanical properties of polyethylene gas pipelines that have been in operation for 25–55 years. In order to assess mechanical properties, stress at yield was chosen as a key parameter. [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the study of means and methods for non-destructive testing mechanical properties of polyethylene gas pipelines that have been in operation for 25–55 years. In order to assess mechanical properties, stress at yield was chosen as a key parameter. Stress at yield is determined from the results of tensile tests and is associated with the limiting circumferential (hoop) stress, determined from the results of tests for short-term pressure. Tensile tests require sample cutting and the shutdown of pipelines’ service. To solve this problem of nondestructive testing of pipelines, tests were carried out using the methods of Shore, Leeb and dynamic instrumental indentation. According to the test results, it was revealed that the correlation coefficient between the values of stress at yield and hardness, obtained by the method of dynamic instrumental indentation, is 0.98 which confirms the possibility of the evaluation of the mechanical properties of pipelines by the method of dynamic instrumental indentation. Full article
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8 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
A New Mechanism of Male Plug for Electrical Protection
by Rocío Rodríguez, Manuel Curado, Elena Sardiña and Jesús Toribio
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040123 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2031
Abstract
There are many inventions to avoid the risk of electric contact in the plug. However, the objective of the invention resulting from the research is the proposal of a complementary measure to the existing ones, solving the specific problem of electrocutions that occur [...] Read more.
There are many inventions to avoid the risk of electric contact in the plug. However, the objective of the invention resulting from the research is the proposal of a complementary measure to the existing ones, solving the specific problem of electrocutions that occur in the action of connection and disconnection, due to the contact of the user with the active parts of the plug. The research has focused on the proposal of a design solution that solves the problem of electrocution in these particular and common cases. The objective of this article is the disclosure of a male plug protection mechanism, which has been carried out solely with the use of mechanical methods. Its importance lies in the simplicity and feasibility of the registered utility model as well as in the importance that its implementation may entail for the prevention of serious accidents in the electrical field for domestic and industrial use. The work shows the mechanism and operation of the invention of the proposed male plug in terms of protection against electrical hazards. Full article
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11 pages, 2256 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of External Magnetic Fields on the Parameters of the Electrical Communications Probing System for a Microtunneling Shield
by Andrew Zhivodernikov, Alexander Pavlenko, Artem Khoroshev and Vladimir Puzin
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040121 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
The issues were reviewed in assessing external electromagnetic fields’ effect on the parameters of an electrical power line probing system based on three-component ferroprobes for detecting active underground power cable lines during microtunnel construction using the thrust boring method (by tunneling shield) in [...] Read more.
The issues were reviewed in assessing external electromagnetic fields’ effect on the parameters of an electrical power line probing system based on three-component ferroprobes for detecting active underground power cable lines during microtunnel construction using the thrust boring method (by tunneling shield) in densely populated urban areas. A study was conducted on the change in the topology of the energized cable magnetic field located in the external magnetic field area created by operating electrical equipment under the influence of an external electromagnetic field and a tunneling shield with installed magneto-sensitive detectors. Experimental studies of the probing system were made. Options have been proposed for compensating the inductance component of the external magnetic field during tunnel driving in urban development and industrial area conditions. Full article
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12 pages, 22700 KiB  
Article
Decrease in the Starting Temperature of the Reaction for Fabricating Carbides of Refractory Metals When Using Carbon Nanoparticles as Precursors
by Vladimir Popov, Anna Borunova, Evgeny Shelekhov, Oksana Koplak, Elizaveta Dvoretskaya, Danila Matveev, Alexey Prosviryakov, Ekaterina Vershinina and Vladimir Cheverikin
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040120 - 12 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Metal matrix composites with a matrix of refractory metals (niobium, tungsten) and reinforcing nanodiamond particles were prepared for studying the possibility of decreasing the starting temperature of carbide synthesis. The size of primary nanodiamond particles was 4–6 nm, but they were combined in [...] Read more.
Metal matrix composites with a matrix of refractory metals (niobium, tungsten) and reinforcing nanodiamond particles were prepared for studying the possibility of decreasing the starting temperature of carbide synthesis. The size of primary nanodiamond particles was 4–6 nm, but they were combined in large-sized agglomerates. Mechanical alloying was used for producing the composites by crushing agglomerates and distributing nanodiamonds evenly in the metal matrix. The initial and fabricated materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal processing leads to the reaction for carbide synthesis. Studies have found that the usage of carbon nanoparticles (nanodiamonds) as precursors for fabricating carbides of refractory metals leads to a dramatic decrease in the synthesis temperature in comparison with macro-precursors: lower than 200 °C for tungsten and lower than 350 °C for niobium. Full article
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11 pages, 7711 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Thermo-Hygrometric Conditions of an Innovative Underwater Greenhouse
by Giovanni Tanda, Samuele Memme, Gabriele Cucchia and Sergio Gamberini
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040118 - 7 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Nemo’s Garden® Project aims at creating a green, alternative, and original agriculture system based on underwater greenhouses (biospheres) developed for areas where plant growth is difficult in the terrestrial environment due to climate conditions and new global warming issues. Experiments were designed [...] Read more.
Nemo’s Garden® Project aims at creating a green, alternative, and original agriculture system based on underwater greenhouses (biospheres) developed for areas where plant growth is difficult in the terrestrial environment due to climate conditions and new global warming issues. Experiments were designed and performed to measure the thermal and hygrometric behaviour inside the biosphere; a simple theoretical model was developed to analyse the temperature and humidity of the air inside the biosphere in dynamic conditions and to interpret the experimental observations. The main findings of this research were: (i) the photosynthetically active radiation measured inside the underwater biosphere was 25–30% of that at sea level, (ii) the air temperature and relative humidity inside the biosphere showed cyclic daily variations that permitted a water evaporation/vapour condensation process, allowing the self-production of water for plant irrigation, and (iii) the results given by the lumped-parameter theoretical model were in a good agreement with the experiments. Full article
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12 pages, 4173 KiB  
Article
The Extraction Method of Navigation Line for Cuttage and Film Covering Multi-Functional Machine for Low Tunnels
by Yumeng Li, Yanjun Zhu, Shuangshuang Li and Ping Liu
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040113 - 2 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2506
Abstract
Aiming at the problem of low intelligence in the automatic navigation of the cuttage and film covering multi-functional machine for low tunnels, this study proposed a navigation line extraction method based on the improved YOLOv5s model, which can achieve the accurate extraction of [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problem of low intelligence in the automatic navigation of the cuttage and film covering multi-functional machine for low tunnels, this study proposed a navigation line extraction method based on the improved YOLOv5s model, which can achieve the accurate extraction of navigation lines based on two planting methods of seedling transplanting and direct seeding. Firstly, we pre-processed the acquired images using inverse perspective transformation. Next, the Coordinate Attention and Ghost modules were applied to improve the YOLOv5s architecture, increasing the detection accuracy and speed of field targets. Finally, we extracted the feature points and fit the navigation lines based on the shape features of the targets using the geometric method. The experimental results showed that, compared with other algorithms, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm could reach more than 96%, the accuracy of navigation line extraction reached 98%, and the average detection time was 51 ms. The proposed method was robust and universal, and it can provide reliable navigation paths for the cuttage and film covering multi-functional machine. Full article
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15 pages, 4911 KiB  
Article
American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using Inertial Motion Capture System with Deep Learning
by Yutong Gu, Sherrine, Weiyi Wei, Xinya Li, Jianan Yuan and Masahiro Todoh
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040112 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6679
Abstract
Sign language is designed as a natural communication method for the deaf community to convey messages and connect with society. In American sign language, twenty-six special sign gestures from the alphabet are used for the fingerspelling of proper words. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Sign language is designed as a natural communication method for the deaf community to convey messages and connect with society. In American sign language, twenty-six special sign gestures from the alphabet are used for the fingerspelling of proper words. The purpose of this research is to classify the hand gestures in the alphabet and recognize a sequence of gestures in the fingerspelling using an inertial hand motion capture system. In this work, time and time-frequency domain features and angle-based features are extracted from the raw data for classification with convolutional neural network-based classifiers. In fingerspelling recognition, we explore two kinds of models: connectionist temporal classification and encoder-decoder structured sequence recognition model. The study reveals that the classification model achieves an average accuracy of 74.8% for dynamic ASL gestures considering user independence. Moreover, the proposed two sequence recognition models achieve 55.1%, 93.4% accuracy in word-level evaluation, and 86.5%, 97.9% in the letter-level evaluation of fingerspelling. The proposed method has the potential to recognize more hand gestures of sign language with highly reliable inertial data from the device. Full article
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10 pages, 4266 KiB  
Article
Investigation and Numerical Simulation of the Acoustic Target Strength of the Underwater Submarine Vehicle
by Kaveripakam Sathish, Rajesh Anbazhagan, Ravikumar Chinthaginjala Venkata, Fabio Arena and Giovanni Pau
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040111 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Modern weapon systems’ survival hinges on their detection capabilities more than anything else. In the active sonar equation, the acoustic target strength is crucial. Under the assumption of plane wave propagation, the standard target strength equation is used to forecast the reradiated intensity [...] Read more.
Modern weapon systems’ survival hinges on their detection capabilities more than anything else. In the active sonar equation, the acoustic target strength is crucial. Under the assumption of plane wave propagation, the standard target strength equation is used to forecast the reradiated intensity for the far field. The ability of a submarine to remain unnoticed while on patrol or accomplishing a mission is its primary defense. Sonar, sometimes known as sound navigation ranging, is a popular method for locating submarines. This is because saltwater effectively absorbs radio frequencies. Sonar technology is used in more than just the commercial fishing business; it is also used in undersea research. The submarine’s designers consider the reflection of acoustic waves to minimize the amount of space required for such reflections. The Target Strength (TS) metric is used to assess the sonar objects’ size. This manuscript explains and demystifies the Benchmark Target Echo Strength Simulation (BeTTSi) benchmark submarine’s TS analysis. This model’s Pressure Acoustic-Boundary Element Model (PA-BEM) interface has been stabilized, and the model itself is pretty huge acoustically. Full article
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14 pages, 3654 KiB  
Article
A Fast and Cost-Effective (FACE) Instrument Setting to Construct Focus-Extended Images
by Gilbert Audira, Ting-Wei Hsu, Kelvin H.-C. Chen, Jong-Chin Huang, Ming-Der Lin, Tzong-Rong Ger and Chung-Der Hsiao
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040110 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Image stacking is a crucial method for micro or macro photography. It captures images at different focal planes and then merges them into a single, all-in-focus image with extended focus. This method has been extensively used for digital documentation by scientists working at [...] Read more.
Image stacking is a crucial method for micro or macro photography. It captures images at different focal planes and then merges them into a single, all-in-focus image with extended focus. This method has been extensively used for digital documentation by scientists working at museums or research institutions. However, the traditional image stacking method relies on expensive instruments to conduct precise image stacking using a computer-based stepper motor controller. In this study, we reported how to conduct image focus extensions with comparable quality to those done by a motorized stepper using a cost-effective instrument setting and an efficient manual stacking method. This method provides a shorter operation time and capability to capture images of living objects and high flexibility in obtaining the images of objects from cm to mm scale. However, it also has some limitations, including the inability to control aperture and exposure time, relatively short working distance at high magnification, requires additional steps to convert the video into images, and heavily relies on the user’s manual observation prior to a video recording. Nevertheless, the authors believe that the current method can be applied as an alternative method to conduct image stacking. The development of such an instrument and method offers a promising avenue for scientists to perform image stacking with greater flexibility and speed in macro photography. Full article
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17 pages, 4619 KiB  
Article
On the Avant-Garde IDeS Method for the Future of Car Design Applied to an SUV Project
by Leonardo Frizziero, Enrico Polpatelli, Federico Martini, Lorenzo Fiorentini and Marco Freddi
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040106 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2771
Abstract
This case study aims to develop a new innovative SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) model exploiting IDeS (Industrial Design Structure), which is an engineering approach conceived to optimize car design projects in the automotive industry like never before. A compact SUV was chosen because [...] Read more.
This case study aims to develop a new innovative SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) model exploiting IDeS (Industrial Design Structure), which is an engineering approach conceived to optimize car design projects in the automotive industry like never before. A compact SUV was chosen because it is a type of vehicle that is highly requested by customers, and it is extremely successful in the market due to its versatility. In fact, compact SUVs are mixed vehicles that combine the pragmatism of a car with the typical robustness of an off-road vehicle making them suitable both for urban and off-road scenarios. The following pages will illustrate the steps followed for the realization of the final product using the SDE (Stylistic Design Engineering) method and other various design technologies, such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Benchmarking (BM) and Top Flop Analysis (TPA). In the final part of this project, the virtual prototyping of the product is carried out using Additive Manufacturing (AM) with an FDM 3D printer. The combination of these methods forms, to all intents and purposes, the IDeS, a newly developed innovative and cutting-edge discipline capable of schematically guiding the new product development process in companies with unprecedented efficiency. Full article
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10 pages, 2589 KiB  
Article
Periodontal Maintenance Therapy: Efficacy of Oral Irrigator in the Home Oral Hygiene Protocol Associated with Microbiological Analysis with Phase Contrast Microscope
by Paolo Caccianiga, Ayt Alla Bader, Paola Erba and Gianluigi Caccianiga
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040104 - 15 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2527
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess how the application of an oral irrigator modifies the subgingival bacterial flora in patients undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy. We used a qualitative microbiological analysis with a phase contrast microscope that can differentiate a non-pathogenic [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this research was to assess how the application of an oral irrigator modifies the subgingival bacterial flora in patients undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy. We used a qualitative microbiological analysis with a phase contrast microscope that can differentiate a non-pathogenic (immobile) bacterial flora from a pathogenic (mobile). Methods: In this study, 60 patients with a diagnosis of moderate periodontitis were enrolled. They were treated with non-surgical laser-assisted causal therapy and after one month a re-evaluation was performed that established the stabilization of the periodontal pathology. They were instructed in the home oral hygiene protocol with sonic toothbrush, interdental brushes and oral irrigator, and were included in the periodontal maintenance therapy program with a phase contrast microscope control every 6 months. At T0 phase contrast–phase microscopic examinations, the existence of non-pathogenic bacterial flora was displayed in all patients. They were then randomly divided into two groups, A and B. After professional oral hygiene treatment, group B suspended the usage of oral irrigator. Patients of group A, after the professional oral hygiene treatment, were motivated to continue their oral hygiene protocol at home. After three months, the patients underwent microscopic analysis of the bacterial plaque. Results: At T1 in Group B, 90% of patients had undergone a pathogenic bacterial flora change. In group A, in which patients kept using the oral irrigator for the three months, 100% of them showed immobile plaque on phase contrast microscopic analysis. Conclusions: This research showed that oral irrigator in the practice of home hygiene protocols plays a role in the long-term maintenance of a non-pathogenic bacterial flora in periodontal patients. Full article
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10 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Algebras of Vector Functions over Normed Fields
by Sergey Victor Ludkowski
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040102 - 14 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
This article is devoted to study of vector functions in Banach algebras and Banach spaces over normed fields. A structure of their Banach algebras is investigated. Banach algebras of vector functions with values in ∗-algebras, finely regular algebras, B-algebras, and operator [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to study of vector functions in Banach algebras and Banach spaces over normed fields. A structure of their Banach algebras is investigated. Banach algebras of vector functions with values in ∗-algebras, finely regular algebras, B-algebras, and operator algebras are scrutinized. An approximation of vector functions is investigated. The realizations of these algebras by operator algebras are studied. Full article
13 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
Activated Plasma Albumin Gel (APAG) in Transalveolar Technique for Maxillary Sinus Lift: A Case Series
by Alessandro Leonida, Paolo Caccianiga, Ayt Alla Bader, Stefano Rosi, Saverio Ceraulo and Gianluigi Caccianiga
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040099 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Over the past 20 years, transalveolar techniques have progressively improved. They have become increasingly predictable and reliable, with the additional advantage of simplified procedures that are less operator dependent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technique [...] Read more.
Over the past 20 years, transalveolar techniques have progressively improved. They have become increasingly predictable and reliable, with the additional advantage of simplified procedures that are less operator dependent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new technique to lift the maxillary sinus through a transalveolar approach, Simple Minimal Safe (SMS), with use of activated plasma albumin gel (APAG). A total of 33 patients (22 female and 11 male), aged between 36 and 79, were consecutively operated on, with 44 implants positioned using the SMS technique. All were placed in the premolar or molar areas of the maxillary bone. No implant was lost during the follow-up period (6 months) and all implants were then prosthetically loaded. The average bone gain was 4.43 mm. In the first quadrant, sites 15, 16 and 17 were involved with an average bone gain of 3.5 mm, 4.6 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. In the second quadrant the sites 24, 25, 26 and 27 were involved with an average bone gain of 4.25 mm, 4.5 mm, 4.4 mm and 4.5 mm, respectively. Analyzing the data considering the sex, implants in women had an average gain of 4.66 mm, while in men the average gain was 3.83 mm. With the SMS technique, we achieved a reduction in post-operatory morbidity and in the frequency of Schneiderian membrane perforation. In conclusion, maxillary sinus augmentation via the transalveolar approach has become a more predictable surgical procedure and an easier technique due to less operator-dependent processes. Full article
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9 pages, 7566 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) with Er:YaG Laser and Ozone Therapy: A Case Series
by Gianluca Porcaro, Paolo Caccianiga, Ayt Alla Bader and Gianluigi Caccianiga
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040097 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of ozone gel and Er:YAG laser treatment in respect of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) for normal procedures. Consequently, the following techniques are compared in the study: medical therapy [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of ozone gel and Er:YAG laser treatment in respect of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) for normal procedures. Consequently, the following techniques are compared in the study: medical therapy (MT); MT + conservative surgery with rotary/piezoelectric instruments; MT + ozone therapy; MT + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG; and MT + ozone therapy + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG. Fifty-seven patients with MRONJ stages I, II, and III were treated. The protocol was different for each group of patients and included MT, the application of an ozone gel, an Er:YAG laser surgery session, conservative surgery with rotary/piezoelectric instruments, or surgical treatment, and then the monitoring of healing for at least 12 months. The protocols were performed once a week until complete recovery. Patients were reassessed weekly for the first month after treatment, monthly for the following quarter, and then every 3 months until the end of one year. The radiographic surveys were carried out 6 and 12 months after the last treatment. All of the patients in Group 4 (treated with medical therapy + ozone therapy + surgical treatment + laser Er:YAG) achieved complete clinical and radiographic recovery (100%) with complete remission of osteonecrosis. The proposed combined treatment of ozone therapy using laser Er:YAG and the MT + surgical treatment allowed us to obtain excellent results in the resolution of MRONJ. This success was explained by a series of characteristics specific to laser technology; in fact, thanks to its photoacoustic, photochemical, photothermal, and photomechanical properties, the laser made it possible to reduce the bacterial load at the intervention site. Full article
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10 pages, 3540 KiB  
Article
Patterned Colouring via Variable-Speed Single Stretching
by Xuelian Wu, Vishwa Mohan Tiwari, Kimaya Prasad Suryarao, Richard Tan, Rui Xiao, Haibao Lv, Yilei Zhang, Zhifeng Wang and Wei Min Huang
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040093 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
We demonstrate a cost-effective, highly reliable/stable and environmentally friendly approach for the patterned colouring of a commercial transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We show that different colour patterns (transparent, white/translucent, complete white/silver and different combinations of these three colours) can be realised in PET [...] Read more.
We demonstrate a cost-effective, highly reliable/stable and environmentally friendly approach for the patterned colouring of a commercial transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We show that different colour patterns (transparent, white/translucent, complete white/silver and different combinations of these three colours) can be realised in PET strips upon varying the speed during continuous stretching. The conditions for good quality colour patterns are investigated, and the length of transient region during speed change is investigated. Full article
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22 pages, 8132 KiB  
Article
IDeS Method Applied to an Innovative Motorbike—Applying Topology Optimization and Augmented Reality
by Leonardo Frizziero, Christian Leon-Cardenas, Giulio Galiè, Giulia Alessandri, Lorenzo Iannarelli, Lisa Lucci, Sarah Merighi and Pietro Polignano
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040091 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
This study is on the conception of the DS700 HYBRID project by the application of the Industrial Design Structure method (IDeS), which applies different tools sourced from engineering and style departments, including QFD and SDE, used to create the concept of a hybrid [...] Read more.
This study is on the conception of the DS700 HYBRID project by the application of the Industrial Design Structure method (IDeS), which applies different tools sourced from engineering and style departments, including QFD and SDE, used to create the concept of a hybrid motorbike that could reach the market in the near future. SDE is an engineering approach for the design and development of industrial design projects, and it finds important applications in the automotive sector. In addition, analysis tools such as QFD, comprising benchmarking and top-flop analysis are carried out to maximize the creative process. The key characteristics of the bike and the degree of innovation are identified and outlined, the market segment is identified, and the stylistic trends that are most suitable for a naked motorbike of the future are analyzed. In the second part the styling of each superstructure and of all the components of the vehicle is carried out. Afterwards the aesthetics and engineering perspectives are accounted for to complete the project. This is achieved with modelling and computing tools such as 3D CAD, visual renderings, and FEM simulations, and virtual prototyping thanks to augmented reality (AR), and finally physical prototyping with the use of additive manufacturing (AM). The result is a product conception able to compete in the present challenging market, with a design that is technically feasible and also reaches new lightness targets for efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 22797 KiB  
Article
Study on Road Friction Database for Traffic Safety: Construction of a Road Friction-Measuring Device
by Ichiro Kageyama, Yukiyo Kuriyagawa, Tetsunori Haraguchi, Tetsuya Kaneko, Minoru Nishio and Atsushi Watanabe
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040090 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2243
Abstract
This study focuses on the possibility of constructing a database on friction coefficients for actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety. A measurement algorithm is established to construct a road friction-measuring device. Next, the tires are selected for use in the measurements [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the possibility of constructing a database on friction coefficients for actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety. A measurement algorithm is established to construct a road friction-measuring device. Next, the tires are selected for use in the measurements and their characteristics are measured using a bench tire characteristic tester. The measuring device is designed and constructed based on these characteristics. Finally, using this device, the measurement results of the road friction characteristics for two types of road surfaces are presented. Full article
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16 pages, 2536 KiB  
Article
Application of Fixed-Length Ultrasonic Interferometry to Determine the Kinetics of Light-/Heat-Induced Damage to Biological Membranes and Protein Complexes
by Denis V. Yanykin, Maxim E. Astashev, Andrey A. Khorobrykh, Mark O. Paskhin, Dmitriy A. Serov and Sergey V. Gudkov
Inventions 2022, 7(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7040087 - 30 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2060
Abstract
This manuscript describes the application of a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes and provides examples of the test measurements. We implemented a measurement scheme using the digital analysis of harmonic [...] Read more.
This manuscript describes the application of a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes and provides examples of the test measurements. We implemented a measurement scheme using the digital analysis of harmonic signals. To conduct the research, the fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer was modernized: the speed was increased; lighting was supplied to the sample cells; the possibility of changing the gas atmosphere and mixing the sample was given. Using solutions containing natural concentrations of deuterium oxide, a high sensitivity of the spectrometer was shown. The spectrometer performed well in the measurement of phase state of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes, both in the absence and in the presence of additions, which are capable of changing the lipid properties (sodium dodecyl sulfate, palmitic acid, and calcium ions). The heat- and photo-induced changes in the state of photosystem II core complexes were demonstrated using a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer. Transitions at 35.5 °C, 43.5 °C, 56.5 °C, and 66.7 °C were revealed. It is proposed that the transitions reflect the disassembly of the complexes and protein denaturation. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a fixed-length ultrasonic spectrometer can be applied to determine the kinetics of heat- and photo-induced damage to biological membranes and protein complexes. Full article
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19 pages, 2198 KiB  
Article
Stepped-Frequency Continuous-Wave Signal Processing Method for Human Detection Using Radars for Sensing Rooms through the Wall
by Roman Kozlov, Konstantin Gavrilov, Timofey Shevgunov and Vladimir Kirdyashkin
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030079 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3113
Abstract
The problem of detecting moving and stationary people in a room with a specialized radar system sensing through the wall is considered in the paper. The high-range resolution of the system is achieved by effective processing of reflected ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave signals (SFCW). [...] Read more.
The problem of detecting moving and stationary people in a room with a specialized radar system sensing through the wall is considered in the paper. The high-range resolution of the system is achieved by effective processing of reflected ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave signals (SFCW). The paper presents a new method which is based on normalization of complex-valued samples of the received SFCW signals and extends traditional processing steps including quadrature-phase demodulation, sampling and inverse discrete Fourier transform. The proposed method is aimed at improving the performance of the interperiodic difference and variance of sample algorithms which are briefly described in relation to the SFCW radar system. The computer modeling showed that the introduced normalization mitigates the background noise and merely decreases the artifacts commonly appearing in radar images due to the non-uniform amplitude-frequency characteristics of the radar circuits. The described algorithms were implemented in a software part of the real-time working prototype of the radar system designed and assembled at the University research center. The results of field experiments confirmed the advantage of the proposed method in typical scenarios and showed the increase of the signal-to-noise ratio to 5 dB compared to traditional radar algorithm-processing SFCW signals. Full article
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8 pages, 2603 KiB  
Article
Several Aspects of Interaction between Chrome and Nanodiamond Particles in Metal Matrix Composites When Being Heated
by Vladimir Popov, Anna Borunova, Evgeny Shelekhov, Vladimir Cheverikin and Igor Khodos
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030075 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
The paper considers the development of a technological scheme for preparing metal matrix nanocomposites based on the interaction between nanodiamond reinforcing particles and a chromium matrix when being heated, forming chromium carbide nanoparticles. These carbides are in situ synthesized ceramic reinforcing nanoparticles. The [...] Read more.
The paper considers the development of a technological scheme for preparing metal matrix nanocomposites based on the interaction between nanodiamond reinforcing particles and a chromium matrix when being heated, forming chromium carbide nanoparticles. These carbides are in situ synthesized ceramic reinforcing nanoparticles. The first stage of preparing composites is to obtain composites with the chromium matrix and nanodiamond reinforcing particles. For this purpose, mechanical alloying is used, i.e., processing in planetary mills. The size of a primary nanodiamond particle is 5 nm, but they are combined in agglomerates that are hundreds of micrometers in size. The time of processing in the planetary mill defines the crushing degree of the agglomerates. In this study, processing was carried out for 0.5 h, 2 h, and 4 h. The second stage for obtaining composites with reinforcing particles of chromium carbides is thermal processing. Explorations using the method of differential scanning calorimetry showed that reducing the size of nanodiamond reinforcing particles (by prolonging the time of processing in the planetary mill) leads to a decrease in the initial temperature of the reaction for developing carbides. The worked-out technique for obtaining composites was patented in the Russian Federation (the patent for invention 2772480). Full article
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17 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
Biosafety Construction Composite Based on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and PLGA
by Sergey V. Gudkov, Dmitriy E. Burmistrov, Vasily N. Lednev, Aleksander V. Simakin, Oleg V. Uvarov, Roman N. Kucherov, Petr I. Ivashkin, Alexey S. Dorokhov and Andrey Yu. Izmailov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030061 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2382
Abstract
Nanocomposites based on polymers and nanoparticles are used in agriculture for photoconversion of solar radiation, as a basis for covering material, as a packaging material, and as functional films. At the same time, nanocomposites are almost never used in agriculture as biosafe structural [...] Read more.
Nanocomposites based on polymers and nanoparticles are used in agriculture for photoconversion of solar radiation, as a basis for covering material, as a packaging material, and as functional films. At the same time, nanocomposites are almost never used in agriculture as biosafe structural materials. In this work, we have developed a technology for obtaining a nanocomposite based on PLGA and iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanocomposite has unique physical and chemical properties and also exhibits pronounced antibacterial properties at a concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles of more than 0.01%. At the same time, the nanocomposite does not affect the growth and development of pepper and is biocompatible with mammalian cells. Nanocomposites based on PLGA and iron oxide nanoparticles can be an attractive candidate for the manufacture of structural and packaging materials in agriculture. Full article
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10 pages, 3806 KiB  
Article
The Application of X-ray Micro-CT in the Study of HTS Tape Coils
by Vitaly B. Minasyan, Nikolay S. Ivanov, Elizaveta A. Malykh, Yuri A. Zanegin and Bruno Douine
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030060 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1880
Abstract
In the process of manufacturing products from high-temperature superconductors (HTS), quality control must be carried out. Traditionally, for HTS coils, electrical tests are carried out to determine critical current. In the case of an unacceptable result, it is necessary to determine the cause. [...] Read more.
In the process of manufacturing products from high-temperature superconductors (HTS), quality control must be carried out. Traditionally, for HTS coils, electrical tests are carried out to determine critical current. In the case of an unacceptable result, it is necessary to determine the cause. Therefore, it is necessary to develop nondestructive testing methods. This article proposes a technology for manufacturing quality evaluation. It is based on determining the actual location of the tape and the gaps between the turns and rows of the coil and analyzing these values. For this purpose, samples were scanned using computed tomography (CT) with a Nordson Dage XD7600NT X-ray inspection system with a μCT module. The obtained data were analyzed using VolumeGraphics VGStudio 2.2 software. Furthermore, the proposed technology can be used as part of a predictive analysis of the state of HTS coils in the windings of electrical machines. Full article
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24 pages, 5442 KiB  
Article
Research and Development of Trinary Power Cycles
by Vladimir Kindra, Nikolay Rogalev, Sergey Osipov, Olga Zlyvko and Vladimir Naumov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030056 - 4 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
The most effective and environmentally safe fossil fuel power production facilities are the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) ones. Electric efficiency of advanced facilities is up to 58% in Russia and up to 64% abroad. The further improvement of thermal efficiency by increase [...] Read more.
The most effective and environmentally safe fossil fuel power production facilities are the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) ones. Electric efficiency of advanced facilities is up to 58% in Russia and up to 64% abroad. The further improvement of thermal efficiency by increase of the gas turbine inlet temperature (TIT) is limited by performance of heat resistance alloys that are used for the hot gas path components and the cooling system efficiency. An alternative method for the CCGT efficiency improvement is utilization of low potential heat of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) exhaust gas in an additional cycle operating on a low-boiling heat carrier. This paper describes a thermodynamic analysis of the transition from binary cycles to trinary ones by integration of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). A mathematical model of a cooled gas turbine plant (GT) has been developed to carry out calculations of high-temperature energy complexes. Based on the results of mathematical modeling, recommendations were made for the choice of the structure and parameters of the steam turbine cycle, as well as the ORC, to ensure the achievement of the maximum thermal efficiency of trinary plants. It is shown that the transition from a single pressure CCGT to a trinary plant allows the electric power increase from 213.4 MW to 222.7 MW and the net efficiency increase of 2.14%. The trinary power facility has 0.45% higher efficiency than the dual pressure CCGT. Full article
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11 pages, 6837 KiB  
Article
Calculation and Experimental Study of Low-Cycle Fatigue of Gas Turbine Engines Booster Drum
by Alexander Arkhipov, Yury Ravikovich, Dmitry Kholobtsev and Alexander Shakhov
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030049 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
A calculation-experimental study of durability of titanium booster drum of gas turbine engine (GTE) was carried out. A methodology of experimental estimation of titanium component life of GTE using structurally similar elements (SSE) has been proposed. A series of three-dimensional calculations by the [...] Read more.
A calculation-experimental study of durability of titanium booster drum of gas turbine engine (GTE) was carried out. A methodology of experimental estimation of titanium component life of GTE using structurally similar elements (SSE) has been proposed. A series of three-dimensional calculations by the finite element method of SSE cut out of the finished part was carried out to estimate the strength of the booster drum. A methodology for testing the durability of SSE in the low-cycle fatigue (LCF) area was developed, and statistical processing of the test results was performed. Tests of SSE allowed carrying out advanced-edge assessment of the durability of a full-size drum, taking into account the manufacturing technology. Full article
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25 pages, 2401 KiB  
Article
Incorporating Human Preferences in Decision Making for Dynamic Multi-Objective Optimization in Model Predictive Control
by Thomas Schmitt, Matthias Hoffmann, Tobias Rodemann and Jürgen Adamy
Inventions 2022, 7(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions7030046 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
We present a new two-step approach for automatized a posteriori decision making in multi-objective optimization problems, i.e., selecting a solution from the Pareto front. In the first step, a knee region is determined based on the normalized Euclidean distance from a hyperplane defined [...] Read more.
We present a new two-step approach for automatized a posteriori decision making in multi-objective optimization problems, i.e., selecting a solution from the Pareto front. In the first step, a knee region is determined based on the normalized Euclidean distance from a hyperplane defined by the furthest Pareto solution and the negative unit vector. The size of the knee region depends on the Pareto front’s shape and a design parameter. In the second step, preferences for all objectives formulated by the decision maker, e.g., 50–20–30 for a 3D problem, are translated into a hyperplane which is then used to choose a final solution from the knee region. This way, the decision maker’s preference can be incorporated, while its influence depends on the Pareto front’s shape and a design parameter, at the same time favorizing knee points if they exist. The proposed approach is applied in simulation for the multi-objective model predictive control (MPC) of the two-dimensional rocket car example and the energy management system of a building. Full article
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