# Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

## 3. Results

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Representation of N points belonging to a plane surface together with the plane extrapolated to represent it.

**Figure 11.**CE1 and CE2 represent load cases 1 and 2 on connecting rod end. Blue is a hinge. Red is the force, applied as uniformly distributed on the area with the direction according parallel to connecting rod axis, the value and sign according to the calculation and reference system. CH1 and CH2 are the load cases to study the connecting rod head.

**Figure 12.**Results of fatigue analysis performed on the modified version of the connecting rod head.

**Table 1.**Table containing information on values and forces used for the fatigue life prediction of standard and modified. *: case of improper combustion, typical of some 2-stroke racing engines, at maximum rpm; **: case of exiting a curve and rotating the throttle to its maximum.

Description | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Connecting rod wheelbase | 96 | mm |

Piston bore | 47 | mm |

Stroke | 49 | mm |

Lambda factor | 0.255 | / |

Piston mass (complete piston with rings, piston pin, Seegers) | 112 | g |

Maximum peak in cylinder pressure at full throttle | 70 | bar |

Pressure inside the cylinder in case of no combustion (2-stroke engine) | 10 | Bar |

Maximum rpm | 14,500 | rpm |

rpm at idle | 8000 | rpm |

Standard connecting rod | ||

Connecting rod mass | 118 | g |

Reduced connecting rod head mass | 75.1 | g |

Reduced connecting rod end mass | 42.9 | g |

Maximum force on connecting rod end without combustion at maximum rpm * | 7230 | N |

Maximum force connecting road head without combustion at maximum rpm * | 14,000 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod end at BDC | −6100 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod head at BDC | −10,000 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod head at TDC at 8000 rpm full throttle ** | −7500 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod end at TDC at 8000 rpm, full throttle ** | −9730 | N |

Modified connecting rod | ||

Connecting rod mass | 106 | g |

Reduced connecting rod head mass | 67.45 | g |

Reduced connecting rod end mass | 38.54 | g |

Maximum force on connecting rod end without combustion at maximum rpm * | 7230 | N |

Maximum force connecting road head without combustion at maximum rpm * | 13,330 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod end at BDC | −5900 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod head at BDC | −9450 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod end at TDC at 8000 rpm, full throttle ** | −9730 | N |

Maximum force on connecting rod head at TDC at 8000 rpm full throttle ** | −7735 | N |

Meshing Parameters | Value |
---|---|

Meshing method | tetrahedron |

Element order | quadratic |

Sizing | 0.5 mm |

Standard connecting rod | |

Number of elements | 1,035,811 |

Number of nodes | 1,470,167 |

Modified connecting rod | |

Number of elements | 933,291 |

Number of nodes | 1,326,105 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Freddi, M.; Ferretti, P.; Alessandri, G.; Liverani, A.
Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod. *Inventions* **2023**, *8*, 23.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010023

**AMA Style**

Freddi M, Ferretti P, Alessandri G, Liverani A.
Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod. *Inventions*. 2023; 8(1):23.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010023

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Freddi, Marco, Patrich Ferretti, Giulia Alessandri, and Alfredo Liverani.
2023. "Reverse Engineering of a Racing Motorbike Connecting Rod" *Inventions* 8, no. 1: 23.
https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions8010023