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Hydrology, Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 20 articles

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Article
Numerical and Experimental Approaches to Estimate Discharge Coefficients and Energy Loss Coefficients in Pressurized Grated Inlets
by , , and
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040162 (registering DOI) - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 127
Abstract
Numerical models concerning inlet systems are run to assess the hydraulic performance of existing or new systems and estimate the flow interchanges between the surface overland and sewer flows. In most programs, these interactions are modelled using the orifice equation, with estimated discharge [...] Read more.
Numerical models concerning inlet systems are run to assess the hydraulic performance of existing or new systems and estimate the flow interchanges between the surface overland and sewer flows. In most programs, these interactions are modelled using the orifice equation, with estimated discharge coefficients around 0.6. In this paper, discharge values and energy loss coefficients for several pressurized grated inlets were obtained by experimental and numerical approaches and compared. To achieve these goals, a numerical model replicating several experimental tests carried out at the hydraulic laboratory of Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) was produced using a CFD model (Flow 3D). This numerical model was found to be highly sensitive to the mesh size used; however, it was able to accurately simulate the experimental processes. The comparison considered different combinations of pressurized flow though the grate, between 10 to 50 l/s, and different longitudinal gradients. The experimental discharge coefficient was found to increase with surcharging flowrate (ranging from 0.14 and 0.41), whereas the longitudinal gradient was found to have no effect. The discharge coefficients obtained in this study show that the standard 0.6 value commonly used by practitioners should be revised to a range between 0.14 to 0.41, depending on circulating flow and inlet type. In addition, the loss coefficient values range from 0.25 to 3.41. Full article
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Article
We Have Plenty of Water, Don’t We? Social Norms, Practices, and Contentions in a Drought-Ridden Country
by
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040161 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 134
Abstract
Climate and land use change pose global challenges to water policy and management. This article furthers calls for integrated research conceptualizing water management as a holistic, interdependent system that may benefit from sociological research. To better understand how socioenvironmental change affects lifestyle expectations [...] Read more.
Climate and land use change pose global challenges to water policy and management. This article furthers calls for integrated research conceptualizing water management as a holistic, interdependent system that may benefit from sociological research. To better understand how socioenvironmental change affects lifestyle expectations and experiences, interviews with in-migrants (relocated to inland Australia from metropolitan cities), industry and government informants are thematically analyzed. Results show in-migrants engage in adaptive water management and conservation strategies to enhance water security, yet call for council provision of water management education to minimize vulnerability. Industry informants perceive few water supply or pollution issues, favoring technological solutions to support unfettered growth and water amenities, while de-prioritizing environmental sustainability goals. Government priorities reflect drought narratives in Australian water policy reform and show concern about meeting consumer water supply and preserving water quality. With predictions of greater weather severity, including flooding, and in-migrants’ difficulty managing heavy rainfall, national legislation and policy modifications are necessary. Specifically, normalizing climate variability in policy and social identities is desirable. Finally, practices prioritizing water scarcity and trading management over environmental protection indicate a need to surpass environmental commodification by depoliticizing water management. Full article
Article
Precipitation and Potential Evapotranspiration Temporal Variability and Their Relationship in Two Forest Ecosystems in Greece
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040160 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 134
Abstract
The assessment of drought conditions is important in forestry because it affects forest growth and species diversity. In this study, temporal variability and trends of precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and their relationship (P/PET) were examined in two selected forest ecosystems that present [...] Read more.
The assessment of drought conditions is important in forestry because it affects forest growth and species diversity. In this study, temporal variability and trends of precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and their relationship (P/PET) were examined in two selected forest ecosystems that present different climatic conditions and vegetation types due to their location and hypsometric zone. The study area includes the forests of Pertouli and Taxiarchis, which are managed by the Aristotle University Forest Administration and Management Fund. The Pertouli is a coniferous forest in Central Greece with a maximum elevation of 2073 m a.s.l, and Taxiarchis is a broadleaved forest in Northern Greece with a maximum elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. To accomplish the goals of the current research, long–term (1974–2016) monthly precipitation and air temperature data from two mountainous meteorological were collected and processed. The PET was estimated using a parametric model based on simplified formulation of the Penman–Monteith equation rather than the commonly used Thornthwaite approach. Seasonal and annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and their ratio (P/PET) values were subjected to Mann–Kendall tests to assess the possible upward or downward trends, and Sen’s slope method was used to estimate the trends magnitude. The results indicated that the examined climatic variables vary greatly between seasons. In general, negative trends were detected for the precipitation time series of Pertouli, whereas positive trends were found in Taxiarchis; both were statistically insignificant. In contrast, statistically significant positive trends were reported for PET in both forest ecosystems. These circumstances led to different drought conditions between the two forests due to the differences of their elevation. Regarding Pertouli, drought trend analysis indicated downward trends for annual, winter, spring, and summer values, whereas autumn showed a slight upward trend. In addition, the average magnitude trend per decade was approximately −2.5%, −3.5%, +4.8%, −0.8%, and +3.3% for annual, winter, autumn, spring, and summer seasons, respectively. On the contrary, the drought trend and the associated magnitude per decade for the Taxiarchis forest were found to be as follows: annual (+2.2%), winter (+6.2%), autumn (+9.2%), spring (+1.0%), and summer (−5.0%). The performed statistical test showed that the reported trend was statistically insignificant at a 5% significance level. These results may be a useful tool as a forest management practice and can enhance the adaptation and resilience of forest ecosystems to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evaporation and Evaporative Demand)
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Article
A GIS-Cellular Automata-Based Model for Coupling Urban Sprawl and Flood Susceptibility Assessment
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040159 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 223
Abstract
In Urban Planning (UP), it is necessary to take under serious consideration the inhibitors of the spread of a settlement in a specific direction. This means that all those parameters for which serious problems may arise in the future should be considered. Among [...] Read more.
In Urban Planning (UP), it is necessary to take under serious consideration the inhibitors of the spread of a settlement in a specific direction. This means that all those parameters for which serious problems may arise in the future should be considered. Among these parameters are geo-hazards, such as floods, landslides, mud movement, etc. This study deals with UP taking into account the possibility of widespread flooding in settlement expansion areas. There is a large flooding history in Greece, which is accompanied by a significant number of disasters in different types of land use/land cover, with a large financial cost of compensation and/or rehabilitation. The study area is the drainage basin of Erasinos River in the Attica Region, where many and frequent flood events have been recorded. The main goal of this study is to determine the flood susceptibility of the study area, taking into account possible factors that are decisive in flood occurrence. Furthermore, the flood susceptibility is also determined, taking into account the scenarios of precipitation and the urban sprawl scenario in the area of reference. The study of flood events uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model and the urban sprawl model SLEUTH, which calibrates historical urban growth, using open and cost-free data and software. Eventually, flood susceptibility maps were overlaid with future urban areas to find the vulnerable areas. Following, three scenarios of flood susceptibility with the corresponding susceptibility maps and vulnerability maps, which measure the flood susceptibility of the current and future urban space of the study area, are presented. The results have shown significant peaks in the moderate class of flood susceptibility, while, in the third scenario, high values of flood susceptibility seem to appear. The proposed methodology and specifically the output maps can serve as a decision support tool to assist urban planners and hazard managers in making informed decisions towards sustainable urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Flood Mitigation and Stormwater Management)
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Article
Characteristics of Flow over Rectangular Labyrinth Weirs with Round Corners
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040158 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 225
Abstract
The hydraulic performance of round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs with varying weir heights and effective lengths has not been explored in the existing literature to the authors’ knowledge. The purpose of this experimental study was to see how the height and effective length of [...] Read more.
The hydraulic performance of round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs with varying weir heights and effective lengths has not been explored in the existing literature to the authors’ knowledge. The purpose of this experimental study was to see how the height and effective length of round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs affect their discharge efficiency. Nine flat-crested rectangular labyrinth weirs made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) were tested in a rectangular flume under various discharges to fulfill the goals of this study. The discharge coefficients for the weirs were then calculated. The hydraulic efficiency of weirs with round corners increases as the weir height (P) increases, according to the findings; however, with effective length of the weir to channel width ratios (LC/B) ≤ 1.78, the effect of the weir height diminishes. For the HT/P ranges used in this study, 0.1 ≤ HT/P ≤ 0.65, the round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs with higher LC/B ratios (greater M values) showed improved hydraulic efficiency. Furthermore, the effects of the round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs’ headwater inflation can be mitigated by increasing the effective length of the weirs;by increasing M values (LC/B ratios). Using multiple linear regression analysis, a satisfactory correlation equation was found between discharge coefficients of round-cornered rectangular labyrinth weirs, CB, and the other parameters, LC, P, and h. Full article
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Article
Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Water Balance of a Mediterranean Watershed Using SWAT+
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040157 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 113
Abstract
The consequences of climate change on food security in arid and semi-arid regions can be serious. Understanding climate change impacts on water balance is critical to assess future crop performance and develop sustainable adaptation strategies. This paper presents a climate change impact study [...] Read more.
The consequences of climate change on food security in arid and semi-arid regions can be serious. Understanding climate change impacts on water balance is critical to assess future crop performance and develop sustainable adaptation strategies. This paper presents a climate change impact study on the water balance components of an agricultural watershed in the Mediterranean region. The restructured version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) model was used to simulate the hydrological components in the Sulcis watershed (Sardinia, Italy) for the baseline period and compared to future climate projections at the end of the 21st century. The model was forced using data from two Regional Climate Models under the representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios developed at a high resolution over the European domain. River discharge data were used to calibrate and validate the SWAT+ model for the baseline period, while the future hydrological response was evaluated for the mid-century (2006–2050) and late-century (2051–2098). The model simulations indicated a future increase in temperature, decrease in precipitation, and consequently increase in potential evapotranspiration in both RCP scenarios. Results show that these changes will significantly decrease water yield, surface runoff, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. These results highlight how hydrological components alteration by climate change can benefit from modelling high-resolution future scenarios that are useful for planning mitigation measures in agricultural semi-arid Mediterranean regions. Full article
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Article
The Seasonal Water Balance of Western-Juniper-Dominated and Big-Sagebrush-Dominated Watersheds
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040156 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
The combined impacts of woody plant encroachment and climate variability have the potential to alter the water balance in many sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the Western USA, leading to reduced water availability in these already water-scarce regions. This study compared the water-balance characteristics [...] Read more.
The combined impacts of woody plant encroachment and climate variability have the potential to alter the water balance in many sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the Western USA, leading to reduced water availability in these already water-scarce regions. This study compared the water-balance characteristics of two adjacent semiarid watersheds in central Oregon, USA: one dominated by big sagebrush and one dominated by western juniper. Precipitation, springflow, streamflow, shallow groundwater levels, and soil moisture were measured. The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Hargreaves–Samani method. Potential evapotranspiration and a water-balance approach were used to calculate seasonal actual evapotranspiration. The shallow aquifer recharge was calculated using the Water-Table-Fluctuation-Method. Evapotranspiration, followed by deep percolation, accounted for the largest portion (83% to 86% of annual precipitation) of water output for both watersheds. Springflow and streamflow rates were generally greater at the sagebrush-dominated watershed. Snow-dominated years showed greater amounts of groundwater recharge and deep percolation than years where a larger portion of precipitation fell as rain, even when total annual precipitation amounts were similar. This study’s results highlight the role of vegetation dynamics, such as juniper encroachment, and seasonal precipitation characteristics, on water availability in semiarid rangeland ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ecohydrology)
Article
Drought Monitoring over West Africa Based on an Ecohydrological Simulation (2003–2018)
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040155 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 137
Abstract
In Africa, droughts are causing significant damage to human health and the economy. In West Africa, a severe decline in food production due to agricultural droughts has been reported in recent years. In this study, we simulated ecohydrological variables using the Coupled Land [...] Read more.
In Africa, droughts are causing significant damage to human health and the economy. In West Africa, a severe decline in food production due to agricultural droughts has been reported in recent years. In this study, we simulated ecohydrological variables using the Coupled Land and Vegetation Data Assimilation System, which can effectively evaluate the hydrological water cycle and provide a dynamic evaluation of terrestrial biomass. Using ecohydrological variables (e.g., soil moisture content, leaf area index and vegetation water content) as a drought indicator, we analyzed agricultural droughts in the Sahel-inland region of West Africa during 2003–2018. Results revealed reasonable agreement between the simulated values and the pearl millet yield, and produced a successful quantification of severe droughts in the Sahel-inland region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Ecohydrology of Arid Lands)
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Article
Validation of Three Daily Satellite Rainfall Products in a Humid Tropic Watershed, Brantas, Indonesia: Implications to Land Characteristics and Hydrological Modelling
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040154 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 147
Abstract
A total of three different satellite products, CHIRPS, GPM, and PERSIANN, with different spatial resolutions, were examined for their ability to estimate rainfall data at a pixel level, using 30-year-long observations from six locations. Quantitative and qualitative accuracy indicators, as well as R [...] Read more.
A total of three different satellite products, CHIRPS, GPM, and PERSIANN, with different spatial resolutions, were examined for their ability to estimate rainfall data at a pixel level, using 30-year-long observations from six locations. Quantitative and qualitative accuracy indicators, as well as R2 and NSE from hydrological estimates, were used as the performance measures. The results show that all of the satellite estimates are unsatisfactory, giving the NRMSE ranging from 6 to 30% at a daily level, with CC only 0.21–0.36. Limited number of gauges, coarse spatial data resolution, and physical terrain complexity were found to be linked with low accuracy. Accuracy was slightly better in dry seasons or low rain rate classes. The errors increased exponentially with the increase in rain rates. CHIPRS and PERSIANN tend to slightly underestimate at lower rain rates, but do show a consistently better performance, with an NRMSE of 6–12%. CHRIPS and PERSIANN also exhibit better estimates of monthly flow data and water balance components, namely runoff, groundwater, and water yield. GPM has a better ability for rainfall event detections, especially during high rainfall events or extremes (>40 mm/day). The errors of the satellite products are generally linked to slope, wind, elevation, and evapotranspiration. Hydrologic simulations using SWAT modelling and the three satellite rainfall products show that CHIRPS slightly has the daily best performance, with R2 of 0.59 and 0.62, and NSE = 0.54, and the monthly aggregated improved at a monthly level. The water balance components generated at an annual level, using three satellite products, show that CHIRPS outperformed with a ration closer to one, though with a tendency to overestimate up to 3–4× times the data generated from the rainfall gauges. The findings of this study are beneficial in supporting efforts for improving satellite rainfall products and water resource implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Remote Sensing in Hydrology)
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Article
Evaluation of Evaporation from Water Reservoirs in Local Conditions at Czech Republic
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040153 - 12 Oct 2021
Viewed by 229
Abstract
Evaporation is an important factor in the overall hydrological balance. It is usually derived as the difference between runoff, precipitation and the change in water storage in a catchment. The magnitude of actual evaporation is determined by the quantity of available water and [...] Read more.
Evaporation is an important factor in the overall hydrological balance. It is usually derived as the difference between runoff, precipitation and the change in water storage in a catchment. The magnitude of actual evaporation is determined by the quantity of available water and heavily influenced by climatic and meteorological factors. Currently, there are statistical methods such as linear regression, random forest regression or machine learning methods to calculate evaporation. However, in order to derive these relationships, it is necessary to have observations of evaporation from evaporation stations. In the present study, the statistical methods of linear regression and random forest regression were used to calculate evaporation, with part of the models being designed manually and the other part using stepwise regression. Observed data from 24 evaporation stations and ERA5-Land climate reanalysis data were used to create the regression models. The proposed regression formulas were tested on 33 water reservoirs. The results show that manual regression is a more appropriate method for calculating evaporation than stepwise regression, with the caveat that it is more time consuming. The difference between linear and random forest regression is the variance of the data; random forest regression is better able to fit the observed data. On the other hand, the interpretation of the result for linear regression is simpler. The study introduced that the use of reanalyzed data, ERA5-Land products using the random forest regression method is suitable for the calculation of evaporation from water reservoirs in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Evaporation and Evaporative Demand)
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Article
Flood Risk Communication Using ArcGIS StoryMaps
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040152 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
In Canada, flooding is the most common and costly natural hazard. Flooding events significantly impact communities, damage infrastructures and threaten public security. Communication, as part of a flood risk management strategy, is an essential means of countering these threats. It is therefore important [...] Read more.
In Canada, flooding is the most common and costly natural hazard. Flooding events significantly impact communities, damage infrastructures and threaten public security. Communication, as part of a flood risk management strategy, is an essential means of countering these threats. It is therefore important to develop new and innovative tools to communicate the flood risk with citizens. From this perspective, the use of story maps can be very effectively implemented for a broad audience, particularly to stakeholders. This paper details how an interactive web-based story map was set up to communicate current and future flood risks in the Petite-Nation River watershed, Quebec (Canada). This web technology application combines informative texts and interactive maps on current and future flood risks in the Petite-Nation River watershed. Flood risk and climate maps were generated using the GARI tool, implemented using a geographic information system (GIS) supported by ArcGIS Online (Esri). Three climate change scenarios developed by the Hydroclimatic Atlas of Southern Quebec were used to visualize potential future impacts. This study concluded that our story map is an efficient flood hazard communication tool. The assets of this interactive web mapping tool are numerous, namely user-friendly mapping, use and interaction, and customizable displays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Early Warning and Risk Modelling)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Flow in Parshall Flume Using Selected Nonlinear Turbulence Models
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040151 - 10 Oct 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
This study uses a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to simulate flows in Parshall flumes, which are used to measure flowrates in channels. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, which show that choosing the right turbulence model, e.g., [...] Read more.
This study uses a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to simulate flows in Parshall flumes, which are used to measure flowrates in channels. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, which show that choosing the right turbulence model, e.g., v2f and LC, is the key element in accurately simulating Parshall flumes. The Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) values were very low, i.e., 0.76% and 1.00%, respectively, for the two models mentioned above. The Parshall flume used for this experiment is a good example of a hydraulic structure for which the design can be more improved by implementing a CFD approach compared with a laboratory (physical) modeling approach, which is often costly and time-consuming. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Peak Discharges under Different Rainfall Depth–Duration–Frequency Formulations
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040150 - 08 Oct 2021
Viewed by 299
Abstract
One of the main signatures of short duration storms is given by Depth–Duration–Frequency (DDF) curves. In order to provide reliable estimates for small river basins or urban catchments, generally characterized by short concentration times, in this study the performances of different DDF curves [...] Read more.
One of the main signatures of short duration storms is given by Depth–Duration–Frequency (DDF) curves. In order to provide reliable estimates for small river basins or urban catchments, generally characterized by short concentration times, in this study the performances of different DDF curves proposed in literature are described and compared, in order to provide insights on the selection of the best approach in design practice, with particular reference to short durations. With this aim, 28 monitoring stations with time series of annual maximum rainfall depth characterized by sample size greater than 20 were selected in the Northern part of the Puglia region (South-Eastern Italy). In order to test the effect of the investigated DDF curves in reproducing the design peak discharge corresponding to an observed expected rainfall event, the Soil Conservation (SCS) curve number (CN) approach is exploited, generating peak discharges according to different selected combinations of the main parameters that control the critical rainfall duration. Results confirm the good reliability of the DDF curves with three parameters to adapt on short events both in terms of rainfall depth and in terms of peak discharge and, in particular, for durations up to 30 min, the three-parameter DDF curves always perform better than the two-parameter DDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling of Rainfall Fields)
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Article
Hydrological and Hydraulic Flood Hazard Modeling in Poorly Gauged Catchments: An Analysis in Northern Italy
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040149 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Flood hazard is assessed for a watershed with scarce hydrological data in the lower plain of Northern Italy, where the current defense system is inadequate to protect a highly populated urban area located at a river confluence and crossed by numerous bridges. An [...] Read more.
Flood hazard is assessed for a watershed with scarce hydrological data in the lower plain of Northern Italy, where the current defense system is inadequate to protect a highly populated urban area located at a river confluence and crossed by numerous bridges. An integrated approach is adopted. Firstly, to overcome the scarcity of data, a regional flood frequency analysis is performed to derive synthetic design hydrographs, with an original approach to obtain the flow reduction curve from recorded water stages. The hydrographs are then imposed as upstream boundary conditions for hydraulic modeling using the fully 2D shallow water model PARFLOOD with the recently proposed inclusion of bridges. High-resolution simulations of the potential flooding in the urban center and surrounding areas are, therefore, performed as a novel extensive application of a truly 2D framework for bridge modeling. Moreover, simulated flooded areas and water levels, with and without bridges, are compared to quantify the interference of the crossing structures and to assess the effectiveness of a structural measure for flood hazard reduction, i.e., bridge adaptation. This work shows how the use of an integrated hydrological–hydraulic approach can be useful for infrastructure design and civil protection purposes in a poorly gauged watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flood Early Warning and Risk Modelling)
Article
Development of Predictive Models for Water Budget Simulations of Closed-Basin Lakes: Case Studies of Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo on the Island of Hispaniola
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040148 - 02 Oct 2021
Viewed by 389
Abstract
The historical water level fluctuations of the two neighboring Caribbean lakes of Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola have shown random periods of synchronous and asynchronous behaviors, with both lakes exhibiting independent dynamics despite being exposed to the same climatic forces and [...] Read more.
The historical water level fluctuations of the two neighboring Caribbean lakes of Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola have shown random periods of synchronous and asynchronous behaviors, with both lakes exhibiting independent dynamics despite being exposed to the same climatic forces and being directly next to each other. This paper examines their systems’ main drivers and constraints, which are used to develop numerical models for these two lakes. The water balance approach was employed to conceptually model the lakes on an interannual scale and examine the assumptions of surface and subsurface processes. These assumptions were made based on field observations and prior studies. The developed models were optimized and calibrated for 1984 to 2017 and then validated for the period 1972 to 1984 based on the lakes’ observational volume change and volume time series. The models yielded “good” performance, with NSE averaged at 0.7 and RE averaged at 13% for volume change. The performance improved to “very good” for volume simulations, with NSE averaging higher than 0.9 and RE averaging at 1%. The uncertainty analysis showed a p-factor of 0.73 and an r-factor of 1.7 on average, supporting the reliability and precision of the results. Analyzing the time series of the lakes and quantifying the main elements of the water balance, each lake’s shrinkage and expansion phases were explored, and the drivers of such behavior were identified for each lake. The main drivers of LE’s system are North Atlantic cyclone activities and uncontrolled inter-basin water transfer, and direct rainfall and evaporation to/from its surface. For LA, its system is controlled mainly by groundwater fluxes in and out of it, despite possessing small values in its water budget. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrology in the Caribbean Basin)
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Article
Effects of Hillslope Trenching on Surface Water Infiltration in Subalpine Forested Catchments
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040147 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Concerns over freshwater scarcity for agriculture, ecosystems, and human consumption are driving the construction of infiltration trenches in many mountain protected areas. This study examines the effectiveness of infiltration trenches in a subalpine forested catchment in central Mexico, where public and private organizations [...] Read more.
Concerns over freshwater scarcity for agriculture, ecosystems, and human consumption are driving the construction of infiltration trenches in many mountain protected areas. This study examines the effectiveness of infiltration trenches in a subalpine forested catchment in central Mexico, where public and private organizations have been constructing trenches for ~60 years. We rely on empirical data to develop rainfall-runoff models for two scenarios: a baseline (no trenches) and a trenched scenario. Field measurements of infiltration capacities in forested and trenched soils (n = 56) and two years of meteorological data are integrated into a semi-distributed runoff model of 28 trenched sub-catchments. Sensitivity analysis and hydrographs are used to evaluate differences in total runoff and infiltration between the two scenarios. Multiple logistic regression is used to evaluate the effects of environmental and management variables on the likelihood of runoff response and trench overtopping. The findings show that soil infiltration capacity and rainfall intensity are primary drivers of runoff and trench overtopping. However, trenches provided only a 1.2% increase in total infiltration over the two-year period. This marginal benefit is discussed in relation to the potential adverse environmental impacts of trench construction. Overall, our study finds that as a means of runoff harvesting in these forested catchments, trenches provide negligible infiltration benefits. As a result, this study cautions against further construction of infiltration trenches in forested catchments without careful ex ante assessment of rainfall-runoff relationships. The results of this study have important implications for forest water management in Mexico and elsewhere, where similar earthworks are employed to enhance runoff harvesting and surface water infiltration. Full article
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Article
An Efficient GPU Implementation of a Coupled Overland-Sewer Hydraulic Model with Pollutant Transport
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040146 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Numerical simulation of flows that consider interaction between overland and drainage networks has become a practical tool to prevent and mitigate flood situations in urban environments, especially when dealing with intense storm events, where the limited capacity of the sewer systems can be [...] Read more.
Numerical simulation of flows that consider interaction between overland and drainage networks has become a practical tool to prevent and mitigate flood situations in urban environments, especially when dealing with intense storm events, where the limited capacity of the sewer systems can be a trigger for flooding. Additionally, in order to prevent any kind of pollutant dispersion through the drainage network, it is very interesting to have a certain monitorization or control over the quality of the water that flows in both domains. In this sense, the addition of a pollutant transport component to both surface and sewer hydraulic models would benefit the global analysis of the combined water flow. On the other hand, when considering a realistic large domain with complex topography or streets structure, a fine spatial discretization is mandatory. Hence the number of grid cells is usually very large and, therefore, it is necessary to use parallelization techniques for the calculation, the use of Graphic Processing Units (GPU) being one of the most efficient due to the leveraging of thousands of processors within a single device. In this work, an efficient GPU-based 2D shallow water flow solver (RiverFlow2D-GPU) is fully coupled with EPA’s Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Both models are able to develop a transient water quality analysis taking into account several pollutants. The coupled model, referred to as RiverFlow2D-GPU UD (Urban Drainge) is applied to three real-world cases, covering the most common hydraulic situations in urban hydrology/hydraulics. A UK Environmental Agency test case is used as model validation, showing a good agreement between RiverFlow2D-GPU UD and the rest of the numerical models considered. The efficiency of the model is proven in two more complex domains, leading to a >100x faster simulations compared with the traditional CPU computation. Full article
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Article
Contributions of Human Activities and Climatic Variability to Changes in River Rwizi Flows in Uganda, East Africa
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040145 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 498
Abstract
This study employed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to analyze the impacts of climate variability and human activities on River Rwizi flows. Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) types from 1997 to 2019 were characterized using remotely sensed images retrieved [...] Read more.
This study employed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to analyze the impacts of climate variability and human activities on River Rwizi flows. Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) types from 1997 to 2019 were characterized using remotely sensed images retrieved from Landsat ETM/TM satellites. SWAT was calibrated and validated over the periods 2002–2008 and 2009–2013, respectively. Correlation between rainfall and river flow was analyzed. By keeping the optimal values of model parameters fixed while varying the LULC maps, differences in the modeled flows were taken to reflect the impacts of LULC changes on rainfall–runoff generation. Impacts due to human activities included contributions from changes in LULC types and the rates of water abstracted from the river as a percentage of the observed flow. Climate variability was considered in terms of changes in climatic variables such as rainfall and evapotranspiration, among others. Variability of rainfall was analyzed with respect to changes in large-scale ocean-atmosphere conditions. From 2000 to 2014, the portion of River Rwizi catchment area covered by cropland increased from 23.0% to 51.6%, grassland reduced from 63.3% to 37.8%, and wetland decreased from 8.1% to 4.7%. Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency values for calibration and validation were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively. Contributions of human activities to monthly river flow changes varied from 2.3% to 23.5%. Impacts of human activities on the river flow were on average found to be larger during the dry (14.7%) than wet (5.8%) season. Using rainfall, 20.9% of the total river flow variance was explained. However, climate variability contributed 73% of the river flow changes. Rainfall was positively and negatively correlated with Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Niño 3, respectively. The largest percentages of the total rainfall variance explained by IOD and Niño 3 were 12.7% and 9.8%, respectively. The magnitude of the correlation between rainfall and IOD decreased with increasing lag in time. These findings are relevant for developing River Rwizi catchment management plans. Full article
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Article
A Near Real-Time Hydrological Information System for the Upper Danube Basin
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040144 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 307
Abstract
The multi-national catchment of the Upper Danube covers an area of more than 100,000 km2 and is of great ecological and economic value. Its hydrological states (e.g., runoff conditions, snow cover states or groundwater levels) affect fresh-water supply, agriculture, hydropower, transport and [...] Read more.
The multi-national catchment of the Upper Danube covers an area of more than 100,000 km2 and is of great ecological and economic value. Its hydrological states (e.g., runoff conditions, snow cover states or groundwater levels) affect fresh-water supply, agriculture, hydropower, transport and many other sectors. The timely knowledge of the current status is therefore of importance to decision makers from administration or practice but also the interested public. Therefore, a web-based, near real-time hydrological information system was conceptualized and developed for the Upper Danube upstream of Vienna (Upper Danube HIS), utilizing ERA5 reanalysis data (ERA5) and hydrological simulations provided by the semi-distributed hydrological model COSERO. The ERA5 reanalysis data led to comparatively high simulation performance for a total of 65 subbasins with a median NSE and KGE of 0.69 and 0.81 in the parameter calibration and 0.63 and 0.75 in the validation period. The Upper Danube HIS was implemented within the R programming environment as a web application based on the Shiny framework. This enables an intuitive, interactive access to the system. It offers various capabilities for a hydrometeorological analysis of the 65 subbasins of the Upper Danube basin, inter alia, a method for the identification of hydrometeorological droughts. This proof of concept and system underlines how valuable information can be obtained from freely accessible data and by the means of open source software and is made available to the hydrological community, water managers and the public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observations in Water Resources)
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Technical Note
GFPLAIN and Multi-Source Data Assimilation Modeling: Conceptualization of a Flood Forecasting Framework Supported by Hydrogeomorphic Floodplain Rapid Mapping
Hydrology 2021, 8(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology8040143 - 22 Sep 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Hydrologic/hydraulic models for flood risk assessment, forecasting and hindcasting have been greatly supported by the rising availability of increasingly accurate and high-resolution Earth Observation (EO) data. EO-based topographic and hydrologic open geo data are, nowadays, available on large scales. Data Assimilation (DA) models [...] Read more.
Hydrologic/hydraulic models for flood risk assessment, forecasting and hindcasting have been greatly supported by the rising availability of increasingly accurate and high-resolution Earth Observation (EO) data. EO-based topographic and hydrologic open geo data are, nowadays, available on large scales. Data Assimilation (DA) models allow Early Warning Systems (EWS) to produce accurate and timely flood predictions. DA-based EWS generally use river flow real-time observations and 1D hydraulic models to identify potential inundation hot spots. Detailed high-resolution 2D hydraulic modeling is usually not used in EWS for the computational burden and the numerical complexity of injecting multiple spatially distributed sources of flow observations. In recent times, DEM-based hydrogeomorphic models demonstrated their ability in characterizing river basin hydrologic forcing and floodplain domains providing data-parsimonious opportunities for data-scarce regions. This work investigates the use of hydrogeomorphic floodplain terrain processing for optimizing the ability of DA-based EWSs in using diverse distributed flow observations. A flood forecasting framework with novel applications of hydrogeomorphic floodplain processing is conceptualized for empowering flood EWSs in preliminarily identifying the computational domain for hydraulic modeling, rapid flood detection using satellite images, and filtering geotagged crowdsourced data for flood monitoring. The proposed flood forecasting framework supports the development of an integrated geomorphic-hydrologic/hydraulic modeling chain for a DA that values multiple sources of observation. This work investigates the value of floodplain hydrogeomorphic models to tackle the major challenges of DA for EWS with specific regard to the computational efficiency issues and the lack of data in ungauged river basins towards an improved flood forecasting able to use advanced hydrodynamic modeling and to inject all available sources of observations including flood phenomena captures by citizens. Full article
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