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Nanomaterials, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 197 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Activation of NLRP3 is a complex process which is generally provoked by destabilization of cell homeostasis. Due to their shape, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (scattered in the cytoplasm of THP-1 macrophages) disrupted lysosomes. Released Cathepsin B subsequently activated NLRP3 assembly. On the other hand, pristine graphene platelets (mostly enclosed in endosomes) seemed “harmless”. However, their presence boosted stimulus from the present muramyl dipeptide, a representative of DAMPs. Such a synergic action led to strong NLRP3 activation. In this study, we have demonstrated unequivocal proinflammatory potential of carbon-based nanomaterials, which might be enhanced by various PAMPs/DAMPs. View this paper.
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Open AccessArticle
Combating Antibiotic Resistance through the Synergistic Effects of Mesoporous Silica-Based Hierarchical Nanocomposites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030597 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1003
Abstract
The enormous influence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led researchers toward the development of various advanced antibacterial modalities. In this vein, nanotechnology-based devices have garnered interest owing to their excellent morphological as well as physicochemical features, resulting in augmented therapeutic efficacy. Herein, [...] Read more.
The enormous influence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led researchers toward the development of various advanced antibacterial modalities. In this vein, nanotechnology-based devices have garnered interest owing to their excellent morphological as well as physicochemical features, resulting in augmented therapeutic efficacy. Herein, to overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacteria, we demonstrate the fabrication of a versatile design based on the copper-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Cu-MSNs). Indeed, the impregnated Cu species in the siliceous frameworks of MSNs establish pH-responsive coordination interactions with the guest molecules, tetracycline (TET), which not only enhance their loading efficiency but also assist in their release in the acidic environment precisely. Subsequently, the ultrasmall silver nanoparticles-stabilized polyethyleneimine (PEI-SNP) layer is coated over Cu-MSNs. The released silver ions from the surface-deposited SNPs are capable of sensitizing the resistant strains through establishing the interactions with the biomembranes, and facilitate the generation of toxic free radicals, damaging the bacterial components. In addition to SNPs, Cu species impregnated in MSN frameworks synergistically act through the production of free radicals by participating in the Fenton-like reaction. Various physical characterization techniques for confirming the synthesis and successful surface modification of functional nanomaterials, as well as different antibacterial tests performed against MDR bacterial strains, are highly commendable. Remarkably, this versatile formulation has shown no significant toxic effects on normal mammalian fibroblast cells accounting for its high biocompatibility. Together, these biocompatible MSN-based trio-hybrids with synergistic efficacy and pH-responsive delivery of antibiotics potentially allow for efficient combat against MDR in bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges in Tracking of Fluorochrome-Labelled Nanoparticles in Mice via Whole Body NIRF Imaging
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030596 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Fluorochrome-labelled iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been of great help in elucidating biological processes. Here, we used dually-fluorochrome-labelled MNP and studied to what extent fluorescence detection could reflect their fate in living animals. One day after application in mice (200 µmol Fe/kg [...] Read more.
Fluorochrome-labelled iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) have been of great help in elucidating biological processes. Here, we used dually-fluorochrome-labelled MNP and studied to what extent fluorescence detection could reflect their fate in living animals. One day after application in mice (200 µmol Fe/kg body weight), the fluorescence of the dye attached to the core (DY-730) was very prominent and in agreement with the increase of iron in the liver and spleen of mice, but inconspicuous at time points thereafter. We attribute this fluorescence behavior to early degradation processes of the MNP´s core in the cellular lysosomal compartment. In contrast, the fluorescence of the dye DY-555 stuck to the PEG coating was not detectable in vivo. In summary, labelling of MNP with dyes at their metallic core could be of help when detecting first incidences of MNP biodegradation in vivo, as opposed to dyes attached to the MNP coating. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Applications of Hybrid Graphene Materials for Metals Removal from Wastewater
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030595 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
The presence of traces of heavy metals in wastewater causes adverse health effects on humans and the ecosystem. Adsorption is a low cost and eco-friendly method for the removal of low concentrations of heavy metals from wastewater streams. Over the past several years, [...] Read more.
The presence of traces of heavy metals in wastewater causes adverse health effects on humans and the ecosystem. Adsorption is a low cost and eco-friendly method for the removal of low concentrations of heavy metals from wastewater streams. Over the past several years, graphene-based materials have been researched as exceptional adsorbents. In this review, the applications of graphene oxide (GO), reduce graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene-based nanocomposites (GNCs) for the removal of various metals are analyzed. Firstly, the common synthesis routes for GO, rGO, and GNCs are discussed. Secondly, the available literature on the adsorption of heavy metals including arsenic, lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, chromium and copper using graphene-based materials are reviewed and analyzed. The adsorption isotherms, kinetics, capacity, and removal efficiency for each metal on different graphene materials, as well as the effects of the synthesis method and the adsorption process conditions on the recyclability of the graphene materials, are discussed. Finally, future perspectives and trends in the field are also highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Nano MnO2 Radially Grown on Lignin-Based Carbon Fiber by One-Step Solution Reaction for Supercapacitors with High Performance
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030594 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 852
Abstract
MnO2-deposited lignin-based carbon fiber (MnO2-LCF) mats are fabricated for supercapacitor applications. LCF mats are produced from alkali lignin via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization. The carbonization process is carried out at 800, 900, and 1000 °C, and the [...] Read more.
MnO2-deposited lignin-based carbon fiber (MnO2-LCF) mats are fabricated for supercapacitor applications. LCF mats are produced from alkali lignin via electrospinning followed by stabilization and carbonization. The carbonization process is carried out at 800, 900, and 1000 °C, and the corresponding mats are denoted as MnO2-LCF-800, MnO2-LCF-900, and MnO2-LCF-1000, respectively. The LCF mats are immersed in a KMnO4 solution at room temperature for 72 h to obtain MnO2-LCF mats. The scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm the deposition of MnO2 on the LCFs. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy reveal that MnO2-LCF-800 mat possesses a large number of mesopores and Mn vacancies as compared to MnO2-LCF-900 mat and MnO2-LCF-1000 mat. Consequently, MnO2-LCF-800 mat possesses the best electrochemical properties with a specific capacitance of 131.28 F∙g−1, an energy density of 14.77 Wh∙kg−1, and a power density of 135.01 W∙kg−1 at a specific current of 0.3 A∙g−1. Hence, MnO2-LCF-800 mat shows high potential to be used as a high-performance supercapacitor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Effects of Intracellular and Extracellular Magnetic Hyperthermia on the Viability of BxPC-3 Cells
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030593 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 965
Abstract
Magnetic hyperthermia involves the use of iron oxide nanoparticles to generate heat in tumours following stimulation with alternating magnetic fields. In recent times, this treatment has undergone numerous clinical trials in various solid malignancies and subsequently achieved clinical approval to treat glioblastoma and [...] Read more.
Magnetic hyperthermia involves the use of iron oxide nanoparticles to generate heat in tumours following stimulation with alternating magnetic fields. In recent times, this treatment has undergone numerous clinical trials in various solid malignancies and subsequently achieved clinical approval to treat glioblastoma and prostate cancer in 2011 and 2018, respectively. However, despite recent clinical advances, many questions remain with regard to the underlying mechanisms involved in this therapy. One such query is whether intracellular or extracellular nanoparticles are necessary for treatment efficacy. Herein, we compare the effects of intracellular and extracellular magnetic hyperthermia in BxPC-3 cells to determine the differences in efficacy between both. Extracellular magnetic hyperthermia at temperatures between 40–42.5 °C could induce significant levels of necrosis in these cells, whereas intracellular magnetic hyperthermia resulted in no change in viability. This led to a discussion on the overall relevance of intracellular nanoparticles to the efficacy of magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Physicochemical Characterization of the Pristine E171 Food Additive by Standardized and Validated Methods
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030592 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
E171 (titanium dioxide) is a food additive that has been authorized for use as a food colorant in the European Union. The application of E171 in food has become an issue of debate, since there are indications that it may alter the intestinal [...] Read more.
E171 (titanium dioxide) is a food additive that has been authorized for use as a food colorant in the European Union. The application of E171 in food has become an issue of debate, since there are indications that it may alter the intestinal barrier. This work applied standardized and validated methodologies to characterize representative samples of 15 pristine E171 materials based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS). The evaluation of selected sample preparation protocols allowed identifying and optimizing the critical factors that determine the measurement of the particle size distribution by TEM. By combining optimized sample preparation with method validation, a significant variation in the particle size and shape distributions, the crystallographic structure (rutile versus anatase), and the physicochemical form (pearlescent pigments versus anatase and rutile E171) was demonstrated among the representative samples. These results are important for risk assessment of the E171 food additive and can contribute to the implementation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance on risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Structure of Polymers Grafted from Graphene Oxide on the Compatibility of Particles with a Silicone-Based Environment and the Stimuli-Responsive Capabilities of Their Composites
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030591 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 793
Abstract
This study reports the utilization of controlled radical polymerization as a tool for controlling the stimuli-responsive capabilities of graphene oxide (GO) based hybrid systems. Various polymer brushes with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution were grafted from the GO surface by [...] Read more.
This study reports the utilization of controlled radical polymerization as a tool for controlling the stimuli-responsive capabilities of graphene oxide (GO) based hybrid systems. Various polymer brushes with controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution were grafted from the GO surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The modification of GO with poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), poly(trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMATMS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Various grafting densities of GO-based materials were investigated, and conductivity was elucidated using a four-point probe method. Raman shift and XPS were used to confirm the reduction of surface properties of the GO particles during SI-ATRP. The contact angle measurements indicated the changes in the compatibility of GOs with silicone oil, depending on the structure of the grafted polymer chains. The compatibility of the GOs with poly(dimethylsiloxane) was also investigated using steady shear rheology. The tunability of the electrorheological, as well as the photo-actuation capability, was investigated. It was shown that in addition to the modification of conductivity, the dipole moment of the pendant groups of the grafted polymer chains also plays an important role in the electrorheological (ER) performance. The compatibility of the particles with the polymer matrix, and thus proper particles dispersibility, is the most important factor for the photo-actuation efficiency. The plasticizing effect of the GO-polymer hybrid filler also has a crucial impact on the matrix stiffness and thus the ability to reversibly respond to the external light stimulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intercellular Trafficking of Gold Nanostars in Uveal Melanoma Cells for Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030590 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Efficient plasmonic photothermal therapies (PPTTs) using non-harmful pulse laser irradiation at the near-infrared (NIR) are a highly sought goal in nanomedicine. These therapies rely on the use of plasmonic nanostructures to kill cancer cells while minimizing the applied laser power density. Cancer cells [...] Read more.
Efficient plasmonic photothermal therapies (PPTTs) using non-harmful pulse laser irradiation at the near-infrared (NIR) are a highly sought goal in nanomedicine. These therapies rely on the use of plasmonic nanostructures to kill cancer cells while minimizing the applied laser power density. Cancer cells have an unsettled capacity to uptake, retain, release, and re-uptake gold nanoparticles, thus offering enormous versatility for research. In this work, we have studied such cell capabilities for nanoparticle trafficking and its impact on the effect of photothermal treatments. As our model system, we chose uveal (eye) melanoma cells, since laser-assisted eye surgery is routinely used to treat glaucoma and cataracts, or vision correction in refractive surgery. As nanostructure, we selected gold nanostars (Au NSs) due to their high photothermal efficiency at the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We first investigated the photothermal effect on the basis of the dilution of Au NSs induced by cell division. Using this approach, we obtained high PPTT efficiency after several cell division cycles at an initial low Au NS concentration (pM regime). Subsequently, we evaluated the photothermal effect on account of cell division upon mixing Au NS-loaded and non-loaded cells. Upon such mixing, we observed trafficking of Au NSs between loaded and non-loaded cells, thus achieving effective PPTT after several division cycles under low irradiation conditions (below the maximum permissible exposure threshold of skin). Our study reveals the ability of uveal melanoma cells to release and re-uptake Au NSs that maintain their plasmonic photothermal properties throughout several cell division cycles and re-uptake. This approach may be readily extrapolated to real tissue and even to treat in situ the eye tumor itself. We believe that our method can potentially be used as co-therapy to disperse plasmonic gold nanostructures across affected tissues, thus increasing the effectiveness of classic PPTT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Cancer, Biochemical and Immunological Activity of Nanoparticles )
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Open AccessArticle
Transferless Inverted Graphene/Silicon Heterostructures Prepared by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Amorphous Silicon on CVD Graphene
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030589 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 781
Abstract
The heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials represent one of the focal points of current nanotechnology research and development. From an application perspective, the possibility of a direct integration of active 2D layers with exceptional optoelectronic and mechanical properties into the [...] Read more.
The heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) materials represent one of the focal points of current nanotechnology research and development. From an application perspective, the possibility of a direct integration of active 2D layers with exceptional optoelectronic and mechanical properties into the existing semiconductor manufacturing processes is extremely appealing. However, for this purpose, 2D materials should ideally be grown directly on 3D substrates to avoid the transferring step, which induces damage and contamination of the 2D layer. Alternatively, when such an approach is difficult—as is the case of graphene on noncatalytic substrates such as Si—inverted structures can be created, where the 3D material is deposited onto the 2D substrate. In the present work, we investigated the possibility of using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to deposit amorphous hydrogenated Si (a-Si:H) onto graphene resting on a catalytic copper foil. The resulting stacks created at different Si deposition temperatures were investigated by the combination of Raman spectroscopy (to quantify the damage and to estimate the change in resistivity of graphene), temperature-dependent dark conductivity, and constant photocurrent measurements (to monitor the changes in the electronic properties of a-Si:H). The results indicate that the optimum is 100 °C deposition temperature, where the graphene still retains most of its properties and the a-Si:H layer presents high-quality, device-ready characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarbon Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Convection of Nanoliquid in a Double-Connected Chamber
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030588 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 686
Abstract
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic [...] Read more.
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The governing equations have been written using non-primitive parameters such as stream function and vorticity. Such approach allows a decrease in computational time due to a reduction of equation numbers. One of the main challenges in such a technique is a determining the stream function magnitude at the inner body walls. A solution of this problem has been described in detail in this paper. Computational scrutinizing has been performed by employing the finite difference technique. The mesh sensitivity analysis and comparison with theoretical and experimental results of other researchers have been included. An influence of the Rayleigh number, nanoparticles concentration, internal block size, heat conductivity ratio and non-dimensional time on nanofluid motion and energy transport has been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecofriendly Synthesis and Insecticidal Application of Copper Nanoparticles against the Storage Pest Tribolium castaneum
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030587 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
In spite of great developments in the agricultural field and plant productivity in the last decades, the concern about the control of agricultural pests is still continuous. However, pest management is expected to have more effects from nanomaterials by providing innovative solutions. The [...] Read more.
In spite of great developments in the agricultural field and plant productivity in the last decades, the concern about the control of agricultural pests is still continuous. However, pest management is expected to have more effects from nanomaterials by providing innovative solutions. The current study confirms the biotransformation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a cell-free culture extract of metal copper-resistant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens MAL2, which was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soils collected from Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. The local screened bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens MAL2, is similar to Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 12442T DSM. After optimization of growth conditions, F-Base medium was found to be the best medium and pH 7, temperature 35 °C, concentration of CuSO4·5H2O 300 ppm, 10 mL supernatant: 40 mL CuSO4·5H2O (300 ppm), and reaction time 90 min were recorded as the best growth conditions to the fabrication of CuNPs. The formed CuNPs were characterized using initially visual observation of the change in the color of the reaction mixture from blue color to the dark green as an indication of CuNPs biotransformation. Then, UV–Vis spectroscopy showed a maximum absorption at 610 nm under the optimum conditions performed. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of spherical aspect with size ranges from 10:70 nm; moreover, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicated the presence of CuNPs and other elements. In addition, the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkenes, and amines is confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) supported that the Zeta-average size of nanoparticle was 48.07 with 0.227 PdI value. The Zeta potential showed −26.00mV with a single peak. The biosynthesized CuNPs (Bio CuNPs) showed toxicity against the stored grain pest (Tribolium castaneum), where LC50 value was 37 ppm after 5 days of treatment. However, the negligible effect was observed with chemical synthesis of CuNPs (Ch CuNPs) at the same concentration. The results suggest that Bio CuNPs could be used not only as a biocontrol agent, but also as an ecofriendly and inexpensive approach for controlling the stored grain pests. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of CuFe2O4 Nanoparticles Modified with Polythiophene: Applications to Mercuric Ions Removal
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030586 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
In this research, CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation methods and modified by coating with thiophene for removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solution. CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, with and without thiophene, were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Field [...] Read more.
In this research, CuFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation methods and modified by coating with thiophene for removal of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solution. CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, with and without thiophene, were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). Contact time, adsorbent dose, solution pH, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm and recyclability were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity towards Hg2+ ions was 7.53 and 208.77 mg/g for CuFe2O4 and CuFe2O4@Polythiophene composite, respectively. Modification of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles with thiophene revealed an enhanced adsorption towards Hg2+ removal more than CuFe2O4 nanoparticles. The promising adsorption performance of Hg2+ ions by CuFe2O4@Polythiophene composite generates from soft acid–soft base strong interaction between sulfur group of thiophene and Hg(II) ions. Furthermore, CuFe2O4@Polythiophene composite has both high stability and reusability due to its removal efficiency, has no significant decrease after five adsorption–desorption cycles and can be easily removed from aqueous solution by external magnetic field after adsorption experiments took place. Therefore, CuFe2O4@Polythiophene composite is applicable for removal Hg(II) ions from aqueous solution and may be suitable for removal other heavy metals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Low Voltage Graphene-Based Amplitude Modulator for High Efficiency Terahertz Modulation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030585 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 766
Abstract
In this paper, a high-efficiency terahertz amplitude modulation device based on a field-effect transistor has been proposed. The polarization insensitive modulator is designed to achieve a maximum experimental modulation depth of about 53% within 5 V of gate voltages using monolayer graphene. Moreover, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a high-efficiency terahertz amplitude modulation device based on a field-effect transistor has been proposed. The polarization insensitive modulator is designed to achieve a maximum experimental modulation depth of about 53% within 5 V of gate voltages using monolayer graphene. Moreover, the manufacturing processes are inexpensive. Two methods are adopted to improve modulation performance. For one thing, the metal metamaterial designed can effectively enhance the electromagnetic field near single-layer graphene and therefore greatly promote the graphene’s modulation ability in terahertz. For another, polyethylene oxide-based electrolytes (PEO:LiClO4) acts as a high-capacity donor, which makes it possible to dope single-layer graphene at a relatively low voltage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization, Synthesis and Applications of 2D Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Supercapacitor Performance of Nickel-Cobalt Sulfide Nanotubes Decorated Using Ni Co-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets Grown in Situ on Ni Foam
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030584 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
In this study, to fabricate a non-binder electrode, we grew nickel–cobalt sulfide (NCS) nanotubes (NTs) on a Ni foam substrate using a hydrothermal method through a two-step approach, namely in situ growth and an anion-exchange reaction. This was followed by the electrodeposition of [...] Read more.
In this study, to fabricate a non-binder electrode, we grew nickel–cobalt sulfide (NCS) nanotubes (NTs) on a Ni foam substrate using a hydrothermal method through a two-step approach, namely in situ growth and an anion-exchange reaction. This was followed by the electrodeposition of double-layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide (NCOH) over a nanotube-coated substrate to fabricate NCOH core-shell nanotubes. The final product is called [email protected] herein. Structural and morphological analyses of the synthesized electrode materials were conducted via SEM and XRD. Different electrodeposition times were selected, including 10, 20, 40, and 80 s. The results indicate that the NCSNTs electrodeposited with NCOH nanosheets for 40 s have the highest specific capacitance (SC), cycling stability (2105 Fg−1 at a current density of 2 Ag−1), and capacitance retention (65.1% after 3,000 cycles), in comparison with those electrodeposited for 10, 20, and 80 s. Furthermore, for practical applications, a device with negative and positive electrodes made of active carbon and [email protected] was fabricated, achieving a high-energy density of 23.73 Whkg−1 at a power density of 400 Wkg−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Energy Storage)
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Open AccessArticle
NH3 Plasma-Treated Magnesium Doped Zinc Oxide in Biomedical Sensors with Electrolyte–Insulator–Semiconductor (EIS) Structure for Urea and Glucose Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030583 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
This study compared the sensing characteristics of ZnO (ZO) treated with ammonia (NH3) plasma for 1 min, 3 min, and 6 min, under the EIS structure. The measurement results revealed that, after 3 min of NH3 plasma treatment, the Mg-doped [...] Read more.
This study compared the sensing characteristics of ZnO (ZO) treated with ammonia (NH3) plasma for 1 min, 3 min, and 6 min, under the EIS structure. The measurement results revealed that, after 3 min of NH3 plasma treatment, the Mg-doped ZnO (MZO) sensing film had a high hydrogen ion sensitivity, linearity, hysteresis, and drift rate of 53.82 mV/pH, 99.04%, 2.52 mV, and 1.75 mV/h, respectively. The sensing film was used with sodium and potassium ion solutions, and it performed satisfactorily in sensing hydrogen ions. Additionally, we investigated the biomedical sensing properties of Mg-doped ZnO (MZO) sensing film with regard to urea, creatinine, and glucose solutions and found that the Mg-doped ZnO (MZO) sensing film treated with NH3 plasma for 3 min had the best properties for sensing urea, creatinine, and glucose. Specifically, with glucose, the sensing film achieved the best linearity and sensitivity and of 97.87% and 10.73 mV/mM, respectively. The results revealed that the sensing characteristics varied with the processing environment and are useful in the developing biomedical sensing applications with different sensing elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Polymeric Films Loaded with Gold Nanorods for Local Hyperthermia Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030582 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Current strategies for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) lesions include topical imoquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and photodynamic therapy. Although these treatments are effective, burning pain, blistering, and dermatitis have been reported as frequent side effects, making these therapies far from ideal. Plasmonic [...] Read more.
Current strategies for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) lesions include topical imoquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and photodynamic therapy. Although these treatments are effective, burning pain, blistering, and dermatitis have been reported as frequent side effects, making these therapies far from ideal. Plasmonic materials have been investigated for the induction of hyperthermia and use in cancer treatment. In this sense, the effectiveness of intratumorally and systemically injected gold nanorods (GnRs) in inducing cancer cell death upon near-infrared light irradiation has been confirmed. However, the in vivo long-term toxicity of these particles has not yet been fully documented. In the present manuscript, GnRs were included in a crosslinked polymeric film, evaluating their mechanical, swelling, and adhesion properties; moreover, their ability to heat up neonatal porcine skin (such as a skin model) upon irradiation was tested. Inclusion of GnRs into the films did not affect mechanical or swelling properties. GnRs were not released after film swelling, as they remained entrapped in the polymeric network; moreover, films did not adhere to porcine skin, altogether showing the enhanced biocompatibility of the material. GnR-loaded films were able to heat up the skin model over 40 °C, confirming the potential of this system for non-invasive local hyperthermia applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High Density Display of an Anti-Angiogenic Peptide on Micelle Surfaces Enhances Their Inhibition of αvβ3 Integrin-Mediated Neovascularization In Vitro
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030581 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), Retinopathy of Pre-maturity (ROP), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are multifactorial manifestations associated with abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina. These three diseases account for 5% of the total blindness and vision impairment in the US alone. The [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), Retinopathy of Pre-maturity (ROP), and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are multifactorial manifestations associated with abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina. These three diseases account for 5% of the total blindness and vision impairment in the US alone. The current treatment options involve heavily invasive techniques such as frequent intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibodies, which pose serious risks of endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and a multitude of adverse effects stemming from the diverse physiological processes that involve VEGF. To overcome these limitations, this current study utilizes a micellar delivery vehicle (MC) decorated with an anti-angiogenic peptide (aANGP) that inhibits αvβ3 mediated neovascularization using primary endothelial cells (HUVEC). Stable incorporation of the peptide into the micelles (aANGP-MCs) for high valency surface display was achieved with a lipidated peptide construct. After 24 h of treatment, aANGP-MCs showed significantly higher inhibition of proliferation and migration compared to free from aANGP peptide. A tube formation assay clearly demonstrated a dose-dependent angiogenic inhibitory effect of aANGP-MCs with a maximum inhibition at 4 μg/mL, a 1000-fold lower concentration than that required for free from aANGP to display a biological effect. These results demonstrate valency-dependent enhancement in the therapeutic efficacy of a bioactive peptide following conjugation to nanoparticle surfaces and present a possible treatment alternative to anti-VEGF antibody therapy with decreased side effects and more versatile options for controlled delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopharmaceutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ Ions Doping on the Structure, Morphology, and Magnetic Properties of Co-Ferrite Embedded in SiO2 Matrix Obtained by an Innovative Sol-Gel Route
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030580 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 782
Abstract
This paper presents the synthesis of metal doped Co ferrites, M0.2Co0.8Fe2O4 (M = Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+) embedded in SiO2 matrix by an innovative sol-gel route. The structural [...] Read more.
This paper presents the synthesis of metal doped Co ferrites, M0.2Co0.8Fe2O4 (M = Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+) embedded in SiO2 matrix by an innovative sol-gel route. The structural and morphological characterization provided information about the crystalline phases, crystallite size, and the shape of the prepared ferrites. The thermal study depicted the thermal decomposition and stability of the obtained ferrites. X-ray diffraction indicated nanocrystalline ferrites with spinel structure and the lack of crystalline phase impurities, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of functional groups in precursors and ferrite powders. The lattice parameters showed a gradual increase indicating a uniform distribution of divalent metal ions in the Co ferrite lattice. The crystallite size, magnetic moment, super-exchange and deflection of magnetic domain were influenced by the dopant metal ion. The room temperature magnetization indicated a ferromagnetic behavior of the ferrites annealed at 1000 °C and a superparamagnetic behavior of the ferrites annealed at 700 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
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Open AccessEditorial
Emerging 2D Materials and Their Van Der Waals Heterostructures
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030579 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their van der Waals heterojunctions offer the opportunity to combine layers with different properties as the building blocks to engineer new functional materials for high-performance devices, sensors, and water-splitting photocatalysts. A tremendous amount of work has been done thus [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their van der Waals heterojunctions offer the opportunity to combine layers with different properties as the building blocks to engineer new functional materials for high-performance devices, sensors, and water-splitting photocatalysts. A tremendous amount of work has been done thus far to isolate or synthesize new 2D materials as well as to form new heterostructures and investigate their chemical and physical properties. This article collection covers state-of-the-art experimental, numerical, and theoretical research on 2D materials and on their van der Waals heterojunctions for applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and energy generation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Removal and Recovery of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) from Water Using Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Oxide Immobilized Membranes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030578 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used gasoline additive that has high water solubility, and is difficult to separate from contaminated ground and surface waters. We present the development in functionalized carbon nanotube-immobilized membranes (CNIM-f) and graphene oxide-immobilized membranes (GOIM) for enhanced [...] Read more.
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used gasoline additive that has high water solubility, and is difficult to separate from contaminated ground and surface waters. We present the development in functionalized carbon nanotube-immobilized membranes (CNIM-f) and graphene oxide-immobilized membranes (GOIM) for enhanced separation of MTBE via sweep gas membrane distillation (SGMD). Both types of modified membranes demonstrated high performance in MTBE removal from its aqueous mixture. Among the membranes studied, CNIM-f provided the best performance in terms of flux, removal efficiency, mass transfer coefficients and overall selectivity. The immobilization f-CNTs and GO altered the surface characteristics of the membrane and enhanced partition coefficients, and thus assisted MTBE transport across the membrane. The MTBE flux reached as high as 1.4 kg/m2 h with f-CNTs, which was 22% higher than that of the unmodified PTFE membrane. The maximum MTBE removal using CNIM-f reached 56% at 0.5 wt % of the MTBE in water, and at a temperature of 30 °C. With selectivity as high as 60, MTBE recovery from contaminated water is very viable using these nanocarbon-immobilized membranes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation and Development of Graphene Oxide-Based Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Combination Design of Time-Dependent Magnetic Field and Magnetic Nanocomposites to Guide Cell Behavior
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030577 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The concept of magnetic guidance is still challenging and has opened a wide range of perspectives in the field of tissue engineering. In this context, magnetic nanocomposites consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were [...] Read more.
The concept of magnetic guidance is still challenging and has opened a wide range of perspectives in the field of tissue engineering. In this context, magnetic nanocomposites consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were designed and manufactured for bone tissue engineering. The mechanical properties of PCL/Fe3O4 (80/20 w/w) nanocomposites were first assessed through small punch tests. The inclusion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles improved the punching properties as the values of peak load were higher than those obtained for the neat PCL without significantly affecting the work to failure. The effect of a time-dependent magnetic field on the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was analyzed. The Alamar Blue assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image analysis (i.e., shape factor) provided information on cell adhesion and viability over time, whereas the normalized alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP/DNA) demonstrated that the combination of a time-dependent field with magnetic nanocomposites (PCL/Fe3O4 Mag) influenced cell differentiation. Furthermore, in terms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation, an insight into the role of the magnetic stimulation was reported, also demonstrating a strong effect due the combination of the magnetic field with PCL/Fe3O4 nanocomposites (PCL/Fe3O4 Mag). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Phase Control Based on Graphene Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Mid-infrared
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030576 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
Phase modulation of light is the core of many optoelectronic applications, such as electro-optic switch, sensors and modulators. Graphene Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) exhibit unique properties in phase modulation including dynamic tunability, a small driving voltage and small device size. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Phase modulation of light is the core of many optoelectronic applications, such as electro-optic switch, sensors and modulators. Graphene Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) exhibit unique properties in phase modulation including dynamic tunability, a small driving voltage and small device size. In this paper, the novel phase modulation capability of graphene SPPs in mid-infrared are confirmed through theory and simulation. The results show that graphene SPPs can realize continuous tuning of the phase shift at multiple wavelengths in mid-infrared, covering the phase range from 0° to 360°. Based on these results, a sandwich waveguide structure of dielectric–graphene–dielectric with a device length of 800 nm is proposed, which shows up to 381° phase modulation range at an operating wavelength of 6.55 µm, given a 1 V driving voltage. In addition, the structure size is much shorter than the wavelength in mid-infrared and can realize sub-wavelength operation. This work paves the way to develop graphene-based tunable devices for mid-infrared wave-front control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2D Materials and Their Heterostructures and Superlattices)
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Open AccessCommunication
Phosphorylation-Dependent SERS Readout for Activity Assay of Protein Kinase A in Cell Extracts
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030575 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
Protein kinases are key regulators of cell function, the abnormal activity of which may induce several human diseases, including cancers. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop a sensitive and reliable method for assaying protein kinase activities in real biological samples. Here, [...] Read more.
Protein kinases are key regulators of cell function, the abnormal activity of which may induce several human diseases, including cancers. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop a sensitive and reliable method for assaying protein kinase activities in real biological samples. Here, we report the phosphorylation-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) readout of spermine-functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for protein kinase A (PKA) activity assay in cell extracts. In this assay, the presence of PKA would phosphorylate and alter the net charge states of Raman dye-labeled substrate peptides, and the resulting anionic products could absorb onto the AgNPs with cationic surface charge through electrostatic attraction. Meanwhile, the Raman signals of dyes labeled on peptides were strongly enhanced by the aggregated AgNPs with interparticle hot spots formed in assay buffer. The SERS readout was directly proportional to the PKA activity in a wide range of 0.0001–0.5 U·μL−1 with a detection limit as low as 0.00003 U·μL−1. Moreover, the proposed SERS-based assay for the PKA activity was successfully applied to monitoring the activity and inhibition of PKA in real biological samples, particularly in cell extracts, which would be beneficial for kinase-related disease diagnostics and inhibitor screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy)
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Open AccessArticle
Controlled Sputtering Pressure on High-Quality Sb2Se3 Thin Film for Substrate Configurated Solar Cells
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030574 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Magnetron sputtering has become an effective method in Sb2Se3 thin film photovoltaic. Research found that post-selenization treatments are essential to produce stoichiometric thin films with desired crystallinity and orientation for the sputtered Sb2Se3. However, the influence [...] Read more.
Magnetron sputtering has become an effective method in Sb2Se3 thin film photovoltaic. Research found that post-selenization treatments are essential to produce stoichiometric thin films with desired crystallinity and orientation for the sputtered Sb2Se3. However, the influence of the sputtering process on Sb2Se3 device performance has rarely been explored. In this work, the working pressure effect was thoroughly studied for the sputtered Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells. High-quality Sb2Se3 thin film was obtained when a bilayer structure was applied by sputtering the film at a high (1.5 Pa) and a low working pressure (1.0 Pa) subsequently. Such bilayer structure was found to be beneficial for both crystallization and preferred orientation of the Sb2Se3 thin film. Lastly, an interesting power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.5% was obtained for the champion device. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Immunomodulatory Potential of Differently-Terminated Ultra-Small Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030573 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Ultra-small nanoparticles with sizes comparable to those of pores in the cellular membrane possess significant potential for application in the field of biomedicine. Silicon carbide ultra-small nanoparticles with varying surface termination were tested for the biological system represented by different human cells (using [...] Read more.
Ultra-small nanoparticles with sizes comparable to those of pores in the cellular membrane possess significant potential for application in the field of biomedicine. Silicon carbide ultra-small nanoparticles with varying surface termination were tested for the biological system represented by different human cells (using a human osteoblastic cell line as the reference system and a monocyte/macrophage cell line as immune cells). The three tested nanoparticle surface terminations resulted in the observation of different effects on cell metabolic activity. These effects were mostly noticeable in cases of monocytic cells, where each type of particle caused a completely different response (‘as-prepared’ particles, i.e., were highly cytotoxic, –OH terminated particles slightly increased the metabolic activity, while –NH2 terminated particles caused an almost doubled metabolic activity) after 24 h of incubation. Subsequently, the release of cytokines from such treated monocytes and their differentiation into activated cells was determined. The results revealed the potential modulation of immune cell behavior following stimulation with particular ultra-small nanoparticles, thus opening up new fields for novel silicon carbide nanoparticle biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Medicines)
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Open AccessArticle
Imprinted Polymeric Beads-Based Screen-Printed Potentiometric Platforms Modified with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) for Selective Recognition of Fluoxetine
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030572 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Herein, we present a new validated potentiometric method for fluoxetine (FLX) drug monitoring. The method is based on the integration of molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) beads as sensory elements with modified screen-printed solid contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was [...] Read more.
Herein, we present a new validated potentiometric method for fluoxetine (FLX) drug monitoring. The method is based on the integration of molecular imprinting polymer (MIP) beads as sensory elements with modified screen-printed solid contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was used as a nanomaterial for the ion-to-electron transduction process. The prepared MIP beads depend on the use of acrylamide (AAm) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylic acid (EGDMA) as a functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The sensor revealed a stable response with a Nernstian slope of 58.9 ± 0.2 mV/decade and a detection limit of 2.1 × 10−6 mol/L in 10 mmol/L acetate buffer of pH 4.5. The presented miniaturized sensors revealed good selectivity towards FLX over many organic and inorganic cations, as well as some additives encountered in the pharmaceutical preparations. Repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the analytical features of the presented sensors. These sensors were successfully applied for FLX assessment in different pharmaceutical formulations collected from the Egyptian local market. The obtained results agreed well with the acceptable recovery percentage and were better than those obtained by other previously reported routine methods. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Chemical Sensing and Chemoresponsive Pumping with Conical-Pore Polymeric Membranes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030571 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Synthetic membranes containing asymmetrically shaped pores have been shown to rectify the ionic current flowing through the membrane. Ion-current rectification means that such membranes produce nonlinear current–voltage curves analogous to those observed with solid-state diode rectifiers. In order to observe this ion-current rectification [...] Read more.
Synthetic membranes containing asymmetrically shaped pores have been shown to rectify the ionic current flowing through the membrane. Ion-current rectification means that such membranes produce nonlinear current–voltage curves analogous to those observed with solid-state diode rectifiers. In order to observe this ion-current rectification phenomenon, the asymmetrically shaped pores must have pore-wall surface charge. Pore-wall surface charge also allows for electroosmotic flow (EOF) to occur through the membrane. We have shown that, because ion-current is rectified, EOF is likewise rectified in such membranes. This means that flow through the membrane depends on the polarity of the voltage applied across the membrane, one polarity producing a higher, and the opposite producing a lower, flow rate. As is reviewed here, these ion-current and EOF rectification phenomena are being used to develop new sensing technologies. Results obtained from an ion-current-based sensor for hydrophobic cations are reviewed. In addition, ion-current and EOF rectification can be combined to make a new type of device—a chemoresponsive nanofluidic pump. This is a pump that either turns flow on or turns flow off, when a specific chemical species is detected. Results from a prototype Pb2+ chemoresponsive pump are also reviewed here. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biocompatible Ag/Fe-Enhanced TiO2 Nanoparticles as an Effective Compound in Sunscreens
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030570 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
In this work, valuable biocompatible Ag/Fe-enhanced TiO2 nanoparticles are comparatively prepared by a conventional wet chemistry method (sol-gel) and a rapid, efficient, hybrid unconventional method (microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis). In order to establish their application as effective compounds in sunscreens, the obtained powders [...] Read more.
In this work, valuable biocompatible Ag/Fe-enhanced TiO2 nanoparticles are comparatively prepared by a conventional wet chemistry method (sol-gel) and a rapid, efficient, hybrid unconventional method (microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis). In order to establish their application as effective compounds in sunscreens, the obtained powders were first structurally and morphologically characterized, analyses from which their nanodimensional character, crystalline structure and thermal behavior were highlighted. The evaluation of sunscreen effectiveness is based on the determination of the sun protection factor (SPF). It was observed that silver enhancing increases the SPF significantly, especially when compared to the pristine samples. The obtained Ag/Fe-enhanced TiO2 powders were also evaluated from the point of view of their biocompatibility on amniotic fluid stem cells, and the results indicated an enhance of cell proliferation when exposed to the synthesized nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure, Synthesis and Applications of TiO2-Based Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative and Selective Surface Plasmon Resonance Response Based on a Reduced Graphene Oxide–Polyamidoamine Nanocomposite for Detection of Dengue Virus E-Proteins
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030569 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Dengue viral infection is one of the most common deadliest diseases and has become a recurrent issue for public health in tropical countries. Although the spectrum of clinical diagnosis and treatment have recently been established, the efficient and rapid detection of dengue virus [...] Read more.
Dengue viral infection is one of the most common deadliest diseases and has become a recurrent issue for public health in tropical countries. Although the spectrum of clinical diagnosis and treatment have recently been established, the efficient and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) during viremia and the early febrile phase is still a great challenge. In this study, a dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate, DSU)/amine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide-–polyamidoamine dendrimer (DSU/amine-functionalized rGO–PAMAM) thin film-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was developed for the detection of DENV 2 E-proteins. Different concentrations of DENV 2 E-proteins were successfully tested by the developed SPR sensor-based system. The performance of the developed sensor showed increased shift in the SPR angle, narrow full-width–half-maximum of the SPR curve, high detection accuracy, excellent figure of merit and signal-to-noise ratio, good sensitivity values in the range of 0.08–0.5 pM (S = 0.2576°/pM, R2 = 0.92), and a high equilibrium association constant (KA) of 7.6452 TM−1. The developed sensor also showed a sensitive and selective response towards DENV 2 E-proteins compared to DENV 1 E-proteins and ZIKV (Zika virus) E-proteins. Overall, it was concluded that the Au/DSU/amine-functionalized rGO–PAMAM thin film-based SPR sensor has potential to serve as a rapid clinical diagnostic tool for DENV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Based on Nanostructure Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vivo Biodistribution of Respirable Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Surface-Decorated with a Mannose-Based Surfactant: A Promising Tool for Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment?
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030568 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
The active targeting to alveolar macrophages (AM) is an attractive strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ‘old’ drugs currently used in clinical practice for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Previous studies highlighted the ability of respirable solid lipid nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas), loaded [...] Read more.
The active targeting to alveolar macrophages (AM) is an attractive strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of ‘old’ drugs currently used in clinical practice for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Previous studies highlighted the ability of respirable solid lipid nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas), loaded with rifampicin (RIF) and functionalized with a novel synthesized mannose-based surfactant (MS), both alone and in a blend with sodium taurocholate, to efficiently target the AM via mannose receptor-mediated mechanism. Here, we present the in vivo biodistribution of these mannosylated SLNas, in comparison with the behavior of both non-functionalized SLNas and bare RIF. SLNas biodistribution was assessed, after intratracheal instillation in mice, by whole-body real-time fluorescence imaging in living animals and RIF quantification in excised organs and plasma. Additionally, SLNas cell uptake was determined by using fluorescence microscopy on AM from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and alveolar epithelium from lung dissections. Finally, histopathological evaluation was performed on lungs 24 h after administration. SLNas functionalized with MS alone generated the highest retention in lungs associated with a poor spreading in extra-pulmonary regions. This effect could be probably due to a greater AM phagocytosis with respect to SLNas devoid of mannose on their surface. The results obtained pointed out the unique ability of the nanoparticle surface decoration to provide a potential more efficient treatment restricted to the lungs where the primary tuberculosis infection is located. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopharmaceutics)
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