Special Issue "Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Magdalena Oćwieja
Website
Guest Editor
Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, PL-30239 Krakow, Poland
Interests: synthesis and utility of metal nanoparticles; tuning of nanoparticle surface properties; application of metal nanoparticles in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy; toxicity of nanoparticles; oxidative dissolution of silver nanoparticles; formation and stability of layered nanomaterials; self-assembly of nanoparticles at solid/liquid interfaces

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Among numerous types of nanoparticles, which are widely applied in diverse fields of science and industry, gold nanoparticles attract a special attentions because of unique electrical, optical, catalytic and biological properties. Gold nanoparticles, due to their low toxicity and potential biocompability, are especially desirable in medicine for transporting and unloading of drugs and pharmaceuticals. On the other hand, gold nanoclusters exhibiting high fluorescence are particularly useful in biological imaging and cancer diagnostics. Assemblies of gold nanoparticles formed on solid surfaces are constructed for development of new types or electrochemical, plasmonic and piezoelectric sensors.

There is no doubt that studies on gold nanoparticles are multidisciplinary and involves many complex phenomena and processes.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims to publish original high-quality research papers covering the most recent advances as well as comprehensive reviews addressing state-of-the-art topics in the field of gold nanoparticle preparation, functionalization and application.

Topics to be covered by this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Design and synthesis of gold nanoparticles of controlled morphology, surface charge and structure of stabilizing layer
  • Biofunctionalization of gold nanoparticles for biological and medical applications
  • New methods of determination of electrokinetic properties and chemical structure of stabilizing layers of functionalized gold nanoparticles
  • New experimental methods and approaches for determination of reactions and processes occurring on gold nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous and organic media during catalytic reactions
  • Experimental and theoretical analysis of ligand exchange reactions occurring on gold nanoparticle surfaces
  • Influence of stabilizing agent chemical structure on physicochemical properties and biological activity of gold nanoparticles
  • Influence of surface properties of gold nanoparticles on their uptake and accumulation in normal and tumor cells
  • Functionalized gold nanoparticles as building blocks for layered materials
  • Utility of functionalized gold nanoparticles in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and electrochemical processes
  • Development of multifunctional sensors and drug delivery systems based on gold nanoclusters and nanoparticles
  • New innovative areas of gold nanoparticle applications
  • Critical assessments and future directions in research based on the use of gold nanoparticles

In advance, I would like to gratefully acknowledge the authors and reviewers who will participate to the elaboration of this Special Issue and that will contribute to the development of research based on the use of gold nanoparticles.

Dr. Magdalena Oćwieja
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Fluorescence Enhancement of Plasmonic Nanorod Coupled Dye Molecules
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061048 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Abstract
Plasmonically enhanced fluorescence is a widely studied and applied phenomenon, however, only a comparative theoretical and experimental analysis of coupled fluorophores and plasmonic nanoresonators makes it possible to uncover how this phenomenon can be controlled. A numerical optimization method was applied to design [...] Read more.
Plasmonically enhanced fluorescence is a widely studied and applied phenomenon, however, only a comparative theoretical and experimental analysis of coupled fluorophores and plasmonic nanoresonators makes it possible to uncover how this phenomenon can be controlled. A numerical optimization method was applied to design configurations that are capable of resulting in an enhancement of excitation and emission, moreover, of both phenomena simultaneously in coupled Cy5 dye molecule and gold nanorod systems. Parametric sensitivity studies revealed how the fluorescence enhancement depends on the molecule’s location, distance and orientation. Coupled systems designed for simultaneous improvement exhibited the highest (intermediate directional) total fluorescence enhancement, which is accompanied by intermediate sensitivity to the molecule’s parameters, except the location and orientation sensitivity at the excitation wavelength. Gold nanorods with a geometry corresponding to the predicted optimal configurations were synthesized, and DNA strands were used to control the Cy5 dye molecule distance from the nanorod surface via hybridization of the Cy5-labelled oligonucleotide. State-of-the-art dSTORM microscopy was used to accomplish a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of the theoretically predicted (directional) total fluorescence enhancement. The measured fluorescence enhancement was in good agreement with theoretical predictions, thus providing a complete kit to design and prepare coupled nanosystems exhibiting plasmonically enhanced fluorescence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biocide Activity of Green Quercetin-Mediated Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050909 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
The development of new nanomaterials is gaining increasing attention due to their extensive applications in fields ranging from medicine to food and cultural heritage. Green nanoparticles provide advantages compared to conventional nanoparticles as their synthesis is environmentally-friendly and does not require the use [...] Read more.
The development of new nanomaterials is gaining increasing attention due to their extensive applications in fields ranging from medicine to food and cultural heritage. Green nanoparticles provide advantages compared to conventional nanoparticles as their synthesis is environmentally-friendly and does not require the use of high temperatures, pressure, or toxic chemicals. In this paper, green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized according to a new method using quercetin as a reducing agent at room temperature. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques and successively tested for biocide activity by studying their effects in the inhibition of bacterial growth. The results demonstrated that the smaller the AgNPs size, the greater their biocide activity. In particular, AgNPs with a diameter of 8 nm showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 1.0 μg/mL against Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli and Candida sp. microorganisms, while AgNPs with a larger diameter of about 20 nm were able to inhibit microbial of all selected pathogens at a higher MIC value of 2.5 μg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Polymeric Films Loaded with Gold Nanorods for Local Hyperthermia Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030582 - 23 Mar 2020
Abstract
Current strategies for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) lesions include topical imoquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and photodynamic therapy. Although these treatments are effective, burning pain, blistering, and dermatitis have been reported as frequent side effects, making these therapies far from ideal. Plasmonic [...] Read more.
Current strategies for the treatment of superficial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) lesions include topical imoquimod, 5-fluorouracil, and photodynamic therapy. Although these treatments are effective, burning pain, blistering, and dermatitis have been reported as frequent side effects, making these therapies far from ideal. Plasmonic materials have been investigated for the induction of hyperthermia and use in cancer treatment. In this sense, the effectiveness of intratumorally and systemically injected gold nanorods (GnRs) in inducing cancer cell death upon near-infrared light irradiation has been confirmed. However, the in vivo long-term toxicity of these particles has not yet been fully documented. In the present manuscript, GnRs were included in a crosslinked polymeric film, evaluating their mechanical, swelling, and adhesion properties; moreover, their ability to heat up neonatal porcine skin (such as a skin model) upon irradiation was tested. Inclusion of GnRs into the films did not affect mechanical or swelling properties. GnRs were not released after film swelling, as they remained entrapped in the polymeric network; moreover, films did not adhere to porcine skin, altogether showing the enhanced biocompatibility of the material. GnR-loaded films were able to heat up the skin model over 40 °C, confirming the potential of this system for non-invasive local hyperthermia applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
[email protected] Nanoparticles Functionalized with Oligonucleotides: A Prominent Tool for the Detection of the Methylated Reprimo Gene in Gastric Cancer by Dynamic Light Scattering
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091333 - 18 Sep 2019
Abstract
Reprimo (RPRM) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the development of gastric cancer. Hypermethylation of the RPRM promoter region has been found in tumor tissue and plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer. These findings suggest that circulating methylated DNA [...] Read more.
Reprimo (RPRM) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in the development of gastric cancer. Hypermethylation of the RPRM promoter region has been found in tumor tissue and plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer. These findings suggest that circulating methylated DNA of RPRM could be a candidate for a noninvasive detection of gastric cancer. We designed a nanosystem based on the functionalization of silica coated gold nanoparticles with oligonucleotides that recognize a specific DNA fragment of the RPRM promoter region. The functionality of the oligonucleotide on the surface of the nanoparticle was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The nanoparticles were incubated with a synthetic DNA fragment of methylated DNA of RPRM and changes in the size distribution after hybridization were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A difference in the size distribution of nanoparticles hybridized with genomic DNA from the KATO III gastric cancer cell line was observed when was compared with DNA from the GES-1 normal cell line. These results showed that this nanosystem may be a useful tool for the specific and sensitive detection of methylated DNA of RPRM in patients at risk of developing gastric cancer. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Green Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Bio-Inspired Stimuli-Responsive Vesicles in Cancer Therapy Application
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061083 (registering DOI) - 31 May 2020
Abstract
: In the past years, there is a growing interest in the application of nanoscaled materials in cancer therapy because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, the dark side of their usability is limited by their possible toxic behaviour and accumulation in living [...] Read more.
: In the past years, there is a growing interest in the application of nanoscaled materials in cancer therapy because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, the dark side of their usability is limited by their possible toxic behaviour and accumulation in living organisms. Starting from this assumption, the search for a green alternative to produce nanoparticles (NPs) or the discovery of green molecules, is a challenge in order to obtain safe materials. In particular, gold (Au NPs) and silver (Ag NPs) NPs are particularly suitable because of their unique physico-chemical properties, in particular plasmonic behaviour that makes them useful as active anticancer agents. These NPs can be obtained by green approaches, alternative to conventional chemical methods, owing to the use of phytochemicals, carbohydrates, and other biomolecules present in plants, fungi, and bacteria, reducing toxic effects. In addition, we analysed the use of green and stimuli-responsive polymeric bio-inspired nanovesicles, mainly used in drug delivery applications that have revolutionised the way of drugs supply. Finally, we reported the last examples on the use of metallic and Au NPs as self-propelling systems as new concept of nanorobot, which is able to respond and move towards specific physical or chemical stimuli in biological entities. Full article
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