Special Issue "Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 September 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Yuri Volkov

Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Ireland and First Moscow State Sechenov Medical University, Russian Federation
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomedicine; theranostics; nanosafety; magnetic nanoparticles; quantum dots; nanotechnologies for molecular and cell imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing interest in the biomedical applications of nanotechnology from academic and industrial researchers worldwide, driven by the outstanding benefits that their translation, can offer the enhancement of sensitivity, efficacy and safety of existing diagnostic, treatment and combination strategies, which over recent years have led to the development of truly disruptive technological solutions which hold a potential to revolutionalise healthcare. Empowered by the broadening knowledge of the genome, proteome, transcriptome, metabolome, biomedical informatics and other related fields. Nanotechnology is currently in a position to pave the way to patient-specific personalized medicine, seamlessly connecting the route of innovative nanomaterials, from bench to bedside. Some of them have already deservedly occupied their niches for future biomedical applications as drug-delivering “nanobullets”, supersensitive imaging probes, multifunctional theranostic systems, powerful antimicrobial agents, biosensors, “smart” biocompatible nanomaterials and implants, as well as tissue engineering scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

In this Special Issue of Nanomaterials we expect contributions from a broad community of scientists working on diverse applications of nanotechnology in biology and medicine, and interdisciplinary teams focusing on nanotechnology-enabled breakthrough solutions for biomedical research, diagnostics and advanced therapeutic approaches. As the safety of novel nanomaterials intended for the use in humans remains a matter of prime concern, we also anticipate the manuscripts dealing with these aspects of nanotechnology and nanomedicine in this Special Issue.

Dr. Yuri Volkov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diagnostic nanosystems and sensors
  • nanocarriers for drug delivery
  • multifunctional nanoprobes
  • biocompatible nanomaterials
  • personalized nanomedicines
  • nanomaterials safety

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Performance of ZnO Doped Tantalum Oxide Multilayer Composite Coatings on Ti6Al4V for Orthopedic Application
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050685
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
Ti6Al4V titanium alloy has been widely used as medical implant material in orthopedic surgery, and one of the obstacles preventing it from wide use is toxic metal ions release and bacterial implant infection. In this paper, in order to improve corrosion resistance and [...] Read more.
Ti6Al4V titanium alloy has been widely used as medical implant material in orthopedic surgery, and one of the obstacles preventing it from wide use is toxic metal ions release and bacterial implant infection. In this paper, in order to improve corrosion resistance and antibacterial performance of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy, ZnO doped tantalum oxide (TaxOy) multilayer composite coating ZnO-TaxOy/TaxOy/TaxOy-TiO2/TiO2/Ti (ZnO-TaxOy) was deposited by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As a comparison, monolayer TaxOy coating was prepared on the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy. The morphology and phase composition of the coatings were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the elemental chemical states of coating surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the coatings were examined by micro-scratch tester and electrochemical workstations, respectively. The results show that the adhesion strength of multilayer ZnO-TaxOy coating is 16.37 times higher than that of single-layer TaxOy coating. The ZnO-TaxOy composite coating has higher corrosion potential and lower corrosion current density than that of TaxOy coating, showing better corrosion inhibition. Furthermore, antibacterial test revealed that multilayer ZnO-TaxOy coating has a much better antibacterial performance by contrast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Nanoparticles Equipped with α2,8-Linked Sialic Acid Chains Inhibit the Release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040610
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Neutrophils can combat the invasion of pathogens by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The NET mechanism is not only an effective tool for combating pathogens, but is also associated with diseases. Therefore, NETs are a potential target for combating pathologies, such [...] Read more.
Neutrophils can combat the invasion of pathogens by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The NET mechanism is not only an effective tool for combating pathogens, but is also associated with diseases. Therefore, NETs are a potential target for combating pathologies, such as cystic fibrosis and thrombosis. We investigated the potential of nanoparticles, which were modified with α2,8-linked sialic acid chains, to modulate NET release during phorbol myristate acetate stimulation. Interestingly, when these nanoparticles were applied, the formation of reactive oxygen species was partly inhibited and the release of NET was counteracted. However, although the release of NET fibers was prevented, the nuclei still lost their characteristic segmented structure and became swollen, indicating that only the release, and not complete activation was suppressed. Intriguingly, coincubation of α2,8-sialylated particles with free sialic acid chains prevented the outlined inhibitory effects. Thus, the sialic acid chains must be attached to a linker molecule to generate an active bioconjugate that is able to inhibit the release of NET. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Zinc-Doped Hydroxyapatite Colloids and Dispersion Stability Using Ultrasounds
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040515
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
This study proves that the new developed zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp) colloids by an adapted sol-gel method can be widely used in the pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental industries. ZnHAp nanoparticles were stabilized in an aqueous solution, and their colloidal dispersions have been characterized by [...] Read more.
This study proves that the new developed zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp) colloids by an adapted sol-gel method can be widely used in the pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental industries. ZnHAp nanoparticles were stabilized in an aqueous solution, and their colloidal dispersions have been characterized by different techniques. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to get information on the morphology and composition of the investigated samples. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis confirmed the elemental compositions of ZnHAp colloidal dispersions. The homogeneous and uniform distribution of constituent elements (zinc, calcium, phosphorus, oxygen) was highlighted by the obtained elemental mapping results. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the obtained samples showed a single phase corresponding to the hexagonal hydroxyapatite. The characteristic bands of the hydroxyapatite structure were also evidenced by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. For a stability assessment of the colloidal system, ζ-potential for the ZnHAp dispersions was estimated. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to determine particles dispersion and hydrodynamic diameter (DHYD). The goal of this study was to provide for the first time information on the stability of ZnHAp particles in solutions evaluated by non–destructive ultrasound-based technique. In this work, the influence of the ZnHAp colloidal solutions stability on the development of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), was also established for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of ZnHAp solutions was strongly influenced by both the stability of the solutions and the amount of Zn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Impaired Liver Size and Compromised Neurobehavioral Activity are Elicited by Chitosan Nanoparticles in the Zebrafish Embryo Model
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010122
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) in various biological and environmental applications is attracting great interest. However, potential side effects related to ChNP toxicity remain the major limitation hampering their wide application. For the first time, we investigate the potential organ-specific (cardiac, hepatic, [...] Read more.
The use of chitosan nanoparticles (ChNPs) in various biological and environmental applications is attracting great interest. However, potential side effects related to ChNP toxicity remain the major limitation hampering their wide application. For the first time, we investigate the potential organ-specific (cardiac, hepatic, and neuromuscular) toxicity of ChNPs (size 100–150 nm) using the zebrafish embryo model. Our data highlight the absence of both acute and teratogenic toxic effects of ChNPs (~100% survival rate) even at the higher concentration employed (200 mg/L). Although no single sign of cardiotoxicity was observed upon exposure to 200 mg/L of ChNPs, as judged by heartbeat rate, the corrected QT interval (QTc, which measures the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle), maximum cardiac arrest, and ejection fraction assays, the same dosage elicited the impairment of both liver size (decreased liver size, but without steatosis and lipid yolk retention) and neurobehavioral activity (increased movement under different light conditions). Although the observed toxic effect failed to affect embryo survival, whether a prolonged ChNP treatment may induce other potentially harmful effects remains to be elucidated. By reporting new insights on their organ-specific toxicity, our results add novel and useful information into the available data concerning the in vivo effect of ChNPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Composite Nanofibers Containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes as Biodegradable Membranes in Reconstructive Medicine
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010063
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 27 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
We have tested titanium (Ti) plates that are used for bone reconstruction in maxillofacial surgery, in combination with five types of novel long-resorbable biomaterials: (i) PCL0—polycaprolactone without additives, (ii) PCLMWCNT—polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), (iii) [...] Read more.
We have tested titanium (Ti) plates that are used for bone reconstruction in maxillofacial surgery, in combination with five types of novel long-resorbable biomaterials: (i) PCL0—polycaprolactone without additives, (ii) PCLMWCNT—polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), (iii) PCLOH—polycaprolactone doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) containing –OH hydroxyl groups, (iv) PCLCOOH—polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) containing carboxyl groups, and (v) PCLTI—polycaprolactone with the addition of Ti nanoparticles. The structure and properties of the obtained materials have been examined with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and/or X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Titanium BR plates have been covered with: (i) PCL0 fibers (PCL0BR—connection plates), (ii) PCLMWCNT fibers (PCLMWCNTBR—plates), (iii) PCLOH fibers (PCLOHBR—plates), (iv) PCLCOOH (PCLCOOHBR—plates), (v) PCLTI fiber (PCLTIBR—connection plates). Such modified titanium plates were exposed to X-ray doses corresponding to those applied in head and neck tumor treatment. The potential leaching of toxic materials upon the irradiation of such modified titanium plates, and their effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) have been assessed by MTT assay. The presented results show variable biological responses depending on the modifications to titanium plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
pH-Sensitive Poly(β-amino ester)s Nanocarriers Facilitate the Inhibition of Drug Resistance in Breast Cancer Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 952; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110952
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an unmet challenge in chemotherapy. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers emerge as a promising tool to overcome MDR. Herein, pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)s polymers (PHP)-based micellar nanoparticles were synthesized for enhanced doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in drug resistant breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells. DOX-loaded PHP [...] Read more.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains an unmet challenge in chemotherapy. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers emerge as a promising tool to overcome MDR. Herein, pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)s polymers (PHP)-based micellar nanoparticles were synthesized for enhanced doxorubicin (DOX) delivery in drug resistant breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells. DOX-loaded PHP micelles showed rapid cell-internalization and lysosomal escape in MCF-7/ADR cells. The cytotoxicity assays showed relatively higher cell inhibition of DOX-loaded PHP micelles than that of free DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that PHP micelles were able to inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity by lowering mitochondrial membrane potentials and ATP levels. These results suggested that the enhanced antitumor effect might be attributed to PHP-mediated lysosomal escape and drug efflux inhibition. Therefore, PHP would be a promising pH-responsive nanocarrier for enhanced intracellular drug delivery and overcoming MDR in cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Composite nanofibers containing multiwall carbon nanotubes as biodegradable membranes in reconstructive medicine
Authors: A. Hudecki *, D. Łyko-Morawska, W. Likus, M. Skonieczna, J. Markowski, R. Wilk, A. Kolano-Burian, W. Maziarz, J. Adamska, M. J. Łos
Abstract: Reconstruction of the functions of natural tissue, after its damage/degradation due to oncologic or metabolic disease, or after random causes, is handled by reconstructive medicine. Several approaches exist to alleviate patients’ condition, including the use of titanium, or other biomaterials. For the purposes of this work five types of long-resorbable membranes have been obtained, composed of: (i) PCL0 - that is polycaprolactone without additions, (ii) PCLMWCNT - that is polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), (iii) PCLOH - that is polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) containing –OH hydroxyl groups, (iv) PCLCOOH – that is polycaprolactone with the addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) containing carboxyl groups – COOH, (v) PCLTI – polycaprolactone with the addition of titanium (Ti) nanoparticles. Titanium BR plates that are applied in maxillo-facial surgery have been covered with: (i) PCL0 fibers – for obtaining connection plates/fibers marked as PCL0BR, (ii) PCLMWCNT fibers – for obtaining connection plates/fiber marked as PCLMWCNTBR, (iii) PCLOH fibers - for obtaining connection plates/fiber marked as PCLOHBR, (iv) PCLCOOH – for obtaining connection plates/fiber marked as PCLCOOHBR, (v) PCLTI fiber - for obtaining connection plates/fiber marked as PCLTIBR. Membranes as well as connections fibers/ titanium plates were subjected to X-ray in the amount corresponding to radical radiotherapy used to treat head and neck tumors, that is in the amount of overall radiation exposed to after removal of jaw tissue occupied by the tumor. The structure and properties of the obtained materials have been examined with the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and/or X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover, research has been carried out of biological properties, with the use of MTT assays on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The newly developed long-resorbable membranes have been examined from the point of their usefulness as potential materials preventing implanted titanium plates from being exposed. The results of the research confirmed a differentiated biological response of cells, depending on properties of membranes used.
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