Special Issue "Applications of Nanofluids"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mikhail Sheremet
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratory on Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave, 36, Tomsk 634050, Russia
Interests: heat and mass transfer; fluid mechanics; modeling and simulation; convection; nanofluids; porous media; thermal radiation; electronics cooling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the optimization of different engineering devices and the development of medicine techniques demand to use the “smart” liquids that have a high thermal conductivity, and an opportunity for targeted drug delivery. Such “smart” liquids, known as nanofluids, are the suspension of a base liquid (water, oil, and others), and nanosized particles of metal, metal oxide, or biodegradable polymers. In the case of heat transfer enhancement, the usage of nanofluids allows for increasing the effective thermal conductivity, and as a result, a growth of the heat transfer rate is expected. In the case of medicine applications, the usage of nanoparticles from biodegradable polymers can be very good transport for drugs. An analysis of the nanofluid applications can be performed using theoretical or experimental techniques. Theoretical methods also include numerical simulations, which have many advantages. At the same time, experimental investigation allows for understanding the considered process, and obtains the necessary data for the validation of the developed mathematical models and numerical methods.

The present Special Issue will focus on nanofluid applications in various engineering and medicine systems. It is a very good opportunity to combine original manuscripts on the considered topic to present useful guidelines for future research.

Prof. Mikhail Sheremet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Heat transfer enhancement
  • Electronics cooling
  • Nano-enhanced phase change materials
  • Heat exchangers
  • Solar collectors
  • Targeted drug delivery

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
A New Thermal Conductivity Model and Two-Phase Mixed Convection of CuO–Water Nanofluids in a Novel I-Shaped Porous Cavity Heated by Oriented Triangular Hot Block
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112219 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
This paper investigates the cooling performance of nanofluid (NF) mixed convection in a porous I-shaped electronic chip with an internal triangular hot block using Buongiorno’s two-phase model. This type of cavity and hot block geometry has not been studied formerly. The NF was [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the cooling performance of nanofluid (NF) mixed convection in a porous I-shaped electronic chip with an internal triangular hot block using Buongiorno’s two-phase model. This type of cavity and hot block geometry has not been studied formerly. The NF was assumed to be a mixture of water and CuO nanoparticles (NP) up to 4% of volume concentration. As most published mathematical models for the thermal conductivity of NF give inaccurate predictions, a new predictive correlation for effective thermal conductivity was also developed with a high accuracy compared to the experimental data. The results showed that any increase in the NP volume concentration enhances the average Nusselt number (Nu¯) and the normalized entropy generation, and reduces the thermal performance of the cavity in all orientations of the hot block. The maximum enhancement in cooling performance was 17.75% and occurred in the right-oriented hot block in the sand-based porous cavity. Furthermore, adding the NP to the base fluid leads to a more capable cooling system and enhances the irreversibility of the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Navigation of Silver/Carbon Nanoantennas in Organic Fluids Explored by a Two-Wave Mixing
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1886; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091886 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 657
Abstract
Within this work are analyzed third-order nonlinear optical properties with a potential influence on the dynamic mechanics exhibited by metal/carbon nanofluids. The nanofluids were integrated by multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles suspended in ethanol or in acetone. Optical third-order nonlinearities were [...] Read more.
Within this work are analyzed third-order nonlinear optical properties with a potential influence on the dynamic mechanics exhibited by metal/carbon nanofluids. The nanofluids were integrated by multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with Ag nanoparticles suspended in ethanol or in acetone. Optical third-order nonlinearities were experimentally explored by vectorial two-wave mixing experiments with a Nd-YAG laser system emitting nanosecond pulses at a 532 nm wavelength. An optically induced birefringence in the metal/organic samples seems to be responsible for a significant modification in density and compressibility modulus in the nanosystems. The measured nonlinear refractive index was associated with a thermal process together with changes in density, compressibility modulus and speed of sound in the samples. Nanofluid diffusivity was studied to characterize the dynamic concentration gradients related to the precipitation of nanostructures in the liquid solutions. The evolution of the nanoparticle density suspended in the nanofluids was considered as a temporal-resolved probabilistic system. It is stated that the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles in carbon nanotubes produces strong mechanical changes in carbon-based nanofluids. According to numerical simulations and optical evaluations, immediate applications for developing dynamic nanoantennas optical logic gates and quantum-controlled metal/carbon systems can be contemplated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Heat Sink Using Al2O3 and ZrO2 Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091796 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed [...] Read more.
A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed to select the bent channel aspect ratio by varying width and height between 35–300 μm for Reynolds number and base temperature magnitude range of 100–1000 and 320–370 K, respectively. The bent channel results demonstrate dean vortices phenomenon at the bend for Reynolds number of 500 and above. Thermal performance factor analysis shows an increase of 18% in comparison to straight channels of 200 μm width and height. Alumina nanoparticles at 1% and 3% concentration enhance the Nusselt number by an average of 10.4% and 23.7%, respectively, whereas zirconia enhances Nusselt number by 16% and 33.9% for same concentrations. On the other hand, thermal performance factor analysis shows a significant increase in pressure drop at high Reynolds number with 3% particle concentration. Using zirconia for nanofluid, Nusselt number of the bent multi-channel model is improved by an average of 18% for a 3% particle concentration as compared to bent channel with deionized water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Investigation of Overlapped Twisted Tapes Inserted in a Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Two-Phase Nanofluid
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091656 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
This study investigated the laminar convective heat transfer and fluid flow of Al2O3 nanofluid in a counter flow double-pipe heat exchanger equipped with overlapped twisted tape inserts in both inner and outer tubes. Two models of the same (co-swirling twisted [...] Read more.
This study investigated the laminar convective heat transfer and fluid flow of Al2O3 nanofluid in a counter flow double-pipe heat exchanger equipped with overlapped twisted tape inserts in both inner and outer tubes. Two models of the same (co-swirling twisted tapes) and opposite (counter-swirling twisted tapes) angular directions for the stationary twisted tapes were considered. The computational fluid dynamic simulations were conducted through varying the design parameters, including the angular direction of twisted tape inserts, nanofluid volume concentration, and Reynolds number. It was found that inserting the overlapped twisted tapes in the heat exchanger significantly increases the thermal performance as well as the friction factor compared with the plain heat exchanger. The results indicate that models of co-swirling twisted tapes and counter-swirling twisted tapes increase the average Nusselt number by almost 35.2–66.2% and 42.1–68.7% over the Reynolds number ranging 250–1000, respectively. To assess the interplay between heat transfer enhancement and pressure loss penalty, the dimensionless number of performance evaluation criterion was calculated for all the captured configurations. Ultimately, the highest value of performance evaluation criterion is equal to 1.40 and 1.26 at inner and outer tubes at the Reynolds number of 1000 and the volume fraction of 3% in the case of counter-swirling twisted tapes model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Role of Rotating Cylinder toward Mixed Convection inside a Wavy Heated Cavity via Two-Phase Nanofluid Concept
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061138 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
The mixed convection two-phase flow and heat transfer of nanofluids were addressed within a wavy wall enclosure containing a solid rotating cylinder. The annulus area between the cylinder and the enclosure was filled with water-alumina nanofluid. Buongiorno’s model was applied to assess the [...] Read more.
The mixed convection two-phase flow and heat transfer of nanofluids were addressed within a wavy wall enclosure containing a solid rotating cylinder. The annulus area between the cylinder and the enclosure was filled with water-alumina nanofluid. Buongiorno’s model was applied to assess the local distribution of nanoparticles in the host fluid. The governing equations for the mass conservation of nanofluid, nanoparticles, and energy conservation in the nanofluid and the rotating cylinder were carried out and converted to a non-dimensional pattern. The finite element technique was utilized for solving the equations numerically. The influence of the undulations, Richardson number, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, rotation direction, and the size of the rotating cylinder were examined on the streamlines, heat transfer rate, and the distribution of nanoparticles. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis forces induced a notable distribution of nanoparticles in the enclosure. The best heat transfer rate was observed for 3% volume fraction of alumina nanoparticles. The optimum number of undulations for the best heat transfer rate depends on the rotation direction of the cylinder. In the case of counterclockwise rotation of the cylinder, a single undulation leads to the best heat transfer rate for nanoparticles volume fraction about 3%. The increase of undulations number traps more nanoparticles near the wavy surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Comparison of the Corrosion Behavior of Brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061046 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids using a simulated cooling water (SCW) as the base solution and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the dispersant was studied by electrochemical measurements and surface analysis in this [...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids using a simulated cooling water (SCW) as the base solution and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the dispersant was studied by electrochemical measurements and surface analysis in this paper. It was found that SDBS could be adsorbed on the brass surface to form a protective film and have a corrosion inhibition effect on brass in SCW. In the SCW-SDBS-TiO2 nanofluid, some negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles were attached to the brass surface and no obvious SDBS adsorption film was found, and the SDBS in this nanofluid had almost no corrosion inhibition on brass. In the SCW-SDBS-Al2O3 nanofluid, the brass surface was covered by a uniformly distributed SDBS film containing some Al2O3 nanoparticles which were positively charged, and the corrosion inhibition of brass was significantly improved in this nanofluid. It is concluded that the adsorption of SDBS on the brass surface in nanofluids is related to the charge status of the nanoparticles, which makes brass have different corrosion resistance in various nanofluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Configuration and Optimization of a Minichannel Using Water–Alumina Nanofluid by Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Response Surface Method
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050901 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Nanofluids in minichannels with various configurations are applied as cooling and heating fluids. Therefore, it is essential to have an optimal design of minichannels. For this purpose, a square channel with a cylinder in the center connected to wavy fins at various concentrations [...] Read more.
Nanofluids in minichannels with various configurations are applied as cooling and heating fluids. Therefore, it is essential to have an optimal design of minichannels. For this purpose, a square channel with a cylinder in the center connected to wavy fins at various concentrations of an Al2O3 nanofluid is simulated using the finite volume method (FVM). Moreover, central composite design (CCD) is used as a method of design of experiment (DOE) to study the effects of three input variables, namely the cylinder diameter, channel width, and fin radius on the convective heat transfer and pumping power. The impacts of the linear term, together with those of the square and interactive on the response variables are determined using Pareto and main effects plots by an ANOVA. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), along with the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to achieve the optimal configuration and nanofluid concentration. The results indicate that the effect of the channel width and cylinder diameter enhances about 21% and 18% by increasing the concentration from 0% to 5%. On the other hand, the pumping power response is not sensitive to the nanofluid concentration. Besides, the channel width has the highest and lowest effect on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and pumping power, respectively. The optimization for a concentration of 3% indicates that in Re = 500 when the geometry is optimized, the HTC enhances by almost 9%, while the pumping power increases by about 18%. In contrast, by increasing the concentration from 1% to 3%, merely an 8% enhancement in HTC is obtained, while the pumping power intensifies around 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Prediction of Thermo-Physical Properties of TiO2-Al2O3/Water Nanoparticles by Using Artificial Neural Network
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040697 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
In this paper, an artificial neural network is implemented for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity ratio of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid. TiO2-Al2O3/water in the role of an innovative type of nanofluid [...] Read more.
In this paper, an artificial neural network is implemented for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity ratio of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid. TiO2-Al2O3/water in the role of an innovative type of nanofluid was synthesized by the sol–gel method. The results indicated that 1.5 vol.% of nanofluids enhanced the thermal conductivity by up to 25%. It was shown that the heat transfer coefficient was linearly augmented with increasing nanoparticle concentration, but its variation with temperature was nonlinear. It should be noted that the increase in concentration may cause the particles to agglomerate, and then the thermal conductivity is reduced. The increase in temperature also increases the thermal conductivity, due to an increase in the Brownian motion and collision of particles. In this research, for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid based on volumetric concentration and temperature functions, an artificial neural network is implemented. In this way, for predicting thermal conductivity, SOM (self-organizing map) and BP-LM (Back Propagation-Levenberq-Marquardt) algorithms were used. Based on the results obtained, these algorithms can be considered as an exceptional tool for predicting thermal conductivity. Additionally, the correlation coefficient values were equal to 0.938 and 0.98 when implementing the SOM and BP-LM algorithms, respectively, which is highly acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Cooling Performance of a Novel Circulatory Flow Concentric Multi-Channel Heat Sink with Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040647 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Heat rejection from electronic devices such as processors necessitates a high heat removal rate. The present study focuses on liquid-cooled novel heat sink geometry made from four channels (width 4 mm and depth 3.5 mm) configured in a concentric shape with alternate flow [...] Read more.
Heat rejection from electronic devices such as processors necessitates a high heat removal rate. The present study focuses on liquid-cooled novel heat sink geometry made from four channels (width 4 mm and depth 3.5 mm) configured in a concentric shape with alternate flow passages (slot of 3 mm gap). In this study, the cooling performance of the heat sink was tested under simulated controlled conditions.The lower bottom surface of the heat sink was heated at a constant heat flux condition based on dissipated power of 50 W and 70 W. The computations were carried out for different volume fractions of nanoparticles, namely 0.5% to 5%, and water as base fluid at a flow rate of 30 to 180 mL/min. The results showed a higher rate of heat rejection from the nanofluid cooled heat sink compared with water. The enhancement in performance was analyzed with the help of a temperature difference of nanofluid outlet temperature and water outlet temperature under similar operating conditions. The enhancement was ~2% for 0.5% volume fraction nanofluids and ~17% for a 5% volume fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Thermal Convection of Nanoliquid in a Double-Connected Chamber
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030588 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 812
Abstract
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic [...] Read more.
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The governing equations have been written using non-primitive parameters such as stream function and vorticity. Such approach allows a decrease in computational time due to a reduction of equation numbers. One of the main challenges in such a technique is a determining the stream function magnitude at the inner body walls. A solution of this problem has been described in detail in this paper. Computational scrutinizing has been performed by employing the finite difference technique. The mesh sensitivity analysis and comparison with theoretical and experimental results of other researchers have been included. An influence of the Rayleigh number, nanoparticles concentration, internal block size, heat conductivity ratio and non-dimensional time on nanofluid motion and energy transport has been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Article
Computational Study of Heat Transfer inside Different PCMs Enhanced by Al2O3 Nanoparticles in a Copper Heat Sink at High Heat Loads
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020284 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
The cooling of electronic elements is one of the most important problems in the development of architecture in electronic technology. One promising developing cooling method is heat sinks based on the phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nano-sized solid particles. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The cooling of electronic elements is one of the most important problems in the development of architecture in electronic technology. One promising developing cooling method is heat sinks based on the phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nano-sized solid particles. In this paper, the influence of the PCM’s physical properties and the concentration of nanoparticles on heat and mass transfer inside a closed radiator with fins, in the presence of a source of constant volumetric heat generation, is analyzed. The conjugate problem of nano-enhanced phase change materials (NePCMs) melting is considered, taking into account natural convection in the melt under the impact of the external convective cooling. A two-dimensional problem is formulated in the non-primitive variables, such as stream function and vorticity. A single-phase nano-liquid model is employed to describe the transport within NePCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Review

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Review
Novel Nanofluidic Cells Based on Nanowires and Nanotubes for Advanced Chemical and Bio-Sensing Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010090 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Since the first introduction of one-dimensional nanochannels for single-molecule detection, there has been increasing interest in modern nanofluidic systems, such as chemical and biological sensing applications. Recently developed nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) have received tremendous attention due to their unique geometrical, physical [...] Read more.
Since the first introduction of one-dimensional nanochannels for single-molecule detection, there has been increasing interest in modern nanofluidic systems, such as chemical and biological sensing applications. Recently developed nanowires (NWs) and nanotubes (NTs) have received tremendous attention due to their unique geometrical, physical and chemical properties, which are very attractive in this field. Here, we review the recent research activities in the field of novel nanofluidic cells based on NWs and NTs. First, we give a brief introduction of this field. Then the common synthesis methods of NWs and NTs are summarized. After that, we discuss the working principle and sensing mechanism of nanofluidic devices, which is fundamental to the interaction between these nanostructures and small molecules. Finally, we present the NW- and NT-based devices for chemical and bio-sensing applications, such as gas sensing, pathogen detection, DNA sequencing, and so forth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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