Special Issue "Applications of Nanofluids"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mikhail Sheremet
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory on Convective Heat and Mass Transfer and Department of Theoretical Mechanics, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: convective heat and mass transfer; conjugate heat transfer; radiation heat transfer; turbulent modes; fluid flow and heat transfer in nanofluids; entropy generation analysis; heat and mass transfer in porous media; heat transfer and flow pattern in electronic systems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the optimization of different engineering devices and the development of medicine techniques demand to use the “smart” liquids that have a high thermal conductivity, and an opportunity for targeted drug delivery. Such “smart” liquids, known as nanofluids, are the suspension of a base liquid (water, oil, and others), and nanosized particles of metal, metal oxide, or biodegradable polymers. In the case of heat transfer enhancement, the usage of nanofluids allows for increasing the effective thermal conductivity, and as a result, a growth of the heat transfer rate is expected. In the case of medicine applications, the usage of nanoparticles from biodegradable polymers can be very good transport for drugs. An analysis of the nanofluid applications can be performed using theoretical or experimental techniques. Theoretical methods also include numerical simulations, which have many advantages. At the same time, experimental investigation allows for understanding the considered process, and obtains the necessary data for the validation of the developed mathematical models and numerical methods.

The present Special Issue will focus on nanofluid applications in various engineering and medicine systems. It is a very good opportunity to combine original manuscripts on the considered topic to present useful guidelines for future research.

Prof. Mikhail Sheremet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Heat transfer enhancement
  • Electronics cooling
  • Nano-enhanced phase change materials
  • Heat exchangers
  • Solar collectors
  • Targeted drug delivery

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Corrosion Behavior of Brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061046 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Abstract
The corrosion behavior of brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids using a simulated cooling water (SCW) as the base solution and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the dispersant was studied by electrochemical measurements and surface analysis in this [...] Read more.
The corrosion behavior of brass in TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids using a simulated cooling water (SCW) as the base solution and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the dispersant was studied by electrochemical measurements and surface analysis in this paper. It was found that SDBS could be adsorbed on the brass surface to form a protective film and have a corrosion inhibition effect on brass in SCW. In the SCW-SDBS-TiO2 nanofluid, some negatively charged TiO2 nanoparticles were attached to the brass surface and no obvious SDBS adsorption film was found, and the SDBS in this nanofluid had almost no corrosion inhibition on brass. In the SCW-SDBS-Al2O3 nanofluid, the brass surface was covered by a uniformly distributed SDBS film containing some Al2O3 nanoparticles which were positively charged, and the corrosion inhibition of brass was significantly improved in this nanofluid. It is concluded that the adsorption of SDBS on the brass surface in nanofluids is related to the charge status of the nanoparticles, which makes brass have different corrosion resistance in various nanofluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
Open AccessArticle
Configuration and Optimization of a Minichannel Using Water–Alumina Nanofluid by Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Response Surface Method
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050901 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Nanofluids in minichannels with various configurations are applied as cooling and heating fluids. Therefore, it is essential to have an optimal design of minichannels. For this purpose, a square channel with a cylinder in the center connected to wavy fins at various concentrations [...] Read more.
Nanofluids in minichannels with various configurations are applied as cooling and heating fluids. Therefore, it is essential to have an optimal design of minichannels. For this purpose, a square channel with a cylinder in the center connected to wavy fins at various concentrations of an Al2O3 nanofluid is simulated using the finite volume method (FVM). Moreover, central composite design (CCD) is used as a method of design of experiment (DOE) to study the effects of three input variables, namely the cylinder diameter, channel width, and fin radius on the convective heat transfer and pumping power. The impacts of the linear term, together with those of the square and interactive on the response variables are determined using Pareto and main effects plots by an ANOVA. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), along with the response surface methodology (RSM) is applied to achieve the optimal configuration and nanofluid concentration. The results indicate that the effect of the channel width and cylinder diameter enhances about 21% and 18% by increasing the concentration from 0% to 5%. On the other hand, the pumping power response is not sensitive to the nanofluid concentration. Besides, the channel width has the highest and lowest effect on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and pumping power, respectively. The optimization for a concentration of 3% indicates that in Re = 500 when the geometry is optimized, the HTC enhances by almost 9%, while the pumping power increases by about 18%. In contrast, by increasing the concentration from 1% to 3%, merely an 8% enhancement in HTC is obtained, while the pumping power intensifies around 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Thermo-Physical Properties of TiO2-Al2O3/Water Nanoparticles by Using Artificial Neural Network
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040697 - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
In this paper, an artificial neural network is implemented for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity ratio of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid. TiO2-Al2O3/water in the role of an innovative type of nanofluid [...] Read more.
In this paper, an artificial neural network is implemented for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity ratio of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid. TiO2-Al2O3/water in the role of an innovative type of nanofluid was synthesized by the sol–gel method. The results indicated that 1.5 vol.% of nanofluids enhanced the thermal conductivity by up to 25%. It was shown that the heat transfer coefficient was linearly augmented with increasing nanoparticle concentration, but its variation with temperature was nonlinear. It should be noted that the increase in concentration may cause the particles to agglomerate, and then the thermal conductivity is reduced. The increase in temperature also increases the thermal conductivity, due to an increase in the Brownian motion and collision of particles. In this research, for the sake of predicting the thermal conductivity of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid based on volumetric concentration and temperature functions, an artificial neural network is implemented. In this way, for predicting thermal conductivity, SOM (self-organizing map) and BP-LM (Back Propagation-Levenberq-Marquardt) algorithms were used. Based on the results obtained, these algorithms can be considered as an exceptional tool for predicting thermal conductivity. Additionally, the correlation coefficient values were equal to 0.938 and 0.98 when implementing the SOM and BP-LM algorithms, respectively, which is highly acceptable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Cooling Performance of a Novel Circulatory Flow Concentric Multi-Channel Heat Sink with Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040647 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
Heat rejection from electronic devices such as processors necessitates a high heat removal rate. The present study focuses on liquid-cooled novel heat sink geometry made from four channels (width 4 mm and depth 3.5 mm) configured in a concentric shape with alternate flow [...] Read more.
Heat rejection from electronic devices such as processors necessitates a high heat removal rate. The present study focuses on liquid-cooled novel heat sink geometry made from four channels (width 4 mm and depth 3.5 mm) configured in a concentric shape with alternate flow passages (slot of 3 mm gap). In this study, the cooling performance of the heat sink was tested under simulated controlled conditions.The lower bottom surface of the heat sink was heated at a constant heat flux condition based on dissipated power of 50 W and 70 W. The computations were carried out for different volume fractions of nanoparticles, namely 0.5% to 5%, and water as base fluid at a flow rate of 30 to 180 mL/min. The results showed a higher rate of heat rejection from the nanofluid cooled heat sink compared with water. The enhancement in performance was analyzed with the help of a temperature difference of nanofluid outlet temperature and water outlet temperature under similar operating conditions. The enhancement was ~2% for 0.5% volume fraction nanofluids and ~17% for a 5% volume fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Convection of Nanoliquid in a Double-Connected Chamber
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030588 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic [...] Read more.
Thermogravitational convective thermal transmission, inside a square differentially-heated chamber with a nanoliquid, has been examined in the presence of internal adiabatic or a thermally-conducting solid body. A single-phase nanoliquid approach is employed, based on the experimentally-extracted relations for nanofluid heat conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The governing equations have been written using non-primitive parameters such as stream function and vorticity. Such approach allows a decrease in computational time due to a reduction of equation numbers. One of the main challenges in such a technique is a determining the stream function magnitude at the inner body walls. A solution of this problem has been described in detail in this paper. Computational scrutinizing has been performed by employing the finite difference technique. The mesh sensitivity analysis and comparison with theoretical and experimental results of other researchers have been included. An influence of the Rayleigh number, nanoparticles concentration, internal block size, heat conductivity ratio and non-dimensional time on nanofluid motion and energy transport has been studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Study of Heat Transfer inside Different PCMs Enhanced by Al2O3 Nanoparticles in a Copper Heat Sink at High Heat Loads
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020284 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The cooling of electronic elements is one of the most important problems in the development of architecture in electronic technology. One promising developing cooling method is heat sinks based on the phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nano-sized solid particles. In this paper, [...] Read more.
The cooling of electronic elements is one of the most important problems in the development of architecture in electronic technology. One promising developing cooling method is heat sinks based on the phase change materials (PCMs) enhanced by nano-sized solid particles. In this paper, the influence of the PCM’s physical properties and the concentration of nanoparticles on heat and mass transfer inside a closed radiator with fins, in the presence of a source of constant volumetric heat generation, is analyzed. The conjugate problem of nano-enhanced phase change materials (NePCMs) melting is considered, taking into account natural convection in the melt under the impact of the external convective cooling. A two-dimensional problem is formulated in the non-primitive variables, such as stream function and vorticity. A single-phase nano-liquid model is employed to describe the transport within NePCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Nanofluids)
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