Special Issue "Anti-Cancer, Biochemical and Immunological Activity of Nanoparticles "

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Robert K. DeLong
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Nanotechnology Innovation Center, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is an exciting time for nanomaterials. Their biomedical applications are numerous, and as their drug, nucleic acid, and protein complexes and conjugates begin translating from cell culture to animal studies and into the clinic, this gives us new hope in the fight against many cancers and possibly diseases with bacterial or viral pathogenesis. Research is now very active on what the anticancer, biochemical, and immunological mechanisms are for nanoparticles. For example, some groups have reported that certain nanoparticle compositions can inhibit enzymes and reduce their biochemical activity, and this may have potential applications for new cancer therapeutic or antibacterial strategies. Others utilize various synthetic chemistries to produce nanoparticle core-shell structures and composites that may have tunable physico-chemical properties and biological activities. For cancer nanotechnology, an exciting area is combining nanoparticles with targeting  or therapeutic antibodies to better direct them to the tumor and/or elicit a desirable biochemical and immunological effect. This Special Issue seeks contributers from all branches of applied nanotechnology with a focus on anticancer, biochemical, and immunological activities as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents.

Dr. Robert K. DeLong
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Codelivery of Genistein and miRNA-29b to A549 Cells Using Aptamer-Hybrid Nanoparticle Bioconjugates
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071052 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of a combination therapy of miRNA-29b and genistein loaded in mucin-1 (MUC 1)-aptamer functionalized hybrid nanoparticles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell line. Genistein-miRNA-29b-loaded hybrid nanoparticles (GMLHN) was prepared and characterized. Particle size [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of a combination therapy of miRNA-29b and genistein loaded in mucin-1 (MUC 1)-aptamer functionalized hybrid nanoparticles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell line. Genistein-miRNA-29b-loaded hybrid nanoparticles (GMLHN) was prepared and characterized. Particle size and zeta potential were measured using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). Encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency were determined using HPLC. Preferential internalization of MUC 1-aptamer functionalized GMLHN by A549 cells was evaluated and compared to normal MRC-5 cells. The ability of GMLHN to downregulate targeted oncoproteins Phosphorylated protein kinase, strain AK, Thymoma (Phosphorylated protein kinase B) (pAKT), Phosphorylated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K), DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) and Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 (MCL 1) was evaluated using western blot, while antiproliferative effect and ability to initiate apoptosis was also assessed in A549 cells. MUC 1-aptamer functionalized GMLHN nanoparticles were prepared. These nanoparticles were preferentially internalized by A549 cells but less so, in MRC-5 cells. pAKT, p-PI3K, DNMT3B and MCL 1 were efficiently downregulated by these nanoparticles without affecting the levels of AKT and PI3K in A549 cells. GMLHN demonstrated a superior antiproliferative effect compared to individual genistein and miRNA-29b-loaded nanoparticles. Results generated were able to demonstrate that genistein-miRNA-29b-loaded hybrid nanoparticles (GMLHN) could be a potential treatment modality for NSCLC because of the ability of the payloads to attack multiple targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Cancer, Biochemical and Immunological Activity of Nanoparticles )
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Open AccessBrief Report
Comparative Molecular Immunological Activity of Physiological Metal Oxide Nanoparticle and its Anticancer Peptide and RNA Complexes
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1670; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121670 - 22 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Currently, there is a great interest in nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery. Recent studies suggest that nanoparticles when introduced into the biological milieu are not simply passive carriers but may also contribute immunological activity themselves or of their own accord. For example there is considerable [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a great interest in nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery. Recent studies suggest that nanoparticles when introduced into the biological milieu are not simply passive carriers but may also contribute immunological activity themselves or of their own accord. For example there is considerable interest in the biomedical applications of one of the physiologically-based inorganic metal oxide nanoparticle, zinc oxide (ZnO). Indeed zinc oxide (ZnO) NP are now recognized as a nanoscale chemotherapeutic or anticancer nanoparticle (ANP) and several recent reports suggest ZnO NP and/or its complexes with drug and RNA induce a potent antitumor response in immuno-competent mouse models. A variety of cell culture studies have shown that ZnO NP can induce cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12 which are known to regulate the tumor microenvironment. Much less work has been done on magnesium oxide (MgO), cobalt oxide (Co3O4), or nickel oxide (NiO); however, despite the fact that these physiologically-based metal oxide NP are reported to functionally load and assemble RNA and protein onto their surface and may thus also be of potential interest as nanovaccine platform. Here we initially compared in vitro immunogenicity of ZnO and Co3O4 NP and their effects on cancer-associated or tolerogenic cytokines. Based on these data we moved ZnO NP forward to testing in the ex vivo splenocyte assay relative to MgO and NiO NP and these data showed significant difference for flow cytometry sorted population for ZnO-NP, relative to NiO and MgO. These data suggesting both molecular and cellular immunogenic activity, a double-stranded anticancer RNA (ACR), polyinosinic:poly cytidylic acid (poly I:C) known to bind ZnO NP; when ZnO-poly I:C was injected into B16F10-BALB/C tumor significantly induced, IL-2 and IL-12 as shown by Cohen’s d test. LL37 is an anticancer peptide (ACP) currently in clinical trials as an intratumoral immuno-therapeutic agent against metastatic melanoma. LL37 is known to bind poly I:C where it is thought to compete for receptor binding on the surface of some immune cells, metastatic melanoma and lung cells. Molecular dynamic simulations revealed association of LL37 onto ZnO NP confirmed by gel shift assay. Thus using the well-characterized model human lung cancer model cell line (BEAS-2B), poly I:C RNA, LL37 peptide, or LL37-poly I:C complexes were loaded onto ZnO NP and delivered to BEAS-2B lung cells, and the effect on the main cancer regulating cytokine, IL-6 determined by ELISA. Surprisingly ZnO-LL37, but not ZnO-poly I:C or the more novel tricomplex (ZnO-LL37-poly I:C) significantly suppressed IL-6 by >98–99%. These data support the further evaluation of physiological metal oxide compositions, so-called physiometacomposite (PMC) materials and their formulation with anticancer peptide (ACP) and/or anticancer RNA (ACR) as a potential new class of immuno-therapeutic against melanoma and potentially lung carcinoma or other cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Cancer, Biochemical and Immunological Activity of Nanoparticles )
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Intracellular Trafficking of Gold Nanostars for Plasmonic Photothermal Therapy in Uvea Cancer Cells
Authors: Rubén Ahijado-Guzmán; Natalia Sánchez-Arribas; María Martínez-Negro; Guillermo Gonzalez-Rubio; María Santiago-Varela; María Pardo; Antonio Piñeiro; Iván López-Montero; Elena Junquera; Andrés Guerrero-Martínez
Abstract: Nowadays the chase for efficient plasmonic photothermal therapies (PPTT) by using non-harmful pulse laser irradiation at the near-infrared (NIR) is a fundamental goal for medical cancer research. Therefore, the development of novel plasmonic gold nanostructures with the aim of reducing the applied laser power density is still an ongoing challenge. However, the cells, due to their unsettled capacity for uptake, retain, release and re-uptake gold nanoparticles (GNP) offer an enormous versatility for research depending on the cell line and GNP size, shape and surface modification. Here, we have determined the photothermal effect on uvea cancer cells by using gold nanostars (GNS) and femtosecond pulse lasers through different approaches. First, we have investigated the photothermal effect with the dilution of GNS generated by the cell division at two different GNS concentrations. The use of highly efficient GNS combined with low pulse laser irradiation at the NIR, has led us to obtain highly PPTT efficiency after 4 cell division cycles with an initial GNS concentration of 8 pM. Subsequently, we have determined the photothermal effect with the cell division as a result of the mixing of GNS-loaded and non-loaded cells. By mixing GNS-loaded and non-loaded cells with an effective GNS concentration of 4 pM, we have observed a trafficking of GNS between the loaded and non-loaded cells obtaining an effective PPTT after 4 division cycles and the same low irradiance conditions. Our study reveals the ability of the cells to release and re-uptake GNS and keep their plasmonic photothermal properties across the cell division cycles, and after the re-uptaking process. These approaches shape a key study that could potentially be used as alternative co therapy to spread nanoplasmonic active gold nanostructures throughout affected tissues and thus, expand the effectiveness of classic PPTT.

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