Special Issue "Impact of Nanomaterials in Biological Systems and Applications in Nanomedicine Field"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Valeria De Matteis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Monteroni, c/o Campus Ecotekne, 73100 Lecce, LE, Italy
Interests: inorganic nanoparticles; nanotoxicology; cytotoxicity; drug delivery; cancer cells; nanoparticles synthesis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mariafrancesca Cascione
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials “Impact of nanomaterials in biological systems and applications in nanomedicine field” focuses on the interaction between nanoparticles, characterized by different physico-chemical properties, and biological systems, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of nanomaterials range from oxidative stress activation to immune response inducing alterations on morphology and the mechanic behaviour of living cells. Studies dealing with these interactions are of particular importance towards the development of new strategies for diseases treatment, especially cancer. In this scenario, nanomedicine is a new interdisciplinary branch of science, leading to the development of novel tools for therapy and diagnosis such as nanomicelles, nanocapsules, plasmonic nanoparticles; these activities promote unexpected new results in research groups engaged in the development of novel nanomaterials, taking into account the nanotoxicity of nanovectors. The publication of original articles will contribute to the scientific progress in the area of “customized” nanomedicine concerning immune response and morphological alterations induced by NPs. The careful analysis of experimental evidences can put the basis for the further uses of such new nano-tools in clinical praxis.

Prof. Dr. Stefano Leporatti
Dr. Valeria De Matteis
Dr. Mariafrancesca Cascione
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • drug delivery
  • cancer therapy
  • nanomedicine
  • nanotoxicity
  • nanocarriers
  • nanoparticles
  • cell membrane mechanics
  • cytoskeleton alteration

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Improvement of PMMA Dental Matrix Performance by Addition of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Clay Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082027 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Over the last decades, several materials have been proposed for the fabrication of dental and mandibular prosthetic implants. Today, the poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) resin is the most spread material, due to its ease of processing, low cost, aesthetic properties, low weight, biocompatibility, and biostability [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, several materials have been proposed for the fabrication of dental and mandibular prosthetic implants. Today, the poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) resin is the most spread material, due to its ease of processing, low cost, aesthetic properties, low weight, biocompatibility, and biostability in the oral cavity. However, the porous surface (which favors the adhesion of microorganisms) and the weak mechanical properties (which lead to wear or fracture) are the major concerns. The inclusion of engineered nanomaterials in the acrylic matrix could improve the performances of PMMA. In this study, we added two different kind of nanomaterials, namely titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) at two concentrations (1% and 3% w/w) in PMMA. Then, we assessed the effect of nanomaterials inclusion by the evaluation of specific physical parameters: Young’s modulus, roughness, and wettability. In addition, we investigated the potential beneficial effects regarding the Candida albicans (C. albicans) colonization reduction, the most common yeast responsible of several infections in oral cavity. Our experimental results showed an improvement of PMMA performance, following the addition of TiO2NPs and HNTs, in a dose dependent manner. In particular, the presence of TiO2NPs in the methacrylate matrix induced a greater increase in PMMA stiffness respect to HNTs addition. On the other hand, HNTs reduced the rate of C. albicans colonization more significantly than TiO2NPs. The results obtained are of great interest for the improvement of PMMA physico-chemical properties, in view of its possible application in clinical dentistry. Full article
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Article
Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Cellular Uptake Mechanism of Carbon Nanodots in in Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051247 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an increasingly important topic in the field of medical research due to the steadily increasing rates of mortality caused by this disease. With recent advancements in nanotechnology, a push for new, novel treatments for CVD utilizing these new [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an increasingly important topic in the field of medical research due to the steadily increasing rates of mortality caused by this disease. With recent advancements in nanotechnology, a push for new, novel treatments for CVD utilizing these new materials has begun. Carbon Nanodots (CNDs), are a new form of nanoparticles that have been coveted due to the green synthesis method, biocompatibility, fluorescent capabilities and potential anti-antioxidant properties. With much research pouring into CNDs being used as bioimaging and drug delivery tools, few studies have been completed on their anti-inflammatory potential, especially in the cardiovascular system. CVD begins initially by endothelial cell inflammation. The cause of this inflammation can come from many sources; one being tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), which can not only trigger inflammation but prolong its existence by causing a storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study investigated the ability of CNDs to attenuate TNF-α induced inflammation in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Results show that CNDs at non-cytotoxic concentrations reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory genes, mainly Interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The uptake of CNDs by HMEC-1s was examined. Results from the studies involving channel blockers and endocytosis disruptors suggest that uptake takes place by endocytosis. These findings provide insights on the interaction CNDs and endothelial cells undergoing TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. Full article
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Article
Development of Polyelectrolyte Complexes for the Delivery of Peptide-Based Subunit Vaccines against Group A Streptococcus
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050823 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Peptide subunit vaccines hold great potential compared to traditional vaccines. However, peptides alone are poorly immunogenic. Therefore, it is of great importance that a vaccine delivery platform and/or adjuvant that enhances the immunogenicity of peptide antigens is developed. Here, we report the development [...] Read more.
Peptide subunit vaccines hold great potential compared to traditional vaccines. However, peptides alone are poorly immunogenic. Therefore, it is of great importance that a vaccine delivery platform and/or adjuvant that enhances the immunogenicity of peptide antigens is developed. Here, we report the development of two different systems for the delivery of lipopeptide subunit vaccine (LCP-1) against group A streptococcus: polymer-coated liposomes and polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs). First, LCP-1-loaded and alginate/trimethyl chitosan (TMC)-coated liposomes (Lip-1) and LCP-1/alginate/TMC PECs (PEC-1) were examined for their ability to trigger required immune responses in outbred Swiss mice; PEC-1 induced stronger humoral immune responses than Lip-1. To further assess the adjuvanting effect of anionic polymers in PECs, a series of PECs (PEC-1 to PEC-5) were prepared by mixing LCP-1 with different anionic polymers, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate, dextran, hyaluronic acid, and heparin, then coated with TMC. All produced PECs had similar particle sizes (around 200 nm) and surface charges (around + 30 mV). Notably, PEC-5, which contained heparin, induced higher antigen-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA titers than all other PECs. PEC systems, especially when containing heparin and TMC, could function as a promising platform for peptide-based subunit vaccine delivery for intranasal administration. Full article
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Article
Ecofriendly Synthesis and Insecticidal Application of Copper Nanoparticles against the Storage Pest Tribolium castaneum
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030587 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
In spite of great developments in the agricultural field and plant productivity in the last decades, the concern about the control of agricultural pests is still continuous. However, pest management is expected to have more effects from nanomaterials by providing innovative solutions. The [...] Read more.
In spite of great developments in the agricultural field and plant productivity in the last decades, the concern about the control of agricultural pests is still continuous. However, pest management is expected to have more effects from nanomaterials by providing innovative solutions. The current study confirms the biotransformation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using a cell-free culture extract of metal copper-resistant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens MAL2, which was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soils collected from Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. The local screened bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens MAL2, is similar to Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 12442T DSM. After optimization of growth conditions, F-Base medium was found to be the best medium and pH 7, temperature 35 °C, concentration of CuSO4·5H2O 300 ppm, 10 mL supernatant: 40 mL CuSO4·5H2O (300 ppm), and reaction time 90 min were recorded as the best growth conditions to the fabrication of CuNPs. The formed CuNPs were characterized using initially visual observation of the change in the color of the reaction mixture from blue color to the dark green as an indication of CuNPs biotransformation. Then, UV–Vis spectroscopy showed a maximum absorption at 610 nm under the optimum conditions performed. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed the formation of spherical aspect with size ranges from 10:70 nm; moreover, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicated the presence of CuNPs and other elements. In addition, the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkenes, and amines is confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) supported that the Zeta-average size of nanoparticle was 48.07 with 0.227 PdI value. The Zeta potential showed −26.00mV with a single peak. The biosynthesized CuNPs (Bio CuNPs) showed toxicity against the stored grain pest (Tribolium castaneum), where LC50 value was 37 ppm after 5 days of treatment. However, the negligible effect was observed with chemical synthesis of CuNPs (Ch CuNPs) at the same concentration. The results suggest that Bio CuNPs could be used not only as a biocontrol agent, but also as an ecofriendly and inexpensive approach for controlling the stored grain pests. Full article
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Article
Facile Synthesis of Triangular and Hexagonal Anionic Gold Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121774 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
Comprehension of the shape-dependent properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could benefit the advancements in cellular uptake efficiency. Spherical AuNPs have generally been used for drug delivery, and recent research has indicated that the cellular uptake of triangular AuNPs was higher than that of [...] Read more.
Comprehension of the shape-dependent properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could benefit the advancements in cellular uptake efficiency. Spherical AuNPs have generally been used for drug delivery, and recent research has indicated that the cellular uptake of triangular AuNPs was higher than that of spherical ones. Previous reports have also revealed that chemically synthesized AuNPs were cytotoxic. Therefore, we have developed a facile, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method for synthesizing triangular and hexagonal anionic AuNPs. The zeta potential of the synthesized AuNPs was negative, which indicated that their surface could be easily functionalized with positively charged molecules to upload drugs or biomolecules. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images illustrated that the largest particle size of the synthesized quasi-hexagonal AuNPs was 61 nm. The TEM images also illustrated that two types of equilateral-triangular AuNPs were synthesized: One featured sharp and the other rounded corners. The sides of the smallest and largest triangular AuNPs were 23 and 178 nm, respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of the green-synthesized AuNPs indicated that they consisted entirely of elemental Au. The cytotoxicity of the green-synthesized AuNPs was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using cell viability data, we determined that the green-synthesized AuNPs did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Full article
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Review

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Review
Applications of Nanomaterials in Leishmaniasis: A Focus on Recent Advances and Challenges
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121749 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Leishmaniasis is a widely distributed protozoan vector-born disease affecting almost 350 million people. Initially, chemotherapeutic drugs were employed for leishmania treatment but they had toxic side effects. Various nanotechnology-based techniques and products have emerged as anti-leishmanial drugs, including liposomes, lipid nano-capsules, metal and [...] Read more.
Leishmaniasis is a widely distributed protozoan vector-born disease affecting almost 350 million people. Initially, chemotherapeutic drugs were employed for leishmania treatment but they had toxic side effects. Various nanotechnology-based techniques and products have emerged as anti-leishmanial drugs, including liposomes, lipid nano-capsules, metal and metallic oxide nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanovaccines, due to their unique properties, such as bioavailability, lowered toxicity, targeted drug delivery, and biodegradability. Many new studies have emerged with nanoparticles serving as promising therapeutic agent for anti-leishmanial disease treatment. Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmB) is one of the successful nano-based drugs with high efficacy and negligible toxicity. A new nanovaccine concept has been studied as a carrier for targeted delivery. This review discusses different nanotechnology-based techniques, materials, and their efficacies in leishmaniasis treatment and their futuristic improvements. Full article
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