Topical Collection "Collection on Clinical Neuroscience"

A topical collection in Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This collection belongs to the section "Clinical Neuroscience".

Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Zoccolotti

1. Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy2. Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy3. ISTC Institute for Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: disorders of reading; model dyslexia; eye movements in reading

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The “clinical neuroscience” section aims to bring together research on the cognitive, behavioral, and everyday consequences of different nervous system-induced conditions. Topic areas include developmental (e.g., Down syndrome, dyslexia and other learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, and epilepsy), and adult (e.g., stroke and traumatic brain injury as well as progressive conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease) domains. Further, contributions in the area of rehabilitation (including neuropsychological interventions as well as neurological interventions and aids) are encouraged. To favor reproducibility of results, we expect researchers to submit their results in as much detail as possible.

Topics include (but are not restricted to) the following:

  • autism
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • anxiety disorders
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • brain tumors
  • Down syndrome and other genetic syndromes
  • dyslexia
  • epilepsy
  • Huntington’s disease
  • learning disabilities
  • multiple sclerosis
  • neurological aids
  • neuropsychological rehabilitation
  • pain
  • stroke
  • Tourette syndrome
  • traumatic brain injury

Prof. Dr. Pierluigi Zoccolotti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018

Open AccessReview
Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Impaired Interoceptive Accuracy: A Systematic Review
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(6), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060131
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 1 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
Interoception is the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body. Impaired interoception has been associated with aberrant activity of the insula in major depressive disorder (MDD) during heartbeat perception tasks. Despite clinical relevance, studies investigating interoceptive impairments in MDD have never [...] Read more.
Interoception is the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body. Impaired interoception has been associated with aberrant activity of the insula in major depressive disorder (MDD) during heartbeat perception tasks. Despite clinical relevance, studies investigating interoceptive impairments in MDD have never been reviewed systematically according to the guidelines of the PRISMA protocol, and therefore we collated studies that assessed accuracy in detecting heartbeat sensations (interoceptive accuracy, IAc) in MDD (databases: PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES). Out of 389 records, six studies met the inclusion criteria. The main findings suggest that (i) moderately depressed samples exhibit the largest interoceptive deficits as compared with healthy adults. (ii) difficulties in decision making and low affect intensity are correlated with low IAc, and (iii) IAc seems to normalize in severely depressed subjects. These associations may be confounded by sex, anxiety or panic disorder, and intake of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Our findings have implications for the development of interoceptive treatments that might relieve MDD-related symptoms or prevent relapse in recurrent depression by targeting the interoceptive nervous system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of GLP-1 Receptor Activation on a Pentylenetetrazole—Kindling Rat Model
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050108
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: To study the possible anti-seizure and neuroprotective effect of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogue (liraglutide) in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindled rat model and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into 3 equal groups; i) [...] Read more.
Objectives: To study the possible anti-seizure and neuroprotective effect of glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP1) analogue (liraglutide) in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindled rat model and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into 3 equal groups; i) Normal group: normal rats received normal saline, ii) PTZ (kindling) group: received PTZ (50 mg/Kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) every other day for 2 weeks and iii) PTZ + GLP1 group: same as the PTZ group but rats received liraglutide (75 µg/kg i.p. daily) for 2 weeks before PTZ injection. Seizure severity score, seizure latency and duration were assessed. Also, the expression of caspase-3 (apoptotic marker) and β-catenin (Wnt pathway) by western blotting, markers of oxidative stress (GSH, CAT and MDA) by biochemical assay and the expression of LC3 (marker of autophagy) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) by immunostaining were assessed in hippocampal regions of brain tissues. Results: PTZ caused a significant increase in Racine score and seizure duration with a significant decrease in seizure latency. These effects were associated with a significant increase in MDA, β-catenin, caspase-3, Hsp70 and LC3 in brain tissues (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, liraglutide treatment caused significant attenuation in PTZ-induced seizures, which were associated with significant improvement in markers of oxidative stress, reduction in LC3, caspase-3 and β-catenin and marked increase in Hsp70 in hippocampal regions (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Activation of GLP1R might have anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects against PTZ-induced epilepsy. These effects could be due to suppression of oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy and upregulation of Hsp70. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Vertex Enhances Leg Motor Cortex Excitability Bilaterally
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050098
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
In many studies, anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is applied near the vertex to simultaneously facilitate leg motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres and enhance recovery of gait and balance in neurological disorders. However, its effect on the excitability of leg M1 [...] Read more.
In many studies, anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is applied near the vertex to simultaneously facilitate leg motor cortex (M1) of both hemispheres and enhance recovery of gait and balance in neurological disorders. However, its effect on the excitability of leg M1 in either hemisphere is not well known. In this double-blind sham-controlled study, corticospinal excitability changes induced in leg M1 of both hemispheres by anodal (2 mA for 20 minutes) or sham tDCS (for 20 min) over the vertex were evaluated. Peak amplitudes of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured over the contralateral Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle before and up to 40 min after tDCS in 11 normal participants. Analysis of data from all participants found significant overall increase in the excitability of leg M1 after tDCS. However, in individual subjects there was variability in observed effects. In 4 participants, 20 min of tDCS increased mean MEPs of TAs on both sides; in 4 participants there was increased mean MEP only on one side and in 3 subjects there was no change. It’s not known if the benefits of tDCS in improving gait and balance are dependent on excitability changes induced in one or both leg M1; such information may be useful to predict treatment outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessOpinion
Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Psychotherapy in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Viewpoint
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040082
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
Among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions stand anxiety and depression. Psychotherapy and medications are considered effective treatments in these clinical settings. However, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) administered in monotherapy or in a combined regimen do not result in satisfactory [...] Read more.
Among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions stand anxiety and depression. Psychotherapy and medications are considered effective treatments in these clinical settings. However, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) administered in monotherapy or in a combined regimen do not result in satisfactory outcomes in all patients. Therefore, finding new treatments would be of great help. In the last three decades, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has emerged as a safe tool to improve several neuropsychiatric symptoms. The following work revisits the available reports that assessed the add-on value of NIBS techniques when combined to psychotherapy (CBT or related interventions) in mood and anxiety disorders. The available protocols targeted the prefrontal cortex, a region that was previously found to have an enhanced activity or functional connectivity after psychotherapeutic interventions. Promising yet scarce evidence exists on this matter. A discrepancy exists among the available reports regarding the type and duration of interventions, the patients’ clinical profiles, and the presence of a sham intervention. NIBS may have acted by enhancing psychotherapy effects on the top-down cognitive control of emotions. Combining both therapies may result in promising effects, but future large-scale trials are needed to judge the utility of this combination in psychiatric populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EEG Window Length Evaluation for the Detection of Alzheimer’s Disease over Different Brain Regions
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040081
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurogenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia with a rapidly increasing world prevalence. In this paper, the ability of several statistical and spectral features to detect AD from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurogenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia with a rapidly increasing world prevalence. In this paper, the ability of several statistical and spectral features to detect AD from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is evaluated. For this purpose, clinical EEG recordings from 14 patients with AD (8 with mild AD and 6 with moderate AD) and 10 healthy, age-matched individuals are analyzed. The EEG signals are initially segmented in nonoverlapping epochs of different lengths ranging from 5 s to 12 s. Then, a group of statistical and spectral features calculated for each EEG rhythm (δ, θ, α, β, and γ) are extracted, forming the feature vector that trained and tested a Random Forests classifier. Six classification problems are addressed, including the discrimination from whole-brain dynamics and separately from specific brain regions in order to highlight any alterations of the cortical regions. The results indicated a high accuracy ranging from 88.79% to 96.78% for whole-brain classification. Also, the classification accuracy was higher at the posterior and central regions than at the frontal area and the right side of temporal lobe for all classification problems. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sensorimotor Control in Dystonia
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040079
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
This is an overview of the sensorimotor impairments in dystonia, a syndrome characterized by sustained or intermittent aberrant movement patterns leading to abnormal movements and/or postures with or without a tremulous component. Dystonia can affect the entire body or specific body regions and [...] Read more.
This is an overview of the sensorimotor impairments in dystonia, a syndrome characterized by sustained or intermittent aberrant movement patterns leading to abnormal movements and/or postures with or without a tremulous component. Dystonia can affect the entire body or specific body regions and results from a plethora of etiologies, including subtle changes in gray and white matter in several brain regions. Research over the last 25 years addressing topics of sensorimotor control has shown functional sensorimotor impairments related to sensorimotor integration, timing, oculomotor and head control, as well as upper and lower limb control. In the context of efforts to update the classification of dystonia, sensorimotor research is highly relevant for a better understanding of the underlying pathology, and potential mechanisms contributing to global and regional dysfunction within the central nervous system. This overview of relevant research regarding sensorimotor control in humans with idiopathic dystonia attempts to frame the dysfunction with respect to what is known regarding motor control in patients and healthy individuals. We also highlight promising avenues for the future study of neuromotor control that may help to further elucidate dystonia etiology, pathology, and functional characteristics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Parkinsonism Risk Factors in Salt Lake City, Utah: A Community-Based Study
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030071
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 23 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: The prevalence of dream enactment behavior and other risk factors for a parkinsonian disorder is not well documented. Methods: A survey on prevalence of parkinsonism risk factors was designed using two validated instruments (REM behavior disorder single item question, bowel movement frequency [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of dream enactment behavior and other risk factors for a parkinsonian disorder is not well documented. Methods: A survey on prevalence of parkinsonism risk factors was designed using two validated instruments (REM behavior disorder single item question, bowel movement frequency for constipation) and three exploratory instruments (for hallucinations, cognitive and olfactory complaints.) It was sent by mail and email to patients aged 50 and over at two University of Utah community clinics in Salt Lake City. A total of 7888 unique patients were sent the survey, and 1607 responses were recorded (response rate 20%). Those whose age was missing (n = 117) or less than 50 years (n = 10) were excluded from the analysis. Results: Of the 1406 without personal diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease 62.7% were female, and median age was 63. Family history (FH) of Parkinson’s disease was endorsed by 9%, constipation (defined as a bowel movement less than once per day) by 19%, mild cognitive complaints (MCI) 15.8%, dream enactment 13.7%, subjective hyposmia or anosmia 18.2%, and at least one potential psychotic symptom in 37.6%. Multivariable logistic regression showed male gender, mild cognitive complaints, hearing voices, and at least one potentially psychotic symptom to be significantly associated with dream enactment. Conclusions: This survey shows that dream enactment, a strong predictor of risk for synucleinopathy, is relatively common in the older population; because such individuals rarely come to medical attention of a sleep clinic, such survey research may be useful to identify and recruit at-risk individuals for trials aimed at preventing neurodegenerative disease. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Electrode Placement in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation—How Reliable Is the Determination of C3/C4?
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030069
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
The 10/20 electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements system often guides electrode placement for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. One targeted region of the brain is the primary motor cortex (M1) for motor recovery after stroke, among other clinical indications. [...] Read more.
The 10/20 electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements system often guides electrode placement for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. One targeted region of the brain is the primary motor cortex (M1) for motor recovery after stroke, among other clinical indications. M1 is identified by C3 and C4 of the 10/20 EEG system yet the reliability of 10/20 EEG measurements by novice research raters is unknown. We investigated the reliability of the 10/20 EEG measurements for C3 and C4 in 25 adult participants. Two novice raters were assessed for inter-rater reliability. Both raters received two hours of instruction from a registered neurodiagnostic technician. One of the raters completed the measurements across two testing days for intra-rater reliability. Relative reliability was determined using the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and absolute reliability. We observed a low to fair inter and intra-rater ICC for motor cortex measurements. The absolute reliability was <1.0 cm by different novice raters and on different days. Although a low error was observed, consideration of the integrity of the targeted region of the brain is critical when designing tDCS interventions in clinical populations who may have compromised brain structure, due to a lesion or altered anatomy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Paired Associative Stimulation on Corticomotor Excitability in Chronic Smokers
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030062
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Chronic smoking has been shown to have deleterious effects on brain function and is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. Reduced cortical excitability has been shown among chronic smokers compared with non-smokers to have a long-term effect and so far no study [...] Read more.
Chronic smoking has been shown to have deleterious effects on brain function and is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. Reduced cortical excitability has been shown among chronic smokers compared with non-smokers to have a long-term effect and so far no study has assessed the effect of smoking on short-term motor learning. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a commonly used method for inducing changes in excitability of the motor cortex (M1) in a way that simulates short-term motor learning. This study employed PAS to investigate the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on plasticity of M1. Stimulator output required to elicit a motor-evoked potential (MEP) of approximately 1 mV was similar between the groups prior to PAS. MEP response to single pulse stimuli increased in the control group and remained above baseline level for at least 30 min after the intervention, but not in the smokers who showed no significant increase in MEP size. The silent period was similar between groups at all time points of the experiment. This study suggests that chronic smoking may have a negative effect on the response to PAS and infers that chronic smoking may have a deleterious effect on the adaptability of M1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electrode Location in a Microelectrode Recording-Based Model of the Subthalamic Nucleus Can Predict Motor Improvement After Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030051
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may vary substantially between Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Research into the relation between improvement and active contact location requires a correction for anatomical variation. We studied the relation between active contact [...] Read more.
Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may vary substantially between Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Research into the relation between improvement and active contact location requires a correction for anatomical variation. We studied the relation between active contact location relative to the neurophysiological STN, estimated by the intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER-based STN), and contralateral motor improvement after one year. A generic STN shape was transformed to fit onto the stereotactically defined MER sites. The location of 43 electrodes (26 patients), derived from MRI-fused CT images, was expressed relative to this patient-specific MER-based STN. Using regression analyses, the relation between contact location and motor improvement was studied. The regression model that predicts motor improvement based on levodopa effect alone was significantly improved by adding the one-year active contact coordinates (R2 change = 0.176, p = 0.014). In the combined prediction model (adjusted R2 = 0.389, p < 0.001), the largest contribution was made by the mediolateral location of the active contact (standardized beta = 0.490, p = 0.002). With the MER-based STN as a reference, we were able to find a significant relation between active contact location and motor improvement. MER-based STN modeling can be used to complement imaging-based STN models in the application of DBS. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Assessing Anxiety Disorders Using Wearable Devices: Challenges and Future Directions
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030050
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Wearable devices (WD) are starting to increasingly be used for interventions to promote well-being by reducing anxiety disorders (AD). Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is one of the most commonly used biosignals for assessing the cardiovascular system as it significantly reflects the activity of the [...] Read more.
Wearable devices (WD) are starting to increasingly be used for interventions to promote well-being by reducing anxiety disorders (AD). Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is one of the most commonly used biosignals for assessing the cardiovascular system as it significantly reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system during emotional changes. Little is known about the accuracy of using ECG features for detecting ADs. Moreover, during our literature review, a limited number of studies were found that involve ECG collection using WD for promoting mental well-being. Thus, for the sake of validating the reliability of ECG features for detecting anxiety in WD, we screened 1040 articles, and only 22 were considered for our study; specifically 6 on panic, 4 on post-traumatic stress, 4 on generalized anxiety, 3 on social, 3 on mixed, and 2 on obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder articles. Most experimental studies had controversial results. Upon reviewing each of these papers, it became apparent that the use of ECG features for detecting different types of anxiety is controversial, and the use of ECG-WD is an emerging area of research, with limited evidence suggesting its reliability. Due to the clinical nature of most studies, it is difficult to determine the specific impact of ECG features on detecting ADs, suggesting the need for more robust studies following our proposed recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Missed Diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder with Catatonia Features
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020031
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Catatonia is often a presentation of extreme anxiety and depression. Missing the diagnosis of catatonia would lead to improper treatment, which could be life-threatening. A thorough physical and psychiatric assessment is required for detecting the catatonic symptoms, especially, mutism and negativism in patients [...] Read more.
Catatonia is often a presentation of extreme anxiety and depression. Missing the diagnosis of catatonia would lead to improper treatment, which could be life-threatening. A thorough physical and psychiatric assessment is required for detecting the catatonic symptoms, especially, mutism and negativism in patients with depression. We discuss the case of a 58-year-old female that was incorrectly diagnosed and treated for major depressive disorder (MDD). The patient was then correctly diagnosed with MDD with catatonic features and improved once benzodiazepine (BZD) was started. The preferred BZD was lorazepam, with a success rate of complete remission of up to 80% in adults. Treatment was started with lorazepam 1–2 mg and improvement was seen within the first ten minutes. We believed the addition of BZD in a psychotropic regimen could improve both catatonia and depression, and should be continued for 3–6 months to prevent relapses and recurrences. Full article

2018

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
Alterations in Motor Cortical Representation of Muscles Following Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury in Humans
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(12), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120225
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 16 December 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: The primary motor cortex (M1) experiences reorganization following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is a paucity of research comparing bilateral M1 organization in SCI and questions remain to be answered. We explored the presence of somatotopy within the M1 representation [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The primary motor cortex (M1) experiences reorganization following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, there is a paucity of research comparing bilateral M1 organization in SCI and questions remain to be answered. We explored the presence of somatotopy within the M1 representation of arm muscles, and determined whether anatomical shifts in these representations occur, and investigated the symmetry in organization between the two hemispheres.; (2) Methods: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to map the representation of the biceps, flexor carpi radialis and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) bilaterally in nine individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury and nine aged- and handed-matched uninjured controls. TMS was delivered over a 6 × 5 point grid that encompassed M1 using an intensity specific to the resting motor threshold for each muscle tested.; (3) Results: Results indicate that, compared to controls, muscle representations in SCI are shifted medially but preserve a general somatotopic arrangement, and that territory dedicated to the APB muscle is greater.; (4) Conclusions: These findings demonstrate differences in the organization of M1 between able-bodied controls and those with incomplete cervical SCI. This altered organization may have future implications in understanding the functional deficits observed in SCI and rehabilitation techniques aimed at restoring function. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Nutrition, Energy Expenditure, Dysphagia, and Self-Efficacy in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Review of the Literature
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(12), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8120218
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
While significant research has been performed regarding the use of thrombolytic agents and thrombectomy in the setting of acute stroke, other factors, such as nutritional status of stroke patients, is a less explored topic. The topic of nutrition is critical to the discussion [...] Read more.
While significant research has been performed regarding the use of thrombolytic agents and thrombectomy in the setting of acute stroke, other factors, such as nutritional status of stroke patients, is a less explored topic. The topic of nutrition is critical to the discussion of stroke, as up to half of stroke survivors may be considered malnourished at discharge. Dysphagia, old age, restricted upper limb movement, visuospatial impairment, and depression are all important risk factors for malnutrition in this cohort. The purpose of this review is to analyze current literature discussing neuroprotective diets, nutritional, vitamin, and mineral supplementation, dysphagia, and post-stroke coaching in stroke patients. Full article
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