Next Article in Journal
Endocannabinoids and Fear-Related Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High or Low Alcohol Preference
Next Article in Special Issue
The Serum Melatonin Levels and Mortality of Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Improvement of Cognitive Function after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Subacute Stroke Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Open AccessArticle

Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials at Pretreatment and Posttreatment in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

1
Maum & Maum Psychiatric Clinic, Seoul 02566, Korea
2
Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 10380, Korea
3
Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Inje University, Goyang 10380, Korea
4
Department of Medical IT Convergence Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 39177, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(10), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9100253
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Clinical Neuroscience)
Background: Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Several studies have reported that increased TNF-α might be associated with tryptophan depletion, which eventually could result in MDD. However, other studies revealed that TNF-α increased serotonin firing in raphe. Therefore, whether TNF-α increases or decreases serotonin activity remains unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum TNF-α level and central serotonergic activity using the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) and standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), as well as to evaluate the effects of antidepressants on TNF-α levels. Methods: LDAEP, serum TNF-α level, and depression severity were measured in 64 MDD outpatients pre and post 3 months of treatment. Results: Pretreatment TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with the pretreatment N1 sLORETA-LDAEP, P2 sLORETA-LDAEP, and N1/P2 sLORETA-LDAEP (p < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis for N1/P2 sLORETA-LDAEP, lower N1/P2 sLORETA-LDAEP was significantly related to higher TNF-α (CE = −0.047, p = 0.017) when all subjects were dichotomized based on the median TNF-α level (7.16 pg/mL) into pretreatment low- and high-TNF-α groups. In addition, the pretreatment Beck Depression Inventory, P2 LDAEP, and N1/P2 sLORETA-LDAEP were greater in the high-TNF-α groups than in the low-TNF-α groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, the posttreatment TNF-α level was significantly decreased compared to the pretreatment TNF-α level (z = −2.581, p = 0.01). However, the posttreatment TNF-α levels were not associated with posttreatment LDAEP. Conclusions: Higher TNF-α level is associated with decreased LDAEP, which could indicate compensatory elevation of central serotonin activity in outpatients with MDD, although this effect disappeared and TNF-α level was reduced after three months of antidepressant treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: TNF-α; serotonin; source analysis; auditory evoked potentials; LDAEP; sLORETA; major depressive disorder TNF-α; serotonin; source analysis; auditory evoked potentials; LDAEP; sLORETA; major depressive disorder
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, B.-H.; Park, Y.-M.; Lee, S.-H.; Shim, M. Serum Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Loudness Dependence of Auditory Evoked Potentials at Pretreatment and Posttreatment in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 253.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop