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Article

Painful Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation vs. Heat Pain as Test Stimuli in Conditioned Pain Modulation

1
Department of Neurology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil gGmbH Bochum, 44789 Bochum, Germany
2
Department of Pain Medicine, Ruhr-University Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil gGmbH Bochum, 44789 Bochum, Germany
3
Department of Neuropediatrics, University Children’s Hospital, Ruhr University, 44789 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work is part of the doctoral thesis of Ann-Christin Plaga.
Both authors contributed equally.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100684
Received: 6 September 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 26 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collection on Clinical Neuroscience)
Different paradigms can assess the effect of conditioned pain modulation (CPM). The aim of the present study was to compare heat pain, as an often used test stimulus (TS), to painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (PCES), having the advantage of the additional recording of PCES-related evoked potentials. In 28 healthy subjects we applied heat and PCES at the dominant hand as test stimulus (TS) to compare the CPM-effect elicited by hand immersion into cold water (10 °C) as conditioning stimulus (CS). Subjects rated the pain intensity of TS at baseline, during and 5 min after CS application and additionally of CS, on a numerical rating scale (NRS) (0–100). The ‘early’ (during CS–before CS) and ‘late’ (after CS–before CS) CPM-effects were analyzed. Parallel to the PCES, the related evoked potentials were recorded via Cz to evaluate any changes in PCES-amplitudes. CS reduced significantly the pain intensity of both PCES and heat pain as TS. On a group level, the CPM-effect did not differ significantly between both paradigms. Both early and late CPM-effect based on PCES correlated significantly with the CS pain intensity (r = −0.630 and −0.503, respectively), whereas using heat pain the correlation was not significant. We found a significant reduction of PCES-amplitudes during CS, but this did not correlate with the PCES-induced pain intensity. Correlation with the CS painfulness (r = −0.464) did not achieve the significance level after Bonferroni correction. The extent of the CPM effects was similar in both testing paradigms at group level, despite intraindividual differences. Future studies should further elicit the exact mechanisms explaining the modality of these specific differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: conditioned pain modulation; painful cutaneous electrical stimulation; heat pain; endogenous pain modulation; pain mechanisms conditioned pain modulation; painful cutaneous electrical stimulation; heat pain; endogenous pain modulation; pain mechanisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Enax-Krumova, E.; Plaga, A.-C.; Schmidt, K.; Özgül, Ö.S.; Eitner, L.B.; Tegenthoff, M.; Höffken, O. Painful Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation vs. Heat Pain as Test Stimuli in Conditioned Pain Modulation . Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100684

AMA Style

Enax-Krumova E, Plaga A-C, Schmidt K, Özgül ÖS, Eitner LB, Tegenthoff M, Höffken O. Painful Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation vs. Heat Pain as Test Stimuli in Conditioned Pain Modulation . Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(10):684. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100684

Chicago/Turabian Style

Enax-Krumova, Elena, Ann-Christin Plaga, Kimberly Schmidt, Özüm S. Özgül, Lynn B. Eitner, Martin Tegenthoff, and Oliver Höffken. 2020. "Painful Cutaneous Electrical Stimulation vs. Heat Pain as Test Stimuli in Conditioned Pain Modulation " Brain Sciences 10, no. 10: 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100684

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