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Open AccessArticle

Effects of High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (HF-rTMS) on Delay Discounting in Major Depressive Disorder: An Open-Label Uncontrolled Pilot Study

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Service de Psychiatrie de l’Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, 25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
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Laboratoire de Neurosciences Intégratives et Cliniques EA 481, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 19 rue Ambroise Paré, 25000 Besançon, France
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Centre d’Investigation Clinique, INSERM CIC 1431, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, 25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
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Service de Psychiatrie de l’Adulte et Psychologie Médicale, APHP, Sorbonne Université, UPMC, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, F-75012 Paris, France
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Centre Expert Dépression Résistante FondaMental, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, 25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090230
Received: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Clinical Neuroscience)
Background: Delay discounting (DD) refers to the decrease of a present subjective value of a future reward as the delay of its delivery increases. Major depressive disorder (MDD), besides core emotional and physical symptoms, involves difficulties in reward processing. Depressed patients often display greater temporal discounting rates than healthy subjects. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique applied in several countries to adult patients with treatment resistant depression. Studies suggest that this technique can be used to modulate DD, but no trial has assessed its effects on depressed patients. Methods: In this open-label uncontrolled trial, 20 patients diagnosed with MDD and at least stage II treatment resistance criteria underwent 20 HF-rTMS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC; 10 Hz, 110% MT, 20 min). Pre-post treatment DD rates were compared. Effects on impulsivity, personality factors, and depressive symptoms were also evaluated. Results: No significant effect of HF-rTMS over the left dlPFC on DD of depressed individuals was observed, although rates seemed to increase after sessions. However, treatment resulted in significant improvement on cognitive impulsivity and depressive symptoms, and was well-tolerated. Conclusion: Despite the limitations involved, this pilot study allows preliminary evaluation of HF-rTMS effects on DD in MDD, providing substrate for further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; impulsivity; delay discounting; major depressive disorder repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; impulsivity; delay discounting; major depressive disorder
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teti Mayer, J.; Nicolier, M.; Tio, G.; Mouchabac, S.; Haffen, E.; Bennabi, D. Effects of High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (HF-rTMS) on Delay Discounting in Major Depressive Disorder: An Open-Label Uncontrolled Pilot Study. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 230.

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