Next Article in Journal
Pushing the Envelope: Developments in Neural Entrainment to Speech and the Biological Underpinnings of Prosody Perception
Next Article in Special Issue
Parkinsonism Risk Factors in Salt Lake City, Utah: A Community-Based Study
Previous Article in Journal
Ayres Theories of Autism and Sensory Integration Revisited: What Contemporary Neuroscience Has to Say
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Paired Associative Stimulation on Corticomotor Excitability in Chronic Smokers
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Electrode Placement in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation—How Reliable Is the Determination of C3/C4?

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Rehabilitation Science, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, MMC 388, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030069
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Clinical Neuroscience)
  |  
PDF [544 KB, uploaded 22 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The 10/20 electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements system often guides electrode placement for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. One targeted region of the brain is the primary motor cortex (M1) for motor recovery after stroke, among other clinical indications. M1 is identified by C3 and C4 of the 10/20 EEG system yet the reliability of 10/20 EEG measurements by novice research raters is unknown. We investigated the reliability of the 10/20 EEG measurements for C3 and C4 in 25 adult participants. Two novice raters were assessed for inter-rater reliability. Both raters received two hours of instruction from a registered neurodiagnostic technician. One of the raters completed the measurements across two testing days for intra-rater reliability. Relative reliability was determined using the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and absolute reliability. We observed a low to fair inter and intra-rater ICC for motor cortex measurements. The absolute reliability was <1.0 cm by different novice raters and on different days. Although a low error was observed, consideration of the integrity of the targeted region of the brain is critical when designing tDCS interventions in clinical populations who may have compromised brain structure, due to a lesion or altered anatomy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Electroencephalogram; Non-invasive brain stimulation; stroke; neuroplasticity; transcranial direct current stimulation; adults; children Electroencephalogram; Non-invasive brain stimulation; stroke; neuroplasticity; transcranial direct current stimulation; adults; children
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rich, T.L.; Gillick, B.T. Electrode Placement in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation—How Reliable Is the Determination of C3/C4? Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 69.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top